2012 Summer Paralympics opening ceremony
The 2012 Summer Paralympics opening ceremony was held on 29 August 2012, starting at 20:30 BST and marking the official opening of the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London, England. The show – named Enlightenment – had Jenny Sealey and Bradley Hemmings as its artistic directors, leading a team that included Jon Bausor as set designer and Moritz Junge as costume designer. Queen Elizabeth II opened the Games; the ceremony was performed in the Olympic stadium in London in front of a capacity audience of 80,000 people. Students from local schools who are part of the get set network were part of the under-16 cast; these include Millfields Community School in Hackney, Eastlea Community School in Newham and Trinity School in Barking and Dagenham. A total of 110 days of rehearsals took place in Dagenham; the ceremony had an adult volunteer cast of over 3,000 people, along with over 100 children and over 100 professional performers. Among the professional performers were 73 deaf and disabled performers and among the volunteers were 68 people with disabilities.
In the build-up to the opening ceremony, an eight-week circus skills training programme took place at The Circus Space in Hoxton and was run by 50 specialist performers. Participants included professional artists and many people who were new to the arts scene, for example soldiers undergoing rehabilitation and non-competing disabled athletes; the programme was funded by Arts Council England, was part of the Enlightenment section, performing on a 35 metre high platform above the stadium floor. Stephen Daldry commenting on the ceremonies of London 2012, noted that "if Danny Boyle's was much about two revolutions and popular culture and Kim Gavin's was much about a symphony of British music what you will get from Jenny and Bradley is something different." Daldry inaddtion stated that "there will be an extraordinary number of disabled performers in the cast." Sealey introduced Stephen Hawking as the "most famous disabled person alive" who will narrate "the most exquisite journey," focusing on science and culture of the 18th century.
As with the Olympics opening ceremony The Tempest features and the character Miranda from the story will star in the ceremony, being the eyes for the audience. Sealey notes that the character "sees everybody but she doesn't judge; that is fundamental to our personal and political ethos." Adding that it is "fundamental, you look without judging. It's about removing those attitudinal barriers." Sealey states that it was pure coincidence that she and Hemmings had chosen a line from the same play, used by Boyle in the opening ceremony of the Olympics. "When we found out Danny Boyle was going to reference Shakespeare's The Tempest we burst out laughing." Hemming when comparing the Games to the Large Hadron Collider, notes that it "transforms our perception of our place in the universe in the same way that the Paralympics transforms our perception of what's possible." While Sebastien Coe said that the Ceremony would be a "great showcase of the skills and excellence of disabled artists."Sealey and Hemming were determined to "pay tribute to the contributions that science has made to the able bodied and impaired alike."
The pair approached Hawking in late 2011, adamant that he would write his own part. Hawking commented on his role that "to use this stage to show the world that regardless of differences between individuals, there is something that everyone is good at, is important." Sealey and Hemming worked with Professor Hawking to develop a series of messages for the ceremony and spent time with him in Cambridge. Sealey notes that although the ceremony has Hawking and Ian McKellen narrating, "what we all need to remember: don't just look down at your feet, look at the stars, be curious." The programme was attended by the Queen's grandson Prince William and the Duchess of Cambridge, David Cameron, the Prime Minister, with his wife Samantha Cameron and by London Mayor Boris Johnson. Before the ceremony at 20:12 local time a fly past by Aerobility took place. Aerobility are a British charity; the Ceremony started with a countdown featuring shots of the universe starting from earth working outwards. Stephen Hawking appeared on the Moon stage and talked about science and reason, followed with the "big bang" taking place with people holding umbrellas.
Fireworks were released. The audience was brought back to modern day London as Flawless performed a street-dance on the moon stage to Rihanna's "Umbrella", as several people holding coloured umbrellas floated around the stadium. One of the performers floating around the stadium was introduced as Miranda, portrayed by Nicola Miles-Wildin; the stadium was greeted by Prospero. Prospero encouraged Miranda to be our eyes on our journey of discovery in science. Hawking meanwhile encouraged Miranda to be curious while the cast created an eye symbolising Miranda's. Three vehicles with motifs from the history of science appeared followed by a performance of'Principia', by Errollyn Wallen which featured lyrics about science. Queen Elizabeth II and Sir Philip Craven entered the stadium, after they were seated the Union Flag was raised and the national anthem of the United Kingdom was played. Corporal of the Horse Brophy – The Household Cavalry Mounted Division.
The Counter-Enlightenment was a term that some 20th-century commentators have used to describe multiple strains of thought that arose in the late-18th and early-19th centuries in opposition to the 18th-century Enlightenment. Though the first known use of the term in English was in 1949 and there were several uses of it, including one by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, Counter-Enlightenment is associated with Isaiah Berlin, credited for re-inventing it; the starting point of discussion on this concept in English started with Isaiah Berlin's 1973 Essay, The Counter-Enlightenment. He published about the Enlightenment and its challengers and did much to popularise the concept of a Counter-Enlightenment movement that he characterized as relativist, anti-rationalist and organic, which he associated most with German Romanticism. Despite criticism of the Enlightenment being a discussed topic in twentieth-century thought, the term'Counter-Enlightenment' was underdeveloped, it was first mentioned in English in William Barrett's 1949 article "Art and Reason" in Partisan Review.
He used the term again in his 1958 book on Irrational Man. In Germany, the expression "Gegen-Aufklärung" has a longer history, it was coined by Friedrich Nietzsche in "Nachgelassene Fragmente" in 1877. Lewis White Beck used this term in his Early German Philosophy, a book about Counter-Enlightenment in Germany. Beck claims that there is a counter-movement arising in Germany in reaction to Frederick II's secular authoritarian state. On the other hand, Johann Georg Hamann and his fellow philosophers believe that a more organic conception of social and political life, a more vitalistic view of nature, an appreciation for beauty and the spiritual life of man have been neglected by the eighteenth century. Isaiah Berlin established this term's place in the history of ideas, he used it to refer to a movement that arose in late 18th- and early 19th-century Germany against the rationalism and empiricism, which are associated with the Enlightenment. Berlin's essay "The Counter-Enlightenment" was first published in 1973, reprinted in a collection of his works, Against the Current, in 1981.
The term has been more used since. Berlin argues that, while there were opponents of the Enlightenment outside of Germany and before the 1770s, Counter-Enlightenment thought did not start until the Germans'rebelled against the dead hand of France in the realms of culture and philosophy, avenged themselves by launching the great counter-attack against the Enlightenment.' This German reaction to the imperialistic universalism of the French Enlightenment and Revolution, forced on them first by the francophile Frederick II of Prussia by the armies of Revolutionary France and by Napoleon, was crucial to the shift of consciousness that occurred in Europe at this time, leading to Romanticism. The consequence of this revolt against the Enlightenment was pluralism; the opponents to the Enlightenment played a more crucial role than its proponents, some of whom were monists, whose political and ideological offspring have been terreur and totalitarianism. In his book Enemies of the Enlightenment, historian Darrin McMahon extends the Counter-Enlightenment back to pre-Revolutionary France and down to the level of'Grub Street,' thereby marking a major advance on Berlin's intellectual and Germanocentric view.
McMahon focuses on the early opponents to the Enlightenment in France, unearthing a long-forgotten'Grub Street' literature in the late 18th and early 19th centuries aimed at the philosophes. He delves into the obscure world of the'low Counter-Enlightenment' that attacked the encyclopédistes and fought to prevent the dissemination of Enlightenment ideas in the second half of the century. Many people from earlier times attacked the Enlightenment for undermining religion and the social and political order, it became a major theme of conservative criticism of the Enlightenment. After the French Revolution, it appeared to vindicate the warnings of the anti-philosophes in the decades prior to 1789. Cardiff University professor Graeme Garrard claims that historian William R. Everdell was the first to situate Rousseau as the "founder of the Counter-Enlightenment" in his 1971 dissertation and in his 1987 book, Christian Apologetics in France, 1730–1790: The Roots of Romantic Religion. In his 1996 article, "the Origin of the Counter-Enlightenment: Rousseau and the New Religion of Sincerity", in the American Political Science Review, Arthur M. Melzer corroborates Everdell's view in placing the origin of the Counter-Enlightenment in the religious writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, further showing Rousseau as the man who fired the first shot in the war between the Enlightenment and its opponents.
Graeme Garrard follows Melzer in his "Rousseau's Counter-Enlightenment". This contradicts Berlin's depiction of Rousseau as a philosophe who shared the basic beliefs of his Enlightenment contemporaries, but similar to McMahon, Garrard traces the beginning of Counter-Enlightenment thought back to France and prior to the German Sturm und Drang movement of the 1770s. Garrard's book Counter-Enlightenments broadens the term further, arguing against Berlin that there was no single'movement' called'The Counter-Enlightenment'. Rather, there have been many Counter-Enlightenments, from the middle of the 18th century to 20th-century Enlightenment among critical theorists and feminists; the Enlightenment has opponents on all points of its ideological compass
Enlightened is a 2007 album by Dynamic Duo. This was released on Compact Disc; this album features many guest artists, including YDG, Kero One and Brown Eye Soul's Na Ul, among others. 다시 쓰는 이력서 해적 Dream 그래서 난 미쳤다 지구본 뮤직 동전 한 닢 절망하지 맙시다 절망하지 맙시다 출첵 살인자의 몽타주 독재자 Happy Day 복잡해 그 남자 그 여자의 사정 U-turn
Enlightened (TV series)
Enlightened is an American comedy-drama television series that premiered on HBO on October 10, 2011. The series was created by Mike White, who wrote every episode, Laura Dern, who plays the lead role of Amy Jellicoe. In 2012, Laura Dern won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Musical or Comedy for her role in the series; the show was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series -- Comedy. After the completion of two seasons, HBO canceled the show in March 2013 due to low ratings, despite critical acclaim; as signaled by its tagline "About a Woman on the Verge of a Nervous Breakthrough", Enlightened follows the story of Amy Jellicoe, a self-destructive executive, after the implosion of her professional life and a subsequent philosophical awakening in rehabilitation, tries to get her life back together. Jellicoe is a 40-year-old woman who returns home to Riverside, California after a two-month stay at a holistic treatment facility, a result of having a mental breakdown at work after finding herself demoted, triggered by her self-destructive ways, which in turn was triggered by a miscarriage and a rather bitter divorce.
Amy returns to her old life with a new cultivated approach and perspective, which includes daily meditation and exhorting the power of self-help and inner healing. Though Amy wants to be an "agent of change" in the world, the people who know her best are skeptical of her latest intentions, she moves in temporarily with her somewhat-estranged mother and reconnects with her ex-husband Levi, struggling with his own demons and addictions. While trying to heal Levi and mend her relationship with Helen, Amy re-enters work at Abaddonn Industries; this is due in large part to the head HR representative Judy Harvey discovering that with her diagnosis with bipolar disorder Amy could sue Abaddonn for discrimination on the basis of illness/medical condition. Once a buyer in the company's Health and Beauty department, Amy is rehired, but assigned to a demeaning position in data processing, a department run by the flaky Dougie. Amy views the transfer as an attempt to hasten her departure and keep her away from her former co-workers, including former assistant Krista, who now has Amy's old job, Damon, her former boss and ex-lover.
However, while in this new position, Amy uncovers a range of corporate abuse and corruption occurring at Abaddonn, which fuels her quest to make a change in the lives of others, as well as validating her own change. Laura Dern as Amy Jellicoe, an ambitious and idealistic yet naïve and awkward buyer at Abaddonn Industries. After a humiliating nervous breakdown at her workplace, she goes to rehab and returns to her company with a new mindset but a much less significant job, she contemplates becoming a whistleblower against Abaddonn. Luke Wilson as Levi Callow, Amy's ex-husband. A former MLB player for the Los Angeles Angels, cut due to his drug problems. Though the two still share feelings for each other, their relationship struggles due to Levi's problems with substance abuse which along with a miscarriage Amy suffered was what led to their subsequent divorce. Diane Ladd as Helen Jellicoe, Amy's quiet and rather aloof yet protective mother with her own ghosts from the past. Amy lives at her house after returning from rehab.
Sarah Burns as Krista Jacobs, Amy's former assistant who now has her old job. Though Amy considers her a friend, Krista tries to keep their relationship at a distance. Timm Sharp as Dougie Daniels, the obnoxious oblivious VP of Cogentiva. Mike White as Tyler, a shy, lonely coworker and friend of Amy at her new job, he used to be an IT worker for Abaddonn but was demoted himself after he got in trouble for sexually harassing a female co-worker. Amy Hill as Judy Harvey, an HR representative at Abaddonn who encounters Amy when she returns to work from rehab, she is a lesbian in her personal life. Charles Esten as Damon Manning, Amy's brash former boss and ex-lover. Bayne Gibby as Connie, a religious, conservative coworker at Cogentiva. Jason Mantzoukas as Omar, a brusque coworker of Amy and Tyler, a close associate of Dougie. Michaela Watkins as Janice, Krista's best friend, she feels competitive and resentful toward Amy. Riki Lindhome as Harper, Krista's friend and Amy's former coworker, she has a rather bubbly personality and unlike Janice she is friendly around Amy.
Robin Wright as Sandy, Amy's best friend from rehab in Hawaii. Molly Shannon as Eileen, the shy assistant to the CEO of Abaddonn Industries, she dates Tyler. Dermot Mulroney as Jeff Flender, a confident reporter from the Los Angeles Times who develops a casual relationship with Amy. James Rebhorn as Charles Szidon, the mysterious CEO of Abaddonn Industries; the series appeared on HBO's development slate in August 2009 with Laura Dern set to star as the lead, Amy Jellicoe. On September 9, 2009, HBO placed a pilot order. Mike White directed the pilot, as well as co-starring in the series as Tyler; the series is executive produced by White and Dern and co-executive produced by Miguel Arteta and Edward Saxon. David Bernad and Jason Weinberg are producers for the series. Casting announcements began in November 2009, with Sarah Burns cast as Krista Jacobs, Amy's workplace friend. Diane Ladd, Luke Wilson and Amy Hill joined the series, with Ladd playing Helen Jellicoe, Amy's mother. Luke Wilson is cast in the role of Levi, Amy's ex-husband and Amy Hill play
Enlighten Canberra' is an outdoor annual art and cultural festival held in Canberra, Australia featuring illuminating light installations and projections, performances from local and interstate musicians and film events. The festival is an Australian Capital Territory Government initiative held annually in early March, encouraging people to "See Canberra in a whole new light." The centrepiece of Enlighten Canberra is the illuminating of Canberra's cultural institutions after dark, including Old Parliament House, Parliament House and the National Gallery of Australia as well as the National Portrait Gallery and Questacon. There is live music, film screenings and after-hours tours. Since its inception, Enlighten has become popular, attracting 115,000 visitors in 2013 and 131,500 in 2014. Attendance rose again to 287,874 visitors. In 2008 ACT Labor made an election promise to deliver a new autumn event for Canberra, Australia—this was the beginnings of Enlighten Canberra. In December 2010, Australian Capital Territory Minister for Tourism and Recreation Andrew Barr, announced the ACT Government Enlighten would be a major annual event, commencing in March 2011.
He said national attractions that would participate with lit facades after dark included the National Gallery of Australia, Parliament House and Old Parliament House. Ticketed events were announced, including headline international acts in concert. In its first year, along with other events, Enlighten hosted rock band INXS, jazz guitarist George Benson, world-music supergroup Afro Celt Sound System. To help promote Enlighten, INXS arrived in Canberra in a helicopter, landing on the lawns of Old Parliament House two weeks before their concert appearance. INXS band member Kirk Pengilly told reporters that the show planned for Enlighten 2011 was "probably the biggest production that we've put on at any show in Australia." As part of the festival, cultural institutions in the Parliamentary triangle were illuminated after dark, including Old Parliament House, Parliament House and the National Gallery of Australia. Despite the big-ticket performances and media stunts, the inaugural festival cost $2.4 million, there was poor community interest, with just 8600 visitors.
The first Enlighten did however attract 2400 visitors from interstate or overseas who came to Canberra for Enlighten or extended their stay because of it. The slogan for Enlighten, announced in December 2010, is "See Canberra in a whole new light" In its second year, Enlighten was made a part of the Canberra Festival; the merging of the festivals was met with criticism from the Canberra branch of the Liberal Party of Australia, with Canberra Liberal Brendan Smyth describing the Labor Government's attempt to create a new festival as "embarrassing". The Enlighten entertainment lineup featured in the 2012 event was scaled back from the 2011 event to instead feature local Canberra artists including Owen Campbell. Of the nearly 100 artists contracted to perform in the 2012 festival, 53 per cent were local artists, paid 11.5 per cent of the Enlighten programming budget that year. In 2012 Questacon and the National Portrait Gallery became canvasses for projection for the first time—they had not been lit in the 2011 Enlighten festival.
In 2013, along with the large-scale building illuminations featured in the previous two events, Enlighten hosted a spiegeltent for the first time. The tent put on dozens of shows featuring comics and musicians; the festival included Canberra's first Dîner en Blanc, a pop-up picnic in which all guests dress in white and bring their own food, table-setting and chair. More than 700 people attended the third Dîner en Blanc to be held in Australia. Dîner en Blanc was repeated in 2014, with over 800 people attending, but the dinner was not included as part of Enlighten 2015. Film screenings and after hours tours were offered, American soul singer Charles Bradley performed as part of the 2014 festival. In November 2014, the ACT Government announced the Night Noodle Markets would be coming to Canberra during the Enlighten Festival in 2015; the Night Noodle Markets feature Asian-themed street-food vendors. ACT Tourism Minister Andrew Barr told media that Canberra's Night Noodle Markets were expected to host up to 25 hawker style food stalls, that the ACT Government had committed $200,000 to bring the 2015 noodle markets to the city.
Around 156,000 peoples visited the inaugural Enlighten Night Noodle Markets—of whom 24,000 visited on the opening night, far exceeding expectations. In 2016, alongside the Night Noodle Markets, Enlighten featured an installation by Amanda Parer of five illuminated white rabbits standing at 7 metres. Parer described the rabbits as metaphors for the mismanagement of the environment. Free concerts held over the consecutive weekends featured indie rock Australian band Augie March and American alternative country musical group Calexico. Ahead of the 2016 ACT election the Labor party committed to spend $3.72 million to continue Enlighten in 2017, 2018 and 2019. For its first six years, the large-scale projections for Enlighten were coordinated by Electric Canvas. Electric Canvas's managing director Peter Milne has worked on the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games and the 2006 Melbourne Commonwealth Games. Since its inception, Enlighten has become popular, attracting 115,000 visitors in 2013 and 131,500 in 2014.
Attendance rose again to 287,874 visitors. In 2012, projections for Enlighten were predominantly powered using diesel generators and consumed 2423 litres of diesel, resulting in an estimated 7.0 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent greenhouse gas emissions. Art of Australia Vivid Sydney
Enlightenment known as E, is a compositing window manager for the X Window System. Since version 20, Enlightenment is a Wayland compositor. Enlightenment developers have referred to it as "the original eye-candy window manager."Enlightenment includes functions to provide a graphical shell, it can be used in conjunction with programs written for GNOME or KDE. When used together with the Enlightenment Foundation Libraries, Enlightenment can refer to an entire desktop environment; the first version of Enlightenment was released by Rasterman in 1997. Version 0.17 referred to as E17, was in development for 12 years starting in December 2000 until 21 December 2012 when it was released as stable. During the development period it was referred to as DR17, it is a complete rewrite on DR16 and was designed to be a full-fledged desktop shell, based on the new Enlightenment Foundation Libraries. E16 itself is still in active development that runs independently of E17, reaching the 1.0 milestone in 2009. Bodhi Linux was built around the Enlightenment 17 desktop, but forked it to create the Moksha desktop.
The current version is E22. Enlightenment allows the user to have a grid of workspaces called virtual desktops. Switching between them is achieved by hurling the mouse cursor to the edge of the screen, at which the desktop appears to slide across to reveal the next; the maximum grid size is eight by eight desktops, the user can have 32 grids, making 2048 total possible desktop spaces. The desktop dragbar allows a desktop to be'slid back' to reveal the desktop'underneath'; the E team use the analogy of sheets of paper, stacked on top of each other, where the user can slide off a piece to reveal what's beneath. Window grouping: the ability to put windows into groups so that they can all be moved, closed, etc. together. Iconification: reducing windows to an icon, stored in'iconboxes' that can be placed about the screen. Ability to change window borders. Users can create keybindings for actions such as maximizing windows, launching programs, moving between desktops and moving the mouse cursor, hence making it possible to use Enlightenment with a keyboard.
E16keyedit is a graphical program for simplifying keybinding creation. It contains a command line interface, which affects the window manager actions, makes it possible to write powerful shell scripts controlling most features on the desktop, from settings to single window manipulations. Newer versions include compositing effects such as transparency. One of the aims of the window manager is to be as configurable as possible, to this end, it includes customization dialogs for focus settings, window movement, resizing and placement settings, multiple desktop, desktop background, pager and autoraise settings, it includes a special effects dialog, including a desktop'ripple' effect. E17 has many core features such as: Fully themeable, with both a menu-based and command-line theme-changing interface A built-in file manager Icons on the desktop Virtual desktop grid feature Modular design: can dynamically load external modules. Available modules include: Pager: Switching between different virtual desktops iBar: Launching applications iBox: Holding minimized applications Engage: A dock similar to the Mac OS X dock Dropshadow: Provides a drop-shadow for every window Clock: Analog and digital clock Battery: Monitoring a laptop battery CPUFreq: Monitoring a laptop CPU Temperature: Monitoring laptop temperature Illume: Modifies the user interface of enlightenment to work cleanly on a mobile device Composite: Allows the user to run enlightenment with composite effects Tiling: Allows setting up tiling on specified virtual desktops One or more shelves to manage the gadget placement and appearance on the screen Animated, interactive desktop backgrounds, menu items, iBar items and desktop widgets are all possible Window shading, iconification and sticky settings Customizable key bindings Support for internationalization Standardized: supports all needed standards PrincipalCarsten "Rasterman" Haitzler: lead developer Kim "kwo" Woelders: E16 maintainer Hisham "CodeWarrior" Mardam Bey Christopher "devilhorns" Michael Mike "zmike" BlumenkrantzInactiveGeoff "Mandrake" Harrison Terminology Comparison of X window managers Enlightenment Foundation Libraries Bodhi Linux OpenGEU Official website Sources Operating-systems distribution status
Enlightenment in Poland
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment in Poland were developed than in Western Europe, as the Polish bourgeoisie was weaker, szlachta culture together with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth political system were in deep crisis. The period of Polish Enlightenment began in the 1730s–40s, peaked in the reign of Poland's last king, Stanisław August Poniatowski, went into decline with the Third Partition of Poland – a national tragedy inspiring a short period of sentimental writing – and ended in 1822, replaced by Romanticism. Polish Enlightenment, while sharing many common qualities with the classical Enlightenment movements of Western Europe differed from them in many important aspects. Much of the thought of the Western Enlightenment evolved under the oppressive absolute monarchies and was dedicated towards fighting for more freedom. Western thinkers desired Montesquieu's separation and balance of powers to restrict the nearly unlimited power of their monarchs. Polish Enlightenment, developed in a different background.
The Polish political system was the opposite of the absolute monarchy: Polish kings were elected and their position was weak, with most of the powers in the hands of the parliament. Polish reforms desired the elimination of laws that transformed their system into a near-anarchy, resulting from abuse of consensus voting in Sejm that paralyzed the Commonwealth during the times of the Wettin dynasty, reducing Poland from a major European player to the puppet of its neighbours. Thus, while men of the Enlightenment in France and Prussia wrote about the need for more checks and balances on their kings, Polish Enlightenment was geared towards fighting the abuses stemming from too many checks and balances; the differences did not end there. Townsfolk and bourgeoisie dominated Western Enlightenment movement, while in the Commonwealth most of the reformers came from szlachta. Commonwealth szlachta considered the idea of equality to be one of the foundations of its culture, reformers fought to expand it towards other social classes.
Religious tolerance, was an ideal of the szlachta. Ideas of that period led to one of the greatest achievements of Poland, the Constitution of May 3, 1791 and other reforms which attempted to transform the Commonwealth into a modern constitutional monarchy. Although attempts of political reform were thwarted by the civil war and military intervention of the Commonwealth neighbour, ending in the partitions of Poland, the cultural impact of that period persevered Polish culture for many years; the ideas of the Polish Enlightenment had significant impact abroad. From the Bar Confederation through the period of the Great Sejm and until the aftermath of the Constitution of May 3, 1791, Poland experienced a large output of political constitutional, writing. Important institutions of the Enlightenment included the National Theatre founded in 1765 in Warsaw by King Stanisław August Poniatowski. In expanding the field of knowledge, there was the Society of Friends of Science set up in 1800 soon after the Partitions.
Popular newspapers included Zabawy Przyjemne i Pożyteczne. Wojciech Bogusławski - father of Polish theater Franciszek Bohomolec - poet, publisher, teacher Tadeusz Czacki - education, founder of Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk and Liceum Krzemienieckie Joachim Chreptowicz - Last Grand Chancellor of the Lithuania, poet and physiocrat Jakub Jasiński - poet, radical supporter of revolution Franciszek Salezy Jezierski - writer, political activist Franciszek Karpiński - poet Franciszek Kniaźnin - poet, writer Hugo Kołłątaj - priest and political activist, political thinker and philosopher Stanisław Konarski - precursor of education reform, author of O skutecznym rad sposobie Onufry Kopczyński - teacher, precursor of Polish grammar Michał Dymitr Krajewski - writer, educational activist Ignacy Krasicki - one of Poland's greatest poets, bishop, co-organiser of Thursday dinners Stanisław Leszczyński - king of Poland, political activist, writer Samuel Bogumił Linde - chairman of Towarzystwo do Ksiąg Elementarnych, creator of Słownik Języka Polskiego Adam Naruszewicz - poet, historian Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz - poet, independence activist Jan Piotr Norblin - painter Józef Maksymilian Ossoliński - writer, social and cultural activist, founder of Zakład Narodowy im.
Ossolińskich Grzegorz Piramowicz - writer, educational activist Stanisław August Poniatowski - king, co-organiser of Thursday's dinners, great supporter of arts and sciences in Poland, Stanisław Staszic - writer, economist Jan Śniadecki - astronomer, philosopher Jędrzej Śniadecki - chemist Stanisław Trembecki - poet Tomasz Kajetan Węgierski - poet, explorer Józef Wybicki - political activist, author of the words of Mazurek Dąbrowskiego, Polish national anthem Franciszek Zabłocki - poet, comedy writer, secretary of Towarzystwo do Ksiąg Elementarnych Andrzej and Józef Załuski - founders of first Polish public library, Biblioteka Załuskich Andrzej Zamoyski - kanclerz, author of the Zamoyski Code The center of the neoclassical archi