Prehistoric technology is technology that predates recorded history. History is the study of the past using written records, anything prior to the first written accounts of history is prehistoric, including earlier technologies. About 2.5 million years before writing was developed, technology began with the earliest hominids who used tools, which they may have used to start fires, hunt. There are several factors made the evolution of prehistoric technology possible or necessary. One of the key factors is behavioral modernity of the highly developed brain of Homo sapiens capable of reasoning, introspection. The advent of agriculture resulted in lifestyle changes from nomadic lifestyles to ones lived in homes, with domesticated animals, architecture and religion evolved over the course of the prehistoric periods. The Stone Age is a prehistoric period during which stone was widely used in the manufacture of implements with a sharp edge. The period lasted roughly 2.5 million years, from the time of early hominids to Homo sapiens in the Pleistocene era, the Stone Age lifestyle was that of hunter-gatherers who traveled to hunt game and gather wild plants, with minimal changes in technology.
As the last glacial period of the current ice age neared its end, large animals like the mammoth and bison antiquus became extinct, humans adapted by maximizing the resources in local environments and eating a wider range of wild plants and hunting or catching smaller game. The agricultural life led to more settled existences and significant technological advancements, although Paleolithic cultures left no written records, the shift from nomadic life to settlement and agriculture can be inferred from a range of archaeological evidence. Such evidence includes ancient tools, cave paintings, and other prehistoric art, Human remains provide direct evidence, both through the examination of bones, and the study of mummies. The Lower Paleolithic period was the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and it spans the time from around 2. Early human used stone tool technology, such as an axe that was similar to that used by primates. Intelligence and use of technology did not change much for millions of years, the first Homo species began with Homo habilis about 2.4 to 1.5 million years ago.
Homo habilis created stone tools called Oldowan tools, Homo ergaster lived in eastern and southern Africa about 2.5 to 1. Homo antecessor the earliest hominid in Northern Europe lived from 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago, Homo heidelbergensis lived between 600,000 and 400,000 years ago and used stone tool technology similar the Acheulean tools used by Homo erectus. European and Asian sites dating back 1.5 million years ago seem to indicate controlled use of fire by Homo erectus, a northern Israel site from about 690,000 to 790,000 years ago suggests that man could light fires. Homo heidelbergensis may have been the first species to bury their dead about 500,000 years ago, the Middle Paleolithic period occurred in Europe and the Near East, during which the Neanderthals lived
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa and a founding member of the East African Community. Its capital and largest city is Nairobi and it is bordered by Tanzania to the south and southwest, Uganda to the west, South Sudan to the north-west, Ethiopia to the north and Somalia to the north-east. Kenya covers 581,309 km2, and had a population of approximately 48 million people in January 2017, Kenya has a warm and humid tropical climate on its Indian Ocean coastline. The climate is cooler in the grasslands around the capital city and especially closer to Mount Kenya. Further inland are highlands in Central and Rift Valley regions where tea, in the West are Nyanza and Western regions, there is an equatorial and dry climate which becomes humid around Lake Victoria, the largest tropical fresh-water lake in the world. This gives way to temperate and forested areas in the neighbouring western region. The north-eastern regions along the border with Somalia and Ethiopia are arid and semi-arid areas with near-desert landscapes, Kenya is known for its world class athletes in track and field and rugby.
The African Great Lakes region, which Kenya is a part of, has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic period, by the first millennium AD, the Bantu expansion had reached the area from West-Central Africa. Bantu and Nilotic populations together constitute around 97% of the nations residents and Arab presence in coastal Mombasa dates to the Early Modern period, European exploration of the interior began in the 19th century. The British Empire established the East Africa Protectorate in 1895, which starting in 1920 gave way to the Kenya Colony, Kenya obtained independence in December 1963. Following a referendum in August 2010 and adoption of a new constitution, Kenya is now divided into 47 semi-autonomous counties, the capital, Nairobi, is a regional commercial hub. The economy of Kenya is the largest by GDP in East, agriculture is a major employer, the country traditionally exports tea and coffee and has more recently begun to export fresh flowers to Europe. The service industry is an economic driver.
Additionally, Kenya is a member of the East African Community trading bloc, the Republic of Kenya is named after Mount Kenya. The origin of the name Kenya is not clear, but perhaps linked to the Kikuyu and Kamba words Kirinyaga, Kirenyaa, if so, the British may not so much have mispronounced it, as misspelled it. In the 19th century, the German explorer Johann Ludwig Krapf was staying with the Bantu Kamba people when he first spotted the mountain. On asking for the name of the mountain, he was told Kĩ-Nyaa or Kĩĩma- Kĩĩnyaa probably because the pattern of black rock, the Agikuyu, who inhabit the slopes of Mt. Kenya, call it Kĩrĩma Kĩrĩnyaga in Kikuyu, which is quite similar to the Kamba name. Ludwig Krapf recorded the name as both Kenia and Kegnia believed by most to be a corruption of the Kamba version, others say that this was—on the contrary—a very precise notation of a correct African pronunciation /ˈkɛnjə/
An arrowhead is a tip, usually sharpened, added to an arrow to make it more deadly or to fulfill some special purpose. The earliest arrowheads were made of stone and of organic materials, Arrowheads are important archaeological artifacts, they are a subclass of projectile points. Modern enthusiasts still produce over one million brand-new spear and arrow points per year, in the Stone Age, people used sharpened bone, flintknapped stones and chips of rock as weapons and tools. Such items remained in use throughout human civilization, with new materials used as time passed, such artifacts can be found all over the world in various locations. Those that have survived are usually made of stone, primarily consisting of flint, in many excavations, bone and metal arrowheads have been found. Stone projectile points dating back 64,000 years were excavated from layers of ancient sediment in Sibudu Cave, examinations found traces of blood and bone residues, and glue made from a plant-based resin that was used to fasten them on to a wooden shaft.
This indicated cognitively demanding behavior required to manufacture glue and these hafted points might have been launched from bows. This is an argument for the use of traps, perhaps including snares, if snares were used, the use of cords and knots which would have been adequate for the production of bows is implied. The employment of snares demonstrates an understanding of the latent energy stored in bent branches. Cords and knots are implied by use-wear facets on perforated shell beads around 72,000 years old from Blombos, archeologists in Louisiana have discovered that early Native Americans used Alligator gar scales as arrow heads. Hunting with a bow and arrow requires intricate multi-staged planning, material collection and tool preparation and implies a range of innovative social and communication skills. Arrowheads are attached to shafts to be shot from a bow, similar types of projectile points may be attached to a spear. The arrowhead or projectile point is the functional part of the arrow.
Some arrows may simply use a tip of the solid shaft. Arrowheads may be attached to the shaft with a cap, a tang, or inserted into a split in the shaft. Points attached with caps are simply slid snugly over the end of the shaft, split-shaft construction involves splitting the arrow shaft lengthwise, inserting the arrowhead, and securing it using ferrule, rope, or wire. Modern arrowheads used for hunting come in a variety of classes and styles, many traditionalist archers choose heads made of modern high carbon steel that closely resemble traditional stone heads. Other classes of broadheads referred to as mechanical and hybrid are gaining popularity, these heads rely on force created by passing through an animal to expand or open
The ard, ard plough, or scratch plough is a simple light plough without a mouldboard. It is symmetrical on either side of its line of draft and is fitted with a share that traces a shallow furrow. It began to be replaced in most of Europe by the carruca turnplough from the 7th century. In its simplest form it resembles a hoe, consisting of a draft-pole pierced with a vertical, spiked head which is dragged through the soil by draft animals. The ard-head is at one end a stilt for steering and at the other a share which gouges the surface ground. More sophisticated models have a pole, where the section attached to the head is called the draft-beam. Some have a cross-bar for handles or two separate stilts for handles, the share comes in two basic forms, a socket share slipped over the nose of the ard-head, and the tang share fitted into a groove where it is held with a clamp on the wooden head. Additionally, a slender protruding chisel can be fitted over the top of the mainshare, rather than cutting and turning the soil to produce ridged furrows, the ard breaks up a narrow strip of soil and cuts a shallow furrow, leaving intervening strips undisturbed.
The ard is not suited for clearing new land, so grass, cross-ploughing is often necessary to break the soil up better, where the soil is tilled twice at right angles to the original direction. This usually results in square or diamond-shaped fields and is effective at clearing annual weeds, the ards shallow furrows are ideal for most cereals, and if the seed is sown broadcast, the ard can be used to cover the seed in rows. In fact, the ard may have invented in the Near East to cover seed rather than till. That would explain why in Mesopotamia seed drills were used together with ards, ards may be drawn by oxen, water buffalo, camels, or other animals. Ards come in a number of varieties, the two were in early times used in conjunction with each other. Third is the seed drill ard, used specifically in Mesopotamia, the bow ard is the weaker and probably earlier of the two. It is used for tillage, normally with a tang share, in dry. It is restricted mainly to the Mediterranean, Iran and it had a short portion of the body which was first made to slide on the furrow bottom and gradually developed into a horizontal body.
The body ard dominates in Portugal, western Spain, the Balkans, Sri Lanka, Thailand, the bow ard favored the development of a long horizontal sole body sliding on the ground. Their use in Ancient Greek agriculture was described by Hesiod, variations of the sole ard come in two types, the triangular and quadrangular ards
Falx was a synonym but was used to mean any of a number of tools that had a curved blade that was sharp on the inside edge such as a scythe. Since the beginning of the Iron Age hundreds of variants of the sickle have evolved, initially of iron. The serrated blade that originated in prehistoric sickles still dominates in the reaping of grain and is found in modern grain-harvesting machines. The development of the sickle in Mesopotamia can be traced back to times that pre-date the Neolithic Era, large quantities of sickle blades have been excavated in sites surrounding Israel that have been dated to the Epipaleolithic era. Formal digs in Wadi Ziqlab, Jordan have unearthed various forms of early sickle blades, the artifacts recovered ranged from 10 to 20 cm in length and possessed a jagged edge. This intricate ‘tooth-like’ design showed a degree of design and manufacturing credence than most of the other artifacts that were discovered. Sickle blades found during this time were made of flint, flints from these sickles have been discovered near Mt.
Carmel, which suggest the harvesting of grains from the area about 10,000 years ago. The sickle had a impact on the Agricultural Revolution by assisting in the transition to farming. It is now accepted that the use of sickles led directly to the domestication of Near Eastern Wild grasses, research on domestication rates of wild cereals under primitive cultivation found that the use of the sickle in harvesting was critical to the people of early Mesopotamia. The relatively narrow growing season in the area and the role of grain in the late Neolithic Era promoted a larger investment in the design. Standardization to an extent was done on the measurements of the sickle so that replacement or repair could be more immediate and it was important that the grain be harvested at the appropriate time at one elevation so that the next elevation could be collected in the proper time. The sickle provided an efficient option in collecting the grain. The sickle remained common in the Bronze Age, both in the Ancient Near East and in Europe, numerous sickles have been found deposited in hoards in the context of the European Urnfield culture, suggesting a symbolic or religious significance attached to the artifact.
In archaeological terminology, Bronze Age sickles are classified by the method of attaching the handle, E. g. the knob-sickle is so called because of a protruding knob at the base of the blade which apparently served to stabilize the attachment of the blade to the handle. The sickle has been discovered in southwest North America with a unique structure and these sickles are said to possibly have originated from the Far East. There is evidence that Kodiak islanders had for cutting grass “sickles made of an animal shoulder blade”. The artifacts found in present-day Arizona and New Mexico resemble curved tools that were made from the horns of mountain sheep, a similar site discovered sickles made from other material such as the Caddo Sickle, which was made from a deer mandible. Scripture from early natives document the use of sickles in the cutting of grass
History of technology
The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques and is similar to other sides of the history of humanity. Technology can refer to methods ranging from as simple as language and stone tools to the genetic engineering. Since much of technology is applied science, technical history is connected to the history of science, since technology uses resources, technical history is tightly connected to economic history. From those resources, technology produces other resources, including technological artifacts used in everyday life, technological change affects, and is affected by, a societys cultural traditions. It is a force for economic growth and a means to develop and project economic, many sociologists and anthropologists have created social theories dealing with social and cultural evolution. Some, like Lewis H. Morgan, Leslie White, morgans concept of three major stages of social evolution can be divided by technological milestones, such as fire. White argued the measure by which to judge the evolution of culture was energy, for White, the primary function of culture is to harness and control energy.
White differentiates between five stages of development, In the first, people use energy of their own muscles. In the second, they use energy of domesticated animals, in the third, they use the energy of plants. In the fourth, they learn to use the energy of natural resources, oil, in the fifth, they harness nuclear energy. White introduced a formula P=E*T, where E is a measure of energy consumed, in his own words, culture evolves as the amount of energy harnessed per capita per year is increased, or as the efficiency of the instrumental means of putting the energy to work is increased. Nikolai Kardashev extrapolated his theory, creating the Kardashev scale, which categorizes the energy use of advanced civilizations, the more information and knowledge a given society has, the more advanced it is. He identifies four stages of development, based on advances in the history of communication. In the first stage, information is passed by genes, in the second, when humans gain sentience, they can learn and pass information through by experience.
In the third, the humans start using signs and develop logic, in the fourth, they can create symbols, develop language and writing. Advancements in communications technology translates into advancements in the system and political system, distribution of wealth, social inequality. He differentiates societies based on their level of technology and economy, hunter-gatherer, simple agricultural, in economics productivity is a measure of technological progress. Productivity increases when fewer inputs are used in the production of a unit of output, another indicator of technological progress is the development of new products and services, which is necessary to offset unemployment that would otherwise result as labor inputs are reduced
Technology is the collection of techniques, skills and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques and the like, the human species use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The steady progress of technology has brought weapons of ever-increasing destructive power. It has helped develop more advanced economies and has allowed the rise of a leisure class, many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earths environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and raise new questions of the ethics of technology, examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the condition or worsens it.
The use of the technology has changed significantly over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, the term was often connected to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The term technology rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution, the terms meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into technology. In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which translates both terms as technology. By the 1930s, technology referred not only to the study of the industrial arts and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 Real World of Technology lecture, gave another definition of the concept, it is practice, the way we do things around here. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics.
Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time,1, defines technology in two ways, as the pursuit of life by other than life, and as organized inorganic matter. Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems and it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material, virtual technology, such as software and business methods. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as a means to fulfill a human purpose
In historic and modern usage, a hearth /ˈhɑːrθ/ is a brick- or stone-lined fireplace, with or without an oven, used for heating and originally used for cooking food. In a medieval hall, the hearth commonly stood in the middle of the hall, such hearths were moved to the side of the room and provided with a chimney. In fireplace design, the hearth is the part of the fireplace where the fire burns, usually consisting of masonry at floor level or higher, the word hearth derives from an Indo-European root, *ker-, referring to burning and fire. In archaeology, a hearth is a firepit or other feature of any period. Hearths are common features of many eras going back to prehistoric campsites and they were used for cooking and the processing of some stone, wood and floral resources. Farming or excavation—deform or disperse hearth features, making difficult to identify without careful study. Lined hearths are easily identified by the presence of fire-cracked rock, often present are fragmented fish and animal bones, carbonized shell, charcoal and other waste products, all embedded in a sequence of soil that has been deposited atop the hearth.
Unlined hearths, which are easily identified, may include these materials. Because of the nature of most of these items, they can be used to pinpoint the date the hearth was last used via the process of radiocarbon dating. Although carbon dates can be affected if the users of the hearth burned old wood or coal. This was the most common way to cook, and to interior spaces in cool seasons. Kapnikon was a tax raised on households without exceptions for the poor, in England, a tax on hearths was introduced on 19 May 1662. Householders were required to pay a charge of two shillings per annum for each hearth, with half the payment due at Michaelmas and half at Lady Day. Exemptions to the tax were granted, to those in receipt of relief, those whose houses were worth less than 20 shillings a year. Also exempt were charitable institutions such as schools and almshouses, and industrial hearths with the exception of smiths forges, the returns were lodged with the Clerk of the Peace between 1662 and 1688.
A revision of the Act in 1664 made the tax payable by all who had more than two chimneys The tax was abolished by William III in 1689 and the last collection was for Lady Day of that year and it was abolished in Scotland in 1690. Hearth tax records are important to historians as they provide an indication of the size of each assessed house at the time. The numbers of hearths are generally proportional to the size of the house, the assessments can be used to indicate the numbers and local distribution of larger and smaller houses
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface. The period lasted roughly 3.4 million years, and ended between 8700 BCE and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking, bone tools were used during this period as well but are rarely preserved in the archaeological record. The Stone Age is further subdivided by the types of tools in use. According to the age and location of the current evidence, the cradle of the genus is the East African Rift System, especially toward the north in Ethiopia, where it is bordered by grasslands. The closest relative among the living primates, the genus Pan, represents a branch that continued on in the deep forest. The rift served as a conduit for movement into southern Africa and north down the Nile into North Africa and through the continuation of the rift in the Levant to the vast grasslands of Asia. The oldest indirect evidence found of stone tool use is fossilised animal bones with tool marks, the oldest stone tools were excavated from the site of Lomekwi 3 in West Turkana, northwestern Kenya, and date to 3.3 million years old.
Prior to the discovery of these Lomekwian tools, the oldest known stone tools had been found at sites at Gona, Ethiopia, on the sediments of the paleo-Awash River. All the tools come from the Busidama Formation, which lies above a disconformity, or missing layer, the oldest sites containing tools are dated to 2. 6–2.55 mya. One of the most striking circumstances about these sites is that they are from the Late Pliocene, excavators at the locality point out that. the earliest stone tool makers were skilled flintknappers. The possible reasons behind this seeming abrupt transition from the absence of tools to the presence thereof include. The species who made the Pliocene tools remains unknown, fragments of Australopithecus garhi, Australopithecus aethiopicus and Homo, possibly Homo habilis, have been found in sites near the age of the Gona tools. Innovation of the technique of smelting ore ended the Stone Age, the first most significant metal manufactured was bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, each of which was smelted separately.
The Chalcolithic by convention is the period of the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age, the transition out of the Stone Age occurred between 6000 BCE and 2500 BCE for much of humanity living in North Africa and Eurasia. Note the Rudna Glava mine in Serbia, Ötzi the Iceman, a mummy from about 3300 BCE carried with him a copper axe and a flint knife. In regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa, the Stone Age was followed directly by the Iron Age, the Middle East and southeastern Asian regions progressed past Stone Age technology around 6000 BCE. Europe, and the rest of Asia became post–Stone Age societies by about 4000 BCE, the proto-Inca cultures of South America continued at a Stone Age level until around 2000 BCE, when gold and silver made their entrance
Quern-stones are stone tools for hand-grinding a wide variety of materials. The lower, stone is called a quern, while the upper stone is called a handstone. They were first used in the Neolithic to grind cereals into flour, quern-stones have been used throughout the world to grind materials, the most important of which was usually grain to make flour for bread-making. They were generally replaced by millstones once mechanised forms of milling appeared, particularly the water mill, however, in many non-Westernised, non-mechanised cultures they are still manufactured and used regularly and have only been replaced in many parts of the world in the last century or so. The authors concluded that this was due to the use of these querns in the preparation of medicines, cosmetics. Querns were widely used in grinding metals ores after mining extraction, the aim was to liberate fine ore particles which could be separated by washing for example, prior to smelting. They were thus used in gold mining in antiquity.
In the Shetlands tobacco was not smoked when first introduced, but instead was ground up into snuff, snuff-querns consisted of an upper and lower stone, fixed together by a central iron pivot. The quern was held on the lap, the eye of the quern was filled with dried tobacco leaves. The friction caused by the ground the leaves into a fine powder that built up around the edge of the lower-stone. Many snuff-querns had a hole or cut made near the edge of the upper-stone, into which a pointed end of a lambs horn was placed in order to turn the stone. There are, more surprising recorded uses of quern-stones, for example, DeBoer, in his review of the traditional gambling games of North American tribes, reports that one of the games involved bouncing a group of split canes off a quern. Violence is recorded in the book of Judges, “But a certain woman threw an upper-millstone on Abimelech’s head and these have naturally rough surfaces, but grains do not detach easily, so the material being ground does not become gritty.
However, such rocks are not always available, meaning that quern-stones have been manufactured from a variety of rocks, including sandstone, quartzite. Quernmore Crag near Lancaster in England is named after the quarrying of millstone grit used to make quern stones in these parts, rutter was able to show, for the southern Levant, that basalt quern-stones were preferred to those manufactured from other rock types. Basalt quern-stones were therefore transported over long-distances, leading him to argue that, despite their every-day, utilitarian function, the earliest forms of quern were the saddle and trough querns. The earliest quern so far discovered dates to c.9,000 BCE and was found at Abu Hureyra, a development was the rotary quern, which takes several forms. The saddle quern is produced by rocking or rolling the handstone using parallel motions and these are the most ancient and widely used type of quern-stone
A boomerang is a tool, typically constructed as a flat air foil that, when thrown, is designed to spin about an axis perpendicular to the direction of its flight. A returning boomerang is designed to return to the thrower and it is well known as a weapon used by Indigenous Australians for hunting. Boomerangs have been used for hunting, as well as a sport. They are commonly thought of as an Australian icon, and come in shapes and sizes. A boomerang is traditionally a wooden device, although historically boomerang-like devices have been made from bones. Modern boomerangs used for sport are often made from thin aircraft plywood, plastics such as ABS, phenolic paper, Boomerangs come in many shapes and sizes depending on their geographic or tribal origins and intended function. An important distinction should be made between returning boomerangs and non-returning boomerangs, Returning boomerangs fly and are examples of the earliest heavier-than-air man-made flight. While a throwing stick can be shaped overall like a boomerang, it is designed to travel as straight as possible so that it can be aimed.
Its surfaces therefore are symmetrical and not uneven like the aerofoils which give the returning boomerang its characteristic curved flight, Returning boomerangs were used to decoy birds of prey, thrown above long grass to frighten game birds into flight and into waiting nets. Modern returning boomerangs can be of various shapes or sizes as can be seen in a photo in the Modern use section. Historical evidence points to the use of non-returning boomerangs by the Native Americans of California and Arizona, some boomerangs were not thrown at all, but were used in hand to hand combat by Indigenous Australians. Ancient Egyptian examples, have recovered and experiments have shown that they functioned as returning boomerangs. Boomerangs can be used as hunting weapons, percussive musical instruments, battle clubs, fire-starters, decoys for hunting waterfowl. The smallest boomerang may be less than 10 centimetres from tip to tip, tribal boomerangs may be inscribed and/or painted with designs meaningful to their makers.
Most boomerangs seen today are of the tourist or competition sort, the origin of the term is mostly certain, but many researchers have different theories on how the word entered into the English vocabulary. The boomerang was first encountered by people at Farm Cove, Australia, in December 1804. David Collins listed Wo-mur-rāng as one of eight aboriginal Names of clubs in 1798, a 1790 anonymous manuscript on aboriginal language of New South Wales reported Boo-mer-rit as the Scimiter. In 1822 it was described in detail and recorded as a bou-mar-rang, the Turawal used other words for their hunting sticks but used boomerang to refer to a returning throw-stick
History of archery
Archery continues to be a popular sport, most commonly in the form of target archery, but in some places for hunting. The bow seems to have been invented near the transition from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic, the oldest indication for archery in Europe comes from Stellmoor in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg, Germany. They were associated with artifacts of the late Paleolithic, the arrows were made of pine and consisted of a mainshaft and a 15-20 centimetre long foreshaft with a flint point. They had shallow grooves on the base, indicating that they were shot from a bow, the oldest definite bows known so far come from the Holmegård swamp in Denmark. In the 1940s, two bows were found there, dated to about 8,000 BP, the Holmegaard bows are made of elm and have flat arms and a D-shaped midsection. The complete bow is 1.50 m long, Bows of Holmegaard-type were in use until the Bronze Age, the convexity of the midsection has decreased with time. Mesolithic pointed shafts have been found in England, Germany and they were often rather long, up to 120 cm and made of European hazel, wayfaring tree and other small woody shoots.
Some still have flint arrow-heads preserved, others have blunt wooden ends for hunting birds, the ends show traces of fletching, which was fastened on with birch-tar. In the Levant, artifacts which may be arrow-shaft straighteners are known from the Natufian culture, the Khiamian and PPN A shouldered Khiam-points may well be arrowheads. Bows and arrows have been present in Egyptian culture since its predynastic origins, the Nine Bows symbolize the various peoples that had been ruled over by the pharaoh since Egypt was united. An archery game was widely practiced among the societies of the Southern US which involved shooting at a hoop rolled with a forked stick, points were scored based on how the arrow landed. The competition was popularly related to notions of fertility, after the introduction of horses to the Americas, tribesmen of the Great Plains became extremely adept at archery on horseback. The oldest Neolithic bow known from Europe was found in layers dating between 7, 400-7,200 BP, the earliest layer of settlement at the lake settlement at La Draga, Girona.
The intact specimen is short at 1. 08m, has a D-shaped cross-section, European Neolithic fortifications, arrow-heads and representations indicate that, in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Europe, archery was a major form of interpersonal violence. Stone wrist-guards, interpreted as display versions of bracers, form a part of the Beaker culture. Chariot-borne archers became a feature of Middle Bronze Age warfare. Ancient civilizations, notably the Persians, Indians, Chinese, arrows were destructive against massed formations, and the use of archers often proved decisive. The Sanskrit term for archery, came to refer to martial arts in general, mounted archers were used as the main military force for many of the equestrian nomads, including the Cimmerians and the Mongols