Ortuella is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Autonomous Community of Basque Country, northern Spain. Nowadays part of Greater Bilbao region, until the beginning of the 19th century it was integrated in the Valley of Somorrostro of the Encartaciones next to the Santurtzi. In 1901 the locality segregated from the Council of the Santurtzi, those days happening to denominate the Santurce-Ortuella; this segregation was motivated by an increase of population due to the mining height of end of the 19th century, being the district of Ortuella the one of greater population in the Council. In the 1980s, by means of the resolution of March 27, 1981, the name of the municipality definitively lost the term "Santurce" being " Ortuella", the usual name used by their citizens; the patron saint of Ortuella is Saint Felix of Cantalica, name of the main church of the municipality. Ortuella is administratively divided into 6 neighborhoods or wards: Cadegal Orconera Nocedal Ortuella Triano Urioste ORTUELLA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Official website
Zalla is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, northern Spain, 24 kilometers to the southwest of Bilbao. The river Cadagua runs through the city. ZALLA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Karrantza known as Karrantza Harana is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country. It is located in the comarca of Enkarterri and it is the westernmost and largest municipality of the province. Film director Víctor Erice was born there; the first recorded appearance of the toponym of Karrantza is on the Chronicle of Alfonso III, dated in the 10th Century, where it appears as Carrantia. According to the text, Carrantia was one of the towns known to be populated during the reign of Alfonso I, King of Asturias; the origin of Carrantia comes from the Cantabrian dialect, meaning "high rocks". From Carrantia it would evolve to the current Spanish toponym. Karrantza is the Basque toponym, an adaptation of Carranza following the Basque orthographic rules, it is the official name of the municipality since 2001; the first known vestiges of the human presence in the valley of Karrantza are some lithic tools, from the late Middle Paleolithic. In Karrantza is located the sanctuary of Venta Laperra, the oldest of the entire Basque Country, with several forms of Paleolithic art.
There is evidence of ancient pastoral activity, as well as art forms belonging to hunter-gatherers from the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. The oral traditions tells of the presence of Romans in the lands of the valley, which were interested in the exploitation of galena from the Ubal mountains. Diggings effectuated in some of the caves within the municipality revealed Roman pottery. In 1903 more than one hundred Roman coins were found, all dated from 238 to 260; the first records about the valley of Karrantza are from the 8th Century, when the King of Asturias Alfonso I was conducting a series of resettlements on the Atlantic region of the Iberian Peninsula, as they were mentioned in the Chronicle of Alfonso III one century later. The valley of Karrantza was incorporated to the Lord of Biscay in the 12th Century, it belongs to the territory of the Enkarterri, itself incorporated to Biscay in the 13th Century. 1900 - 4,237 people 1910 - 4,463 people 1920 - 4,506 people 1930 - 4,458 people 1940 - 4,479 people 1950 - 4,687 people 1960 - 4,490 people 1970 - 3,953 people 1981 - 3,392 people 1991 - 3,149 people 2001 - 2,887 people 2004 - 2,884 people Karrantza is located in the westernmost part of the Enkarterri region and is the largest of all the municipalities of Biscay.
Karratza is 54 kilometers away from the head of province Bilbao and limits at north by the autonomous community of Cantabria, at east with the Cantabrian exclave of Villaverde de Trucios, the Basque municipalities of Turtzioz and Artzentales, at south with the province of Burgos and at west with the tiny municipality of Lanestosa and the Cantabrian community. The Karrantza CD football club is the most important sport club, it is in regional categories of Basque football. CARRANZA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Left Bank (Biscay)
The left bank of the Estuary of Bilbao is a part of the Greater Bilbao region, its main towns are Barakaldo, Sestao and Portugalete and in addition to the iron mines, was the heart of the intense industrialisation of Biscay. Thousands of workers from all Spain came to the area during the 19th and the 20th century to work in the major shipbuilding and steel industries like Altos Hornos de Vizcaya and La Naval. Hence it was one of the birth places of the worker movement in Spain; the Socialist leader Indalecio Prieto and the Communist Pasionaria found their initial audiences here. There was a geographical and political-economical counterposition between the left bank where the workers lived and the Right Bank where the industrialists and bourgeois had their villas
Estuary of Bilbao
The Estuary of Bilbao lies at the common mouth of the rivers Nervion and Cadagua, that drain most of Biscay and part of Alava in the Basque Country, Spain. In this instance, the Spanish word estuario is used to describe what in English would be called part estuary, part tidal river; the estuary becomes a tidal river which extends 16 km into the city of Bilbao, starting from the Bilbao Abra bay. It hosts the port of Bilbao throughout its length, although the Port Authority has restored most of the upper reaches to Bilbao and other municipalities for their urban regeneration; the port is now being transferred to the seaboard on the coast at Zierbena. Downstream from Bilbao the river divides its metropolitan area in its left bank (Barakaldo, Sestao and Santurtzi and its right bank; the estuary and tidal river of Bilbao have always been a significant part of the city. Bilbao was born 700 years ago on the banks of the river Nervión as a trading village, it expanded downstream until arriving at the sea.
The river reached high levels of contamination because of the industrial activities during the past century. See page:http://bilbaoenconstruccion.com/2010/07/06/bilbao-recupera-su-alma-plan-integral-de-saneamiento-de-la-ria/ Bilbao Ria 2000
Gordexola is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. Gordexola in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Basque Solidarity / Eusko Alkartasuna Council Member of Gordexola
Balmaseda is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country. Balmaseda is the capital city of the comarca of Enkarterri, in western Biscay and serves an important role in the province thanks to its proximity to the capital city of Bilbao and the regions of Cantabria and Castile and León, its toponomy comes from a union of the Spanish word val, meaning "valley", the Basque mahatseta, which means "vineyard", Val-Mahatseta would mean "valley of vineyards", which would evolve into Valmaseda in use in Spanish, Balmaseda, following the orthographic rules of the Basque language. The lands in which Balmaseda is located had been inhabited since centuries before its official foundation, with evidence of ancient pastoral activity. In the eastern end of the municipality there is a Roman milestone which belonged to the Pisorica-Flaviobriga road, which connected the present-day cities of Castro Urdiales and Herrera de Pisuerga; this road is believed to have been in use at least since the 1st Century, as the milestone is dated 238.
Though the town's old bridge could have been built there are not any evidences of its existence until some centuries later. The territory in which today is located Balmaseda belonged to the valley of Mena, included in the Kingdom of Castile in the 9th Century. Although it was conquered by the Kingdom of Navarre, the Castilians recovered it in 1175, moment when the king handed over the territory to Lope Sánchez de Mena, Lord of Bortedo and kin of the Lord of Biscay. Lope Sánchez founded the village on the same location of a previous settlement, in one of the banks of the river Kadagua, granting the village the fuero of Logroño. Among the reasons for the foundation of the village were its protected location between mountains and the existence of a commercial road connecting to Castile and Biscay; the village was incorporated to the lands of the Lord of Biscay when the Lord Lope Díaz II de Haro married the daughter of Alfonso IX, thus obtaining the territories of Balmaseda and Orduña. In 1234, Lope confirmed the municipal charter establishing Balmaseda as a town.
However, this first union with Biscay would not last much. In 1274 it was given back to Biscay to be once more handed back to Castile in 1288 after the murder of Lope Díaz III in Alfaro following the orders of Sancho IV. Diego López IV would once more reinstate Balmaseda into Biscay. In 1312, after the disputes between Biscay and Castile, Balmaseda was once more reintegrated into the kingdom; the town would be incorporated again in Biscay in 1388. On 5 November 1808 the city was the theatre of the Battle of Valmaseda, part of the Peninsular War, between French and Spanish armies; the municipality of Balmaseda is located in mountainous territory, in southwestern Biscay and 30 kilometers away from the province capital city Bilbao. Balmaseda is located in the comarca of Enkarterri and it borders Artzentales, in the west, with Sopuerta in the north and Zalla in the east. In the south Balmaseda borders with the autonomous community of León, it is surrounded by the Ordunte mountains. Nature park of Valley of Karrantza with Pozalagua Cave situated not far from Balmaseda.
The main river of the municipality is the river Kadagua, which forms the narrow valley where the town is located. The river is joined by several minor streams as the Acebo, Coliza and Angostura; the river Kadagua has had historical importance for the town and still today has an important symbolism, as it is present on the town's coat of arms. Amongst city's landmarks are Puente Viejo Roman Bridge, Ayuntmiento-Town Hall, Cathedral Iglesia de San Severino, Church of Sagrado Corazón, Iglesia San Juan, Iglesia de Santa Clara with museum, Palacio Horcasitas, Balmaseda historical museum, La Encartada beret factory museum, modern court of justice. Balmaseda carries Medieval market in San Severino festival on 23 October. Balmaseda has Sociedad Deportiva Balmaseda Fútbol Club with home La Baluga camp stadium. Balmaseda is connected with the rest of the province of Enkarterri region and the capital city of Bilbao by the BI-636 road and by the narrow-gauge railway Feve and by bus. Pedro Hurtado de Mendoza, an important Jesuit author of theological and philosophical textbooks.
Tifariti, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic San Severino Marche, Italy Balmaceda, Chile Balmaceda, an alternate spelling found in Spanish surnames. BALMASEDA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia