click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Enki Bilal

Enki Bilal is a French comic book creator, comics artist and film director. Born Enes Bilalović in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, to a Slovak mother and a Bosnian father, Josip Broz Tito's tailor, he moved to Paris at the age of 9. At age 14, he with his encouragement applied his talent to comics, he produced work for Goscinny's Franco-Belgian comics magazine Pilote in the 1970s, publishing his first story, Le Bol Maudit, in 1972. In 1975, Bilal began working with script writer Pierre Christin on a series of dark and surreal tales, resulting in the body of work titled Légendes d'Aujourd'hui. In 1983, Bilal was asked by film director Alain Resnais to collaborate on his film La vie est un roman, for which Bilal provided painted images that were incorporated in the "medieval" episodes of the film, he is best known for the Nikopol trilogy. Bilal did the artwork; the final chapter, Froid Équateur, was chosen book of the year by the magazine Lire and is acknowledged by the inventor of chess boxing, Iepe Rubingh as the inspiration for the sport.

Quatre?, the last book in the Hatzfeld tetralogy, deals with the breakup of Yugoslavia from a future viewpoint. The first installment came in 1998 in the shape of Le Sommeil du Monstre opening with the main character, remembering the war in a series of traumatic flashbacks; the third chapter of the tetralogy is Rendez-vous à Paris, the fifth best selling new comic of 2006, with 280,000 copies sold. His cinematic career was revived with the expensive Immortel, his first attempt to adapt his books to the screen; the film divided critics, some panning the use of CGI characters but others seeing it as a faithful reinterpretation of the books. On May 13, 2008 a video game based on the Nikopol trilogy was announced titled Nikopol: Secrets of the Immortals. Published in North America by Got Game Entertainment in August 2008, the game is a "point and click" adventure for the PC. In 2012, Bilal was featured in a solo exhibition at The Louvre; the exhibition, titled "The Ghosts of the Louvre", ran from December 20, 2012 to March 18, 2013.

The exhibition was organized by Fabrice Douar, featured a series of paintings of "Ghosts", done atop photographs that Bilal took of the Louvre's collection. 1980: Prix RTL – for best adult comic 1987: Angoulême Festival, Grand Prix de la ville d'Angoulême 1993: Best book of the year Award from Lire magazine 1997: Brussels International Festival of Fantasy Film, Special Mention 1999: Adamson Award, for Best International Comic Book Cartoonist 1999: Angoulême Festival, Nominated for Best comic book 2004: Angoulême Festival, Nominated for Audience award 2004: Fantasia Ubisoft Festival, Gold medal for Best Groundbreaking Film, Bronze Medal for Best International Film 2006: International Horror Guild Award, Best Illustrated Narrative, for Memories La Croisière des oubliés, 1975 Le Vaisseau de pierre, 1976 La ville qui n'existait pas, 1977 The series was published in English sequentially in Heavy Metal Magazine, as stand-alone graphic novels and as a single volume collection. La Foire aux immortels La Femme piège Froid Équateur Le Sommeil du monstre 32 Décembre Rendez-vous à Paris Quatre?

Animal'Z Julia & Roem La Couleur de l'Air Mémoires d'outre-espace, Histoires courtes 1974–1977 Exterminateur 17 Les Phalanges de l'ordre noir Partie de chasse Los AngelesL'Étoile oubliée de Laurie Bloom Hors Jeu Coeurs sanglants et autres faits divers Bleu Sang Mémoires d'autre temps, Histoires courtes 1971–1981 EnkiBilalAnDeuxMilleUn Tykho Moon – livre d'un film Un siècle d'Amour Le Sarcophage Magma The Chaos Effect Les fantômes du Louvre BUG BUG From its start through the Eighties Bilal was a frequent guest in American Heavy Metal Magazine. Many famous Bilal comics made their English debut in this period of the magazine. Although shorter stories appeared in the Nineties, Heavy Metal readers had to wait until 2012 for another graphic novel feature from Bilal. Graphic novels Short stories Since the late seventies publishers like NBM, Catalan Communications, Humanoids publishing have released several albums by Bilal; the Call of the Stars A collection of short stories. The Phantoms of the Louvre paperback books Exterminat

Project Dogwaffle

Project Dogwaffle is a raster graphics editor with animation capabilities. The program, written by Dan Ritchie, runs on the Windows platform and has both freeware and commercial versions; the commercial version, PD Pro Digital Painter, is updated while the most recent freeware version is Project Dogwaffle 1.2, released in 2004. The free version is functional, lacking only the advanced layer and scripting tools in version 2 of the commercial product. Project Dogwaffle features include realistic paint effects similar to Corel Painter, a frame-based animation tool, the standard paint tools common to most modern bitmap paint programs, an alpha channel for transparency effects. PD Pro 4 was updated to make use of multithreading with multiple processors. Features include realtime filters that update as you adjust them in full screen, a particle painting tool that paints things like trees and grass, can be animated to produce typical particle system effects. Animation tools include a timeline for applying filters, an exposure sheet, a keyframer to move images around, the ability to paint with animated brushes, a batch processor and retiming, other items of use to animators and motion graphic artists.

Users of Deluxe Paint, ubiquitous on the Amiga personal computer, will recognize a number of conventions including keyboard shortcuts. The name "Project Dogwaffle" refers to the first waffle that comes out of a waffle iron, the one for the dog; the name harkens back to the beginning of development that started on a weekend after the developer tried to draw a box in Photoshop. Project Dogwaffle uses Lua programming language to let the end-user create new imaging filters. DogLua is based on a'gluas' plugin spec developed for the GIMP. Lua scripting is available in other digital painting programs, such as ArtWeaver and Twistedbrush; some implementations have their respective extensions. When the core GIMP-original gluas syntax is used without proprietary extensions, these imaging filters can be shared and used across these applications for the benefit of other users; some extensions from Project Dogwaffle have found their way into others such as ArtWeaver. In 2011, Dogwaffle was split into PD Howler and PD Artist lines of products, with the Artist label for those not requiring animation tools.

Around v9, some 3D features started using the GPU. In v9.5/9.6, the 3D Designer had a major addition of features for more realistic looking landscapes, with erosion and texturing based on elevation and slope. Version 9.6 became the first release available on Steam for game developers. As of early 2016, version 10 was the latest so far, development continued for new features, another release on Steam. Several additional features were released through the year as add-on plugins such as a Worley Noise filter. Comparison of raster graphics editors Deluxe Paint by Dan Silva Official website

Union Station (Phoenix, Arizona)

Phoenix Union Station is a former train station at 401 South 4th Avenue in downtown Phoenix, United States. Until 1996, it was an Amtrak station, as well as a railroad stop for the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific Railroads. Union Station was served by Amtrak's Los Angeles-New Orleans Sunset Limited and Los Angeles-Chicago Texas Eagle; the station is on the National Register of Historical Places. Phoenix Union Station was constructed in 1923 by the Arizona Eastern Railroads; the Station is one of the best examples of Mission Revival architecture, along with Brophy College Preparatory, in Phoenix. The Mission Revival style, a popular building style between 1890 and the 1920s, was typified by such Union Station features as stucco wall finishes, red tiled roofs, curvilinear gables, massive piers, impost moldings. According to the "Phoenix Historic Building Survey" by the Phoenix City Council, September 1979: Historic Name Union Station of the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe Railroads Description A large Mission Revival railroad station with a central two-story waiting room structure between long, low arcaded wings.

Red-tiled, gabled roofs are terminated by high parapet walls that are shaped with the familiar curves of the Mission Revival at the ends of the wings and in entrance pavilions at both the railroad and street sides of the central pavilion. In keeping with the character of the Mission Revival there are few other decorative details; the waiting room is a high, beamed space with original wooden furnishings and fine ceiling light fixtures. There have been some alterations in the waiting room, the arcaded wings which were open as passenger waiting areas have been enclosed. A microwave transmitting tower next to the central pavilion is out of harmony with the structure... Significance Union Station was a joint venture between the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe Railroad Companies and was designed by their architect, Peter Kiewit. Dedicated on September 30, 1923, the building was proclaimed a "Monument to the progressiveness and prosperity of the valley and a testimony of the confidence in the future of the Salt River Valley and Phoenix."

A milestone in Phoenix's development, Union Station ushered in tourism on a grand scale and promoted greater national visibility. Rob Bohannan presented this history at ARPA's dedication of the clock and plaque donated by ARPA members, January 11, 1992. Used with permission: Phoenix Union Station was commissioned on September 16, 1922, by the Arizona Eastern Railroad Company, a Southern Pacific affiliate, by the California and Santa Fe Railroad part of the Santa Fe Railway system and was built by the Robert E. McKee Construction Company. Construction of this union station was the result of an order by the Arizona Corporation Commission to the railroads to consolidate their separate station facilities located several blocks apart in downtown Phoenix; the main station building is 74 feet wide. The adjoining Post Office building is 62 feet wide; the mission revival style building is constructed of structural steel and reinforced concrete and was completed at a cost of $556,000. Three years after the station was completed, the new Southern Pacific main line through Phoenix was opened with the arrival of the eastbound Californian on November 15, 1926.

After the track was seasoned, the Golden State and Sunset Limited served the station beginning March 20 of the following year. Prior to this, the only access to SP's transcontinental trains was via connecting trains on the old Maricopa and Phoenix Railroad at Maricopa; when rail travel was at its peak during and after World War II, Phoenix Union Station was served by as many as eighteen trains a day. A pair of Santa Fe trains arrived and departed for Parker and Los Angeles, while the fondly remembered Hassayampa Flyer connected Phoenix with the Southern Transcon and Santa Fe's great transcontinental trains to and from the east. Southern Pacific operated the Sunset Limited between Los Angeles and New Orleans, the service which continues under Amtrak today; the Sunset Limited had through cars to Dallas and St. Louis by way of the Texas and Pacific connection at El Paso. In conjunction with the Rock Island, Southern Pacific operated the Golden State Limited, together with several lesser trains on the Los Angeles - Phoenix - Chicago route.

From December 1940 to April 1941, from December 1941 to April 1942, Rock Island and Southern Pacific operated the deluxe Arizona Limited between Phoenix and Chicago. In April 1964, the Sunset Limited and the Golden State were combined between Los Angeles and El Paso; the Golden State made its last run in February, 1968. The Hassayampa was discontinued in April of the following year; until superseded by Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport sometime in the fifties, Phoenix Union Station was the undisputed gateway to the city. This station served millions of arriving and departing passengers during the fifty-nine years since it was completed; this station has played host to many special occasions and celebrations. The two having the largest recorded attendance is the Main Line celebration on Friday, October 15, 1926, the second day of Phoenix Union Station Days, February 24, 1991. On both days over ten thousand persons gathered to celebrate the importance of this great building and the invaluable service it has provided.

In 1995, the last full year Amtrak stopped at Union Station, 21,495 passengers boarded or alighted here. Since Amtrak left in 1996, the Olympic Torch train has stopped here twice, tourist trains like the GrandLuxe have occasionally used Union Station. In 2000, the Arizona

László Varga (politician, 1979)

Dr. László Varga is a Hungarian jurist and politician, member of the National Assembly from the Hungarian Socialist Party since 2006, he became a member of the Hungarian Socialist Party and of the Young Left in 1999. In the organisation of the Young Left he was the chairman of the Miskolc municipal branch from 2001, from 2002 he worked as the deputy chairman of the Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County grouping. From 2004 until 2005 he was the President of the National Committee of the Young Left. In 2002 he won an individual mandate at the local elections in Miskolc. In 2004 he was elected to be the leader of a parliamentary group in the General Assembly of Miskolc, he was member of the Economical Committee, of the Self-made Committee of Public Utility Construction and of the Committee of Public Procurement. From 2001 he has been a member of the presidium of the Hungarian Socialist Party of Miskolc, from 2004 he has been a member of the presidium in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, he is working as a legal advisor at present.

He is member of the Friends for Football Association in Diósgyőr. He served as Chairman of the Young Left between 2006 and 2008. After the transformation of the organization, he was elected head of the Societas which position held until 2010. Varga was elected MP in the 2006 parliamentary election from the party's Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County Regional List, he was appointed a member of the Committee of Foreign Affairs and Hungarians Beyond the Frontier on 30 May 2006. He secured a mandate in the 2010 parliamentary election from the party's National List. Varga was a member of the Constitutional and Standing Orders Committee between 14 November 2011 and 4 March 2013, he was appointed a member of the Committee on Youth, Social and Housing affairs on 14 May 2010 and Committee on Sport and Tourism. He is married and has two children

Cide Hamete Benengeli

Cide Hamete Benengeli is a fictional Arab Muslim historian created by Miguel de Cervantes in his novel Don Quixote, who Cervantes says is the true author of most of the work. This is a skillful metafictional literary pirouette that seems to give more credibility to the text, making believe that Don Quixote was a real person and the story is decades old. However, it's obvious to the reader that such a thing is impossible, that the pretense of Cide Hamete's work is meant as a joke. In the preface of Part One of the novel, Cervantes indicates that he is not the original author, but is passing on information that can be found in "the archives of La Mancha". At the end of Chapter VIII, Cervantes states that the information from the archives ends in a exciting cliffhanger, in Chapter IX, he describes finding an Arabic manuscript called "The History of Don Quixote of La Mancha, written by Cide Hamete Benengeli, an Arab historian." In Part Two, the young scholar Carrasco informs Don Quixote that the story of his adventures is well-known, thanks to the publication of his history by Cide Hamete.

Cide Hamete is Moorish. Cervantes says that he is "Arabian and Manchegan": in other words, a Spanish Muslim Arab-speaker, not a North African or an Ottoman. However, in Part Two, Chapter XLIV, Benengeli writes, "I, though a Moor..." Cervantes' use of the supposed translation of a true record of events is a parody of an element found in the books of chivalry. For example, in the Cristalián de España, author Beatriz Bernal claims that she found a book in an ancient tomb, explains his decision to copy it. Another example can be seen in Florisando by Páez de Ribera, who claims to have translated a work of Greek origin from the Tuscan; these adventures are never presented as inventions of the authors themselves, thus giving them greater credibility. The tweaking of this narrative convention gave Cervantes the opportunity to make humorous, ironic comments, play several fictional games. Many speculations have been made about the meaning of Benengeli's name; the first element, "Cide," as Don Quixote states, means "sir" in Arabic: it is a corruption of سيد sīd.

"Hamete" is the Castilian form of a proper name of Hispanic Muslim origin. However, scholars do not agree on its exact equivalent in Arabic, as it could correspond to three similar names; the Egyptian Hispanist Abd al-Aziz al-Ahwani makes it equivalent to حمادة Hamāda. The meaning of "Benengeli" has made more ink flow; the first to propose an interpretation was the Arabist José Antonio Conde, who interpreted it as a Spanish version of ابن الأيل Ibn al-ayyil, "son of the deer". This was a subtle allusion to Cervantes' own surname, as the word for deer in Spanish is "ciervo"; the scholars Diego Clemencín and Abd al-Rahman Badawi agreed. The orientalist Leopoldo Eguílaz y Yanguas relates Benengeli to berenjena, a relation mentioned by Sancho Panza in the novel; the Cervantists Saadeddine Bencheneb and Charles Marcilly proposed as an etymology ابن الإنجيل Ibn al-Inŷīl, that is, "son of the Gospel." This would be an ironic pun highlighting the difference between the Muslim author and the Christian character of the real author, himself.

For the Hispanicist Mahmud Ali Makki, none of the previous interpretations has consistency and is inclined to assume that the name is an invention, although he points out that it may be inspired by the surname of a well-known Andalusian family from Denia, the Beni Burungal or Berenguel. The possible puns referenced above would rely on Cervantes' knowledge of the Arabic language, a feasible presumption. Cervantes spent five years captive in Algiers, he was allowed to move around the city and interact with its inhabitants. On the other hand, Américo Castro was the first to point out its possible converse origin, a hypothesis, sustained to a greater or lesser degree by authors, and La Mancha as well as a good part of the southern half of the Peninsula, was densely populated by Moriscos. In any case, the Arab and the Islamic were not alien to Cervantes. List of Don Quixote characters Abd Al-Aziz trans. Arabic and notes to Don Quixote de la Mancha, Cairo, 1957. Abd Al-Aziz al-Ahwani, "Cervantes and Sidi Hamada", Al-Maŷalla, no.

96, December 1964, p. 14-22. Abd al-Rahman Badawi, trans. Arabic and notes to Don Quixote de la Mancha, Abu Dhabi, Al-Madà, 1998. Ángel González Palencia, «Cervantes and the Moors», Bulletin of the Royal Spanish Academy, no. XXVII, 1948, p. 107-122. Américo Castro and the Spanish casticismos. Diego Clemencín, ed. and notes to Don Quixote de la Mancha, Castilla, 1967. Leopoldo Eguílaz y Yanguas, "Etymological notes to the ingenious hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha ", in Homage to Menéndez Pelayo in the twentieth year of his teaching staff, vol. II, Victoriano Suárez General Library, 1899, p. 121-142. Charles Marcilly and Saadeddine Bencheneb, "Qui était Cide Hamete Benengeli?", In Mélanges à la mémoire by Jean Sarrailh, vol. I, Center de recherches de l'Institut d'études hispaniques, 1966, p. 97-116. Mahmud Ali Makki, "The Banu Burungal, a family of Denian intellectuals," Sharq no. 21, Alicante, 1993-1994. VV. AA. History of Spanish Literature Vol. II. Renaissance and Baroque. Everest. P. 702-703

Electromagnetic radio frequency convergence

Electromagnetic radio frequency convergence is a signal-processing paradigm, utilized when several RF systems have to share a finite amount of resources among each other. RF convergence indicates the ideal operating point for the entire network of RF systems sharing resources such that the systems can efficiently share resources in a manner that's mutually beneficial. With communications spectral congestion becoming an important issue for the telecommunications sector, researchers have begun studying methods of achieving RF convergence for cooperative spectrum sharing between remote sensing systems and communications systems. Consequentially, RF convergence is referred to as the operating point of a remote sensing and communications network at which spectral resources are jointly shared by all nodes of the network in a mutually beneficial manner. Remote sensing and communications have conflicting requirements and functionality. Furthermore, spectrum sharing approaches between remote sensing and communications have traditionally been to separate or isolate both systems.

Hence, achieving RF convergence can be an complex and difficult problem to solve. For a simple network consisting of one remote sensing and communications system each, there are several independent factors in the time and frequency domains that have to be taken into consideration in order to determine the optimal method to share spectral resources. For a given spectrum-space-time, a real network of systems will have many more sources or systems present, making the problem of achieving RF convergence more complex. Spectral congestion is caused by too many RF communications users concurrently accessing the electromagnetic spectrum; this congestion may degrade communications performance and decrease or restrict access to spectral resources. Spectrum sharing between radar and communications applications was proposed as a way to alleviate the issues caused by spectral congestion; this has led to a greater emphasis being placed by researchers into investigating methods of radar-communications cooperation and co-design.

Government agencies such as The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and others have begun funding research that investigates methods of coexistence for military radar systems, such that their performance will not be affected when sharing spectrum with communications systems. These agencies are interested in fundamental research investigating the limits of cooperation between military radar and communications systems that in the long run will lead to better co-design methods that improve performance. However, the problems caused by spectrum sharing do not affect just military systems. There are a wide variety of remote sensing and communications applications that will be adversely affected by sharing spectrum with communications systems such as automotive radars, medical devices, 5G etc. Furthermore, applications like autonomous automobiles and smart home networks can stand to benefit by cooperative remote sensing and communications. Researchers have started investigating fundamental approaches to joint remote sensing and communications.

Remote sensing and communications fundamentally tend to conflict with one another. Remote sensing transmits known information into the environment and measures a reflected response, used to extract unknown information about the environment. For example, in the case of a radar system, the known information is the transmitted signal and the unknown information is the target channel, desired to be estimated. On the other hand, a communications system sends unknown information into a known environment. Although a communications system does not know what the environment is beforehand, every system operates under the assumption that it is either estimated or its underlying probability distribution is known. Due to both systems’ conflicting nature, it is clear that when it comes to designing systems that can jointly sense and communicate, the solution is non-trivial. Due to difficulties in jointly sensing and communicating, both systems are designed to be isolated in time, and/or frequency; the only time legacy systems consider the other user in their mode of operation is through regulations, which are defined by agencies such as the FCC, that constrain the other user's functionality.

As spectral congestion continues to force both remote sensing and communications system to share spectral resources, achieving RF convergence is the solution to optimally function in an crowded wireless spectrum. Several applications can benefit from RF convergence research such as autonomous driving, cloud-based medical devices, light based applications etc; each application may have different goals and regulations which present different challenges to achieving RF convergence. A few examples of joint sensing-communications applications are listed below. Intelligent Transport Systems Commercial Flight Control Communications & Military Radar Remote Medical Monitoring and Wearable Medical Sensors High Frequency Imaging and Communications Li-Fi and Lidar RFID & Asset Tracking Capable Wireless Sensor Networks Joint sensing-communications systems can be designed based on four different types of system integration; these different levels range from complete isolation. Some levels of integration, such as non-integration and coexistence, are not complex in nature and do not require an overhaul of how either sensing or communications systems operate.

However, this lack of complexity