Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding and handling of text expressed in most of the worlds writing systems. As of June 2016, the most recent version is Unicode 9.0, the standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium. Unicodes success at unifying character sets has led to its widespread, the standard has been implemented in many recent technologies, including modern operating systems, XML, and the. NET Framework. Unicode can be implemented by different character encodings, the most commonly used encodings are UTF-8, UTF-16 and the now-obsolete UCS-2. UTF-8 uses one byte for any ASCII character, all of which have the same values in both UTF-8 and ASCII encoding, and up to four bytes for other characters. UCS-2 uses a 16-bit code unit for each character but cannot encode every character in the current Unicode standard, UTF-16 extends UCS-2, using one 16-bit unit for the characters that were representable in UCS-2 and two 16-bit units to handle each of the additional characters.
Many traditional character encodings share a common problem in that they allow bilingual computer processing, Unicode, in intent, encodes the underlying characters—graphemes and grapheme-like units—rather than the variant glyphs for such characters. In the case of Chinese characters, this leads to controversies over distinguishing the underlying character from its variant glyphs. In text processing, Unicode takes the role of providing a unique code point—a number, in other words, Unicode represents a character in an abstract way and leaves the visual rendering to other software, such as a web browser or word processor. This simple aim becomes complicated, because of concessions made by Unicodes designers in the hope of encouraging a more rapid adoption of Unicode, the first 256 code points were made identical to the content of ISO-8859-1 so as to make it trivial to convert existing western text. For other examples, see duplicate characters in Unicode and he explained that he name Unicode is intended to suggest a unique, universal encoding.
In this document, entitled Unicode 88, Becker outlined a 16-bit character model, Unicode could be roughly described as wide-body ASCII that has been stretched to 16 bits to encompass the characters of all the worlds living languages. In a properly engineered design,16 bits per character are more than sufficient for this purpose, Unicode aims in the first instance at the characters published in modern text, whose number is undoubtedly far below 214 =16,384. By the end of 1990, most of the work on mapping existing character encoding standards had been completed, the Unicode Consortium was incorporated in California on January 3,1991, and in October 1991, the first volume of the Unicode standard was published. The second volume, covering Han ideographs, was published in June 1992, in 1996, a surrogate character mechanism was implemented in Unicode 2.0, so that Unicode was no longer restricted to 16 bits. The Microsoft TrueType specification version 1.0 from 1992 used the name Apple Unicode instead of Unicode for the Platform ID in the naming table, Unicode defines a codespace of 1,114,112 code points in the range 0hex to 10FFFFhex.
Normally a Unicode code point is referred to by writing U+ followed by its hexadecimal number, for code points in the Basic Multilingual Plane, four digits are used, for code points outside the BMP, five or six digits are used, as required. Code points in Planes 1 through 16 are accessed as surrogate pairs in UTF-16, within each plane, characters are allocated within named blocks of related characters
Australian English is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia. Although English has no status in the Constitution, Australian English is the countrys de facto official language and is the first language of the majority of the population. Australian English began to diverge from British English after the founding of the Colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognised as being different from British English by 1820. It arose from the intermingling of early settlers from a variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles. Australian English differs from other varieties of English in vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar, the earliest form of Australian English was first spoken by the children of the colonists born into the colony of New South Wales. This first generation of children created a new dialect that was to become the language of the nation, the Australian-born children in the new colony were exposed to a wide range of dialects from all over the British Isles, in particular from Ireland and South East England.
The native-born children of the created the new dialect from the speech they heard around them. Even when new settlers arrived, this new dialect was strong enough to blunt other patterns of speech, a quarter of the convicts were Irish. Many had been arrested in Ireland, and some in Great Britain, many, if not most, of the Irish spoke Irish and either no English at all, or spoke it poorly and rarely. There were other significant populations of convicts from non-English speaking part of Britain, such as the Scottish Highlands, anthony Burgess writes that Australian English may be thought of as a kind of fossilised Cockney of the Dickensian era. According to linguist Bruce Moore, the input of the various sounds that went into constructing the Australian accent was from south-east England. Some elements of Aboriginal languages have adopted by Australian English—mainly as names for places and fauna. Many such are localised, and do not form part of general Australian use, while others, such as kangaroo, budgerigar, other examples are cooee and hard yakka.
The former is used as a call, for attracting attention. Cooee is a distance, if hes within cooee. Hard yakka means hard work and is derived from yakka, from the Jagera/Yagara language once spoken in the Brisbane region, of Aboriginal origin is the word bung, from the Sydney pidgin English, meaning dead, with some extension to broken or useless. Many towns or suburbs of Australia have influenced or named after Aboriginal words. The best-known example is the capital, named after a local word meaning meeting place
Groote Eylandt is the largest island in the Gulf of Carpentaria and the fourth largest island in Australia. It is the homeland of, and is owned by, the Warnindhilyagwa who speak the isolated Anindilyakwa language, Groote Eylandt lies about 50 km from the Northern Territory mainland and eastern coast of Arnhem Land, about 630 km from Darwin, opposite Blue Mud Bay. The island measures about 50 km from east to west and 60 km from north to south and it is generally quite low-lying, with an average height above sea level of 15 metres, although Central Hill reaches an elevation of 219 metres. It was named by the explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and is Dutch for Large Island in an archaic spelling, the modern Dutch spelling is Groot Eiland. Together with Bickerton Island and a few smaller islands, Groote Eylandt forms Anindilyakwa Ward of East Arnhem Region. It contains the communities of Angurugu, Umbakumba, Yadagba District, Uburamudja District and Sandy Hill, outside the local government subdivision is the mining company GEMCO town of Alyangula, which is unincorporated territory within the Northern Region of Northern Territory.
Groote Eylandt is part of the Arnhem Land Aboriginal Reserve, GEMCO, a South32 / Anglo American plc joint venture, operates a large manganese mine near the community of Angurugu. In operation since the early 1960s, the mine more than 3.8 million tonnes annually - about a quarter of the worlds total. The island has recently been open to the public only with permission. There is now a resort hotel on the island and visitors are welcome. The whole of Groote Eylandt and its surrounding waters lie within the Anindilyakwa Indigenous Protected Area, an unnamed islet off the north-eastern coast has been classified by BirdLife International as an important bird area because of its global importance as a roseate tern breeding site. The first recorded sighting of Groote Eylandt was in 1623, by the Dutch ship Arnhem, the relative prevalence of the hereditary Machado-Joseph Disease in the Groote Eylandt community has been suggested as evidence of early contact with Portuguese sailors. Japan used to trade with Macassan traders and presumably the genes were transferred to them, the island was given its current name in 1644, when Tasman arrived.
The first European settlement on the island was established at Emerald River in 1921, during World War II, in 1943, the mission moved to Angurugu, as the RAAF required the use of the missions airstrip, the ruins of the RAAF base are still evident today. In 1856 the local aboriginal conglomerate that regularly passed was known as the Jurambunga tribe, the island was used as a flying boat base by Qantas for a period of time. In 1979, control of the island was transferred to the local Aboriginal Town Council, Groote Eylandt was converted to Aboriginal freehold title land following the passing of the Aboriginal Land Rights Act of 1976. On May 20,2008, the Federal Government signed a deal with local Aborigines from Groote Eylandt to lease land to the Government for 40 years. In return, the government will spend money in the community with the aim of improving housing, the Eylandt Echo newsletter is produced each fortnight
Pintupi is an Australian Aboriginal language. It is one of the Wati languages of the large Pama–Nyungan family and it is one of the varieties of the Western Desert Language. These people moved into the communities of Papunya and Haasts Bluff in the west of the Northern Territory in the 1940s–1980s. The last Pintupi people to leave their traditional lifestyle in the desert came into Kiwirrkura in 1984, over recent decades they have moved back into their traditional country, setting up the communities of Kintore in the Northern Territory and Jupiter Well in Western Australia. This has continued through the moves west so that most Pintupi people today speak Pintupi-Luritja, Pintupi is one of the healthier Aboriginal languages and is taught to local children in schools. The phonology of Pintupi has been described by K. C. and L. E, Hansen based on fieldwork conducted in Papunya, Northern Territory in 1967–68. The symbols used in the orthography are shown in brackets where they differ from the IPA symbols.
The lamino-alveolars are frequently palatalised, and /t̻/ often has an affricated allophone, the trill /r/ usually has a single contact in ordinary speech, but multiple contacts in slow, emphatic, or angry speech. The retroflex approximant /ɻ/ may be realised as a flap and Hansen refer to the retroflex consonants as apico-domal. Pintupi has six vowel phonemes, three long and three short, all are monophthongal at the phonemic level. Again, the used in the practical orthography are shown enclosed in brackets where they differ from the phonemic symbols. The short vowel phonemes are devoiced when word-final at the end of a clause, as in he finally to camp, we all water for him, short vowels are rhotacised before retroflex consonants, as in tree, and a shelter. The open vowel /a/ is diphthongised to and before /j/ and /w/ respectively, as in pare, an orthography was developed by the Hansens and is used in their publications, which include a dictionary, a grammar sketch and bible portions. This orthography is used in the bilingual school, and especially in the schools Literature Production Centre.
The orthography is shown in the tables of consonants and vowels. Pintupi has only two possible types, CV and CVC. In the middle of a word, /m/ and /ŋ/ may appear in the syllable coda only when followed by a plosive, as in /t̻ampu/ left side. Otherwise, only coronal sonorants may appear in the syllable coda, all consonants except the apico-alveolars and /l̻/ may appear in word-initial position, only coronal sonorants may appear in word-final position
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of language, phonemes, intonation. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a letter, or with a letter plus diacritics. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription, thus, /t/ is less specific than, occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed, or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters,52 diacritics and these are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA.
In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, for example, the sound was originally represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, the idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the International Phonetic Association Kiel Convention in 1989, a minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives. The alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap, apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted largely in renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces.
Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990, the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do hard, the IPA does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as selectiveness. These are organized into a chart, the chart displayed here is the chart as posted at the website of the IPA. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet, for this reason, most letters are either Latin or Greek, or modifications thereof. Some letters are neither, for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a question mark
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Kalaw Lagaw Ya
Kalaw Lagaw Ya, or the Western Torres Strait language, is the language indigenous to the central and western Torres Strait Islands, Australia. On some islands it has now largely replaced by Brokan. Before colonisation in the 1870s–1880s, it was the lingua franca of the area in both Australia and Papua, and is still widely spoken by neighbouring Papuans and by some Aboriginal people. How many second language speakers it has is unknown and it has a light form, as well as a pidginised form. The simplified form is prevalent on Badu and neighbouring Moa. Mabuiag Westen or West Torres or Western Torres Strait Dhadhalagau Ya Sentrel or Central Islands, one of the very few length contrasts in the Kalaw Lagaw Ya dialect is kaaba dance performance, knot in bamboo etc. vs kaba, kab paddle, oar. Such length contrasts are more widespread in the other dialects, the exceptions are the small class or words that include ber rib and kab oar and emotive words. Emotive words are those that equate to an extent to diminutives in languages such as Irish and German.
Emotive words in the Kalaw Lagaw Ya dialect include familiar kinship terms, 2) Syntax The main syntactic differences are, a) Verb negative construction, In all dialects except Kalau Kawau Ya, the verb negative is the nominalised privative form of the verbal noun. In the other dialects bongel last night is a fully functioning temporal adverb used in conjunction with either the today past or the recent past, KKY -pa in all cases, -ka often in poetry/singing. In stems of three or more syllables, the suffix is reduced to -l in all dialects, while retained as -lai with stems of one syllable, these have allophonic variants /tʃ/ and /dʒ/, which are the norm in Australia languages. All the stops, except for the t and d, have fricative allophones, thus p can be or, k can be or, b or. Furthermore, it is one of the few Australian languages with fully functioning voiced-voiceless distinctions -, the language is one of the few Australian languages with only one rhotic, one l and one n. The earliest recorded dialect, Kaiwalgau Ya, did have two rhotics, the tap and the glide, the rhotic glide has in general become /j/, /w/ or zero in the other dialects, rarely /r/.
Notes, The consonant /d/ varies to some extent with /r/, particularly in KKY/KY kadai-/karai-, the long vowel ùù is only found in Kala Lagaw Ya. Length is to a certain extent contrastive, and partly allophonic, the +/-round contrast is reminiscent of Papuan phonology. The mid long vowels are allophonic variants of the mid short vowels that are in the process of developing phonemic status, while the short vowel ò is similarly in origin an allophone of òò. In normal speech, vowel shortening and the change of a to œ are the norm, which the changes of e to i and o to u are sporadic, and most common in unstressed syllables
Australian Bureau of Statistics
The Australian Bureau of Statistics is the statistical agency of the Government of Australia. The ABS website provides ABS data free of charge, in 1901, statistics were collected by each state for their individual use. The Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics was established under the Census, sir George Knibbs was appointed as the first Commonwealth Statistician. Initially, the Bureau was located in Melbourne and was attached to the Department of Home Affairs, in 1928, the Bureau was relocated to Canberra and in 1932, it moved to the Treasury portfolio. Initially, the states maintained their own offices and worked together with the CBCS to produce national data. However, some found it difficult to resource a state statistical office to the level required for an adequate statistical service. In 1924, the Tasmanian Statistical Office transferred to the Commonwealth, in 1974, the CBCS was abolished and the Australian Bureau of Statistics was established in its place. The Australian Bureau of Statistics Act in 1975, established the ABS as a Statutory Authority headed by the Australian Statistician, the ABS mission is to deliver high quality official statistics and value-added statistical solutions, to inform decisions on important issues.
The ABS undertakes the Australian Census of population and housing, the Census is conducted every five years under the authority of the federal Census and Statistics Act 1905. The last Australian Census was held on 9 August 2011 and this was Australias 16th national census, and marked 100 years of national census taking in Australia. The census of population and housing is the largest statistical collection undertaken by the ABS, the census aims to accurately measure the number of people and dwellings in Australia on census night, and a range of their key characteristics. This information is used to public policy as well as electoral boundaries, infrastructure planning. Users of Census data include government, the media, not for profit organisations and academics, results from the 2011 census are available on the ABS website. The next Census of Population and Housing was scheduled for 9 August 2016, a move was undertaken by the ABS to largely implement the Census on-line through their website and logins rather than through traditional paper forms.
The 2016 Census was unsuccessful on August 9 due to multiple website errors which caused a crash where people were unable to fill in their details. The Chief Statistician, David Kalisch, said the website was closed after multiple internet denial-of-service attacks were blamed for the website problems, the online census webpage was back up at 2,30 pm on 11 August. The ABS has a work program covering a vast range of topics. Topics include, Economy Industry People Labour Health Environment Snapshots of Australia, the ABS publishes a suite of monthly and quarterly economic publications that are part of the core of the organisations work program
The Northern Territory is a federal Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, to the north, the territory is bordered by the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria. Despite its large area—over 1,349,129 square kilometres, the Northern Territorys population of 244,000 makes it the least populous of Australias eight major states and territories, having fewer than half as many people as Tasmania. The archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region, makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards. The coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century, the British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin.
Today the economy is based on tourism, especially Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park in central Australia, the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is not concentrated in regions but rather along the Stuart Highway. The other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Nhulunbuy, residents of the Northern Territory are often known simply as Territorians and fully as Northern Territorians, or more informally as Top Enders and Centralians. With the coming of the British, there were four attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast. The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a time from February to December 1846. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911, under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889. The economic pattern of raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle.
Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world, gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia, alfred Deakin opined at this time To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last. Either we must accomplish the peopling of the territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation. In late 1912 there was growing sentiment that the name Northern Territory was unsatisfactory, the names Kingsland and Territoria were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913