Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
Bural was an airline based in Ulan-Ude, Russia. It operated trunk and regional passenger services, its main base was Ulan-Ude Airport. The airline was established in 1933 as Buryatia Air Enterprise, it became independent in 1993 and was known as Buryatia Airlines. Since 2002, the airline has curtailed its operations including services to Moscow-Domodedovo; the airline went defunct in 2017, due to failiure to follow the laws in the technical service of the aircraft. The regional flights across Buryatia to Taksimo and Nizhneangarsk were served by Angara Airlines instead; the Bural fleet included the following aircraft in August 2015: RussiaBagdarin — Bagdarin Airport Irkutsk - Irkutsk Airport Kyzyl - Kyzyl Airport Nizhneangarsk — Nizhneangarsk Airport Taksimo — Taksimo Airport Ulan-Ude — Ulan-Ude Airport Hub The airlines has codeshares with: Centre-South PANH Yakutia Airlines October 1, 2010 - AN-2 Uakit - Bagdarin - In flight at an altitude of 2300 meters with poor weather conditions and too little fuel left, the pilot decided to carry out an emergency landing.
Passengers and copilot received injuries of varying severity when leaving the aircraft
Chelyabinsk is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, located in the northeast of the oblast, 210 kilometers south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River, on the border of Europe and Asia. Population: 1,130,132 ; the fortress of Chelyaba, from which the city takes its name, was founded at the location of the Bashkir village of Chelyaby by colonel Alexey Tevkelev in 1736 to protect the surrounding trade routes from possible attacks by Bashkir outlaws. During Pugachev's Rebellion, the fortress withstood a siege by the rebel forces in 1774, but was captured for several months in 1775. In 1782, as a part of Ufa Viceroyalty, reformed into Orenburg Governorate, Chelyabinsk became a seat of a its own uyezd and was granted town status and its current name in 1787; until the late 19th century, Chelyabinsk was a small provincial town. In 1892, the Samara-Zlatoust Railway was completed which connected it with Moscow and the rest of European Russia.
In 1892, construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway from Chelyabinsk started and in 1896 the city was linked to Ekaterinburg. Chelyabinsk became the hub for relocation to Siberia. For fifteen years more than fifteen million people - a tenth of Russia - passed through Chelyabinsk; some of them remained in Chelyabinsk. In addition, in Chelyabinsk was organized custom office set "customs fracture" the bounding duty-free grain and tea to the European part of the country that led to the emergence in mills and set the tea-packing factory. Soon Chelyabinsk started turning into a major trade center, its population reached 20,000 inhabitants by 1897, 45,000 by 1913, 70,000 by 1917. For rapid growth at the turn of the 20th century, similar to American cities, Chelyabinsk called "Behind the Urals Chicago". During the first Five-Year Plans of the 1930s, Chelyabinsk experienced rapid industrial growth. Several establishments, including the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant and the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant, were built at this time.
During World War II, Joseph Stalin decided to move a large part of Soviet factory production to places out of the way of the advancing German armies in late 1941. This brought new thousands of workers to Chelyabinsk. Facilities for the production of T-34 tanks and Katyusha rocket launchers existed in Chelyabinsk. During World War II, it produced 18,000 tanks, 48,500 tank diesel engines as well as over 17 million units of ammunition. In the press of the time Chelyabinsk was informally called "Tankograd" or "Tank City"; the S. M. Kirov Factory no. 185 moved here from Leningrad to produce heavy tanks. Shortly after dawn on February 15, 2013, a superbolide meteor descended at over 55,000 kilometers per hour over the Ural Mountains, exploding at an altitude of 25–30 kilometers; the meteor created a momentary flash as bright as the sun and generated a shock wave that injured over a thousand people. Fragments fell around Chelyabinsk. Interior Ministry spokesman Vadim Kolesnikov said 1,100 people had called for medical assistance following the incident for treatment of injuries from glass broken by the explosions.
One woman suffered a broken spine. Kolesnikov said about 600 square meters of a roof at a zinc factory had collapsed. A spokeswoman for the Emergency Ministry told the Associated Press; the size has been estimated at 17 meters diameter with a mass of 11,000 metric tons. The power of the explosion was about 500 kilotons of TNT, 20–30 times more energy than was released from the atomic bomb exploded in Hiroshima. Luckily, thanks to the high altitude of the explosion the city managed to avoid large casualties and destruction. Chelyabinsk is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the City of Chelyabinsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the City of Chelyabinsk is incorporated as Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug. In June 2014, Chelyabinsk's seven city districts were granted municipal status. Chelyabinsk is located east 199 km south of Yekaterinburg, its elevation is 200–250 meters.
The city is bisected by the river Miass, regarded as the border between the Urals and Siberia. This is reflected in the geology of the place, with low granite hills of the Urals on the western side and lower sedimentary rock of the West Siberian Plain on the eastern side; the "Leningrad bridge" connects the two sides, so it is called the "bridge of the Urals to Siberia". Chelyabinsk itself is therefore known as "The Gateway to Siberia". Like Rome and Moscow, Chelyabinsk is said to be located on seven hills; the city has a warm summer humid continental climate farther north. The average temperature in January is well below the freezing point, but July has a cool average, the annual average is a few degrees above zero Celsius, indicating still some moderation; the range of extremes reaches 70°C/158 °F, claimed to be typical of a mid-latitude climate on a large continent such as Eurasia. The highest precipitation is concentrated in the summer. July, month with higher precipitation is 87mm/3.44" and January, driest month is 15mm/0.6".
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Red Wings Airlines
Red Wings Airlines is an airline based in Moscow Domodedovo Airport, in Russia. The airline provides cargo charter services. Red Wings was founded in 1999 under the name VARZ-400, after the Russian acronym of the Vnukovo Avia Repair Factory, it was renamed Airlines 400 in 2001, before adopting its current name in 2007. The airline was owned by Russian tycoon Alexander Lebedev, who wanted to create a discount airline using modern Russian Tupolev Tu-204-100B 210-passenger twin-jet airliners, both newly-built and used; the company had a fleet of ten Tu-204-100Bs, had sought to acquire Airbus A320s and Airbus A321s to complement its Tu-204 fleet. Lebedev owned 49% of German charter airline Blue Wings, to become Red Wings's sister company. However, on 13 January 2010, Blue Wings ceased all operations and filed for bankruptcy, citing the global financial crisis for a pull-out of investors. After the December 2012 Red Wings Flight 9268 crash in Vnukovo, Russian aviation authorities initiated an emergency check of airline operational activities and fleet maintenance, resulting in the revocation of the carrier's AOC effective on 4 February 2013.
The airline had ceased all operations the day before and owner Alexander Lebedev announced that no return to operation was planned. On 4 April 2013, NRC sold Red Wings Airlines Group "Guta" for a symbolic one ruble; the new owners of Red Wings plan to increase the fleet of 10–15 aircraft. The airline was going to buy just Russian aircraft. On 25 April 2013, it was announced that the airline Red Wings was going to be headed by Sergey Belov—the previous CEO of the airline "Russia". On 18 June 2013, the Federal Air Transport Agency renewed the certificate of the operator Red Wings to perform commercial transportation of passengers and cargo. On 22 June, the airline resumed charter flights. On 12 July, the airline resumed scheduled flights from Moscow. To increase business power, Red Wings and Nordavia decided to merge; the process began, alas the date when the airlines will merged, will they be separate or work under one airline, is still a question. This plan calls for the Airbus A320, ordered for Nordavia, to be delivered by Red Wings.
The new brand name will be known, after finishing the merger procedure. On 20 September 2018, it was announced; the first aircraft to arrive with the updated livery, will be Airbus A321 and it will arrive by the end of 2018. Red Wings Airlines has only one codeshare agreement Nordavia The Red Wings fleet comprises the following aircraft as of August 2017: Red Wings was supposed to be the launch customer for the Airbus A220-300 in Russia. Ilyushin Il-76 Tupolev Tu-154 Tupolev Tu 204-100 Tupolev Tu-214 Sukhoi Superjet 100 On 29 December 2012 at 16:35 local time, Red Wings Airlines Flight 9268, a Tupolev TU-204-100В crashed on landing after overrunning runway 19 at Vnukovo International Airport following a non-revenue repositioning flight originating from Pardubice Airport, Czech Republic; the aircraft broke up and came to a stop on elevated highway M3 about 400 meters/1,200 feet past the runway’s end. There were eight crew members on board of whom five were killed and the other three injured; the fatal Vnukovo accident was the second runway overrun incident involving a Red Wings operated TU-204-100B in nine days following a Moscow Vnukovo to Novosibirsk flight on 20 December 2012 that overran runway 25 at Tolmachevo Airport by 1,150 feet into an open field.
Initial flight data recorder readouts indicate that brake failure as well as engine thrust reverser issues were major contributing causes in both overruns resulting in the issuance of additional airworthiness directives. Russia’s Interstate Aviation Committee determined that, as in the precursor non-fatal overrun incident in Novosibirsk, the fatal Moscow accident was caused by a failure of the compression switches in two of the three landing gear assemblies to close on touchdown thus causing the engine thrust reverser shells to fail to deploy. On 22 August 2018, one of the Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines of a Red Wings Tu-204 operating flight WZ808 from Ufa to Sochi experienced an engine surge during takeoff from Ufa International Airport and subsequently caught on fire; the crew did not receive any fire indications, the automatic fire suppression system did not work, the manual fire suppression failed to extinguish the flames. Emergency services put out the fire after landing while the passengers were evacuated through the right hand emergency doors via slides.
There were no injuries. A Rosaviatsia commission has been set up to investigate the occurrence. Media related to Red Wings Airlines at Wikimedia Commons Red Wings Official website Official website of Air 400 Red Wings Airlines aircraft
Ural Airlines is an airline based in Yekaterinburg, operates scheduled and chartered domestic and international flights out of Koltsovo International Airport. In 2016, the company transported 6.5 million passengers. The airline was founded in 1943 as Sverdlovsk State Air Enterprises, became part of Aeroflot, the Soviet state airline, being in charge of Yekaterinburg Airport. Following the split-up of Aeroflot, Ural Airlines became a joint stock company incorporated under the laws of the Russian Federation on 28 December 1993, the airline business was separated from the airport. In 2010, Ural Airlines retired all of its Antonov Ilyushin Il-86s and Tupolev Tu-154B2s; the airline's Tupolev Tu-154M, in 164-seat two-class configuration, was retired on October 16, 2011. Ural Airlines has 3348 employees; the technical base of the airline is one of the most modern in Russia. Its technical equipment and experienced engineers allow Ural Airlines to provide necessary services in-house. In 2012, the airline opened its training complex for pilots.
The system of training for Airbus A320 was 7.5 million euro. The complex included; the airline's CEO says that pilot training now is not 4 hours. The airline plans to buy the training complex for the Airbus A330-300. In 2017, Skytrax gave Ural Airlines 3 stars, which made it the fourth airline with three stars in Russia and CIS after S7 Airlines, Uzbekistan Airlines and Air Moldova. Main hubs of Ural Airlines are Moscow-Domodedovo and Yekaterinburg. In plans of Ural Airlines is to increase its number of hubs, by developing hubs at Moscow-Sheremetyevo and Moscow-Zhukovsky. A million passengers per year was first achieved in 2006. Since the airline and its passenger numbers have both grown. In 2013, the airline transported the sixth most in Russia that year. Passengers transported from 2007-2016: 2018 — 9.001 million. The airline considered purchasing Irkut MC-21, however the plans were most withdrawn. Ural Airlines announced the purchase of 2 Airbus A321neoLR, that will be delivered in 2019, with a possible replacement of older Airbus A321-200.
The airline moved up its plans to increase its fleet size from 43 to 50 in 2018, moving up its original plans to do so by 2020. Babyflot Media related to Ural Airlines at Wikimedia Commons Official website
IrAero is an airline based in Irkutsk, Russia. It operates domestic and international scheduled passenger services and cargo flights, its main base in Irkutsk Airport. The airline was formed in 1999 in Russia; the IrAero fleet comprises the following aircraft: The IrAero fleet included the following aircraft: 4 Antonov An-24 9 Antonov An-26 2 further Bombardier CRJ200LR 1 further Sukhoi Superjet 100 On 8 August 2011 IrAero Flight 103, operated by an Antonov An-24, overran the runway at Ignatyevo Airport near Blagoveshchensk during landing at the end of a flight from Chita. Nine passengers and three crew of the five crew and 31 passengers on board were injured, but there were no fatalities. Official website Official website
The Tupolev Tu-154 is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid-1960s and manufactured by Tupolev. A workhorse of Soviet and Russian airlines for several decades, it carried half of all passengers flown by Aeroflot and its subsidiaries, remaining the standard domestic-route airliner of Russia and former Soviet states until the mid-2000s, it was exported to 17 non-Russian airlines and used as a head-of-state transport by the air forces of several countries. With a cruising speed of 850 kilometres per hour the Tu-154 is one of the fastest civilian aircraft in use and has a range of 5,280 kilometres. Capable of operating from unpaved and gravel airfields with only basic facilities, it was used in the extreme Arctic conditions of Russia's northern/eastern regions where other airliners were unable to operate. Designed for a 45,000 hour service life but capable of 80,000 hours with upgrades, it was expected to continue in service until 2016, although noise regulations have restricted flights to western Europe and other regions.
In January 2010 Russian flag carrier Aeroflot announced the retirement of its Tu-154 fleet after 40 years, with the last scheduled flight being Aeroflot Flight 736 from Ekaterinburg to Moscow on 31 December 2009. Since 1968 there have been 39 fatal incidents involving the Tu-154, most of which were caused either by factors unrelated to the aircraft, incorrect maintenance, or by its extensive use in demanding conditions. Few of the Tu-154 accidents appear to have involved technical failure; the Tu-154 was developed to meet Aeroflot's requirement to replace the jet-powered Tu-104 and the Antonov An-10 and Ilyushin Il-18 turboprops. The requirements called for either a payload capacity of 16–18 tonnes with a range of 2,850–4,000 kilometres while cruising at 900 km/h, or a payload of 5.8 tonnes with a range of 5,800–7,000 kilometres while cruising at 850 km/h. A takeoff distance of 2,600 metres at maximum takeoff weight was stipulated as a requirement. Conceptually similar to the British Hawker Siddeley Trident, which first flew in 1962, the American Boeing 727, which first flew in 1963, the medium-range Tu-154 was marketed by Tupolev at the same time as Ilyushin was marketing the long-range Ilyushin Il-62.
The Soviet Ministry of Aircraft Industry chose the Tu-154 as it incorporated the latest in Soviet aircraft design and best met Aeroflot's anticipated requirements for the 1970s and 1980s. The first project chief was Sergey Yeger. In 1975, the project lead role was turned over to Aleksandr S. Shengardt; the Tu-154 first flew on 4 October 1968. The first deliveries to Aeroflot were in 1970 with freight services beginning in May 1971 and passenger services in February 1972. There was still limited production of the 154M model as of January 2009 despite previous announcements of the end of production in 2006. 1025 Tu-154s have been built, 214 of which were still in service as of 14 December 2009. The last serial Tu-154 was delivered to the Russian Defense Ministry on 19 February 2013 from the Aviakor factory, equipped with upgraded avionics, a VIP interior and a communications suite; the factory has four unfinished hulls in its inventory which can be completed if new orders are received. The Tu-154 is powered by three rear-mounted low-bypass turbofan engines arranged to those of the Boeing 727, but it is larger than its American counterpart.
Both the 727 and the Tu-154 use an S-duct for the middle engine. The original model was equipped with Kuznetsov NK-8-2 engines, which were replaced with Soloviev D-30KU-154 in the Tu-154M. All Tu-154 aircraft models have a high thrust-to-weight-ratio which give excellent performance, at the expense of lower fuel efficiency; this became an important factor in decades as fuel costs grew. The flight deck is fitted with conventional dual yoke control columns. Flight control surfaces are hydraulically operated; the cabin of the Tu-154, although of the same six-abreast seating layout, gives the impression of an oval interior, with a lower ceiling than is common on Boeing and Airbus airliners. The passenger cabin accommodates 128 passengers in a two-class layout and 164 passengers in single-class layout, up to 180 passengers in high-density layout; the layout can be modified to what is called a winter version where some seats are taken out and a wardrobe is installed for passenger coats. The passenger doors are smaller than on its Airbus counterparts.
Luggage space in the overhead compartments is limited. Like the Tupolev Tu-134, the Tu-154 has a wing swept back at 35° at the quarter-chord line; the British Hawker Siddeley Trident has the same sweepback angle, while the Boeing 727 has a smaller sweepback angle of 32°. The wing has anhedral, a distinguishing feature of Russian low-wing airliners designed during this era. Most Western low-wing airliners such as the contemporary Boeing 727 have dihedral; the anhedral means that Russian airliners have poor lateral stability compared to their Western counterparts, but have weaker Dutch roll tendencies. Heavier than its predecessor Soviet-built airliner the Ilyushin Il-18, the Tu-154 was equipped with an oversized landing gear to reduce ground load, enabling it to operate from the same runways; the aircraft has two six-wheel main bogies fitted with large low-pressure tires that retract into pods extending from the trailing edges of the wings, plus a two-wheel noseg