Marion County, Florida
Marion County is a county located in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 331,298, its county seat is Ocala. Marion County comprises FL Metropolitan Statistical Area, it includes part of Ocala National Forest, which extends into three other counties. Evidence of ancient cultures has been found in Marion County, as well as of the earliest encounter between European explorers and historic indigenous peoples. In 1976, an archaeological investigation found ancient artifacts in Marion County that appear to be the oldest in mainland United States. Excavations at an ancient stone quarry yielded "crude stone implements". Thousands of pieces of chert were found at the site; these showed signs of extensive wear and were found in deposits below those holding Paleo-Indian artifacts. Thermoluminescence dating and weathering analysis independently gave dates of 26,000 to 28,000 Years Before Present for the production of these artifacts, prior to Clovis points; the findings suggested human habitation in this area much earlier than documented by other evidence.
Barbara Purdy had bipoint evidence from the CCA site which she reported in a 2008 paper. The county seat of Ocala, Florida is named for an Indian site visited and recorded by the Hernando de Soto Expedition in the sixteenth century. During the colonial period and Great Britain traded control of this area. After acquisition of the Florida territory by the United States in the 1820s, Marion County was created in 1844 from portions of Alachua and Hillsborough counties; until 1853, Marion County included most of what are now Sumter counties. In 1849, Putnam County took the northeast portion of Marion. Levy County’s creation took some of the western portion of Marion in 1877, near the end of the Reconstruction era. Marion County is named after General Francis Marion of South Carolina, a guerrilla fighter and hero of the American Revolutionary War, known as the "Swamp Fox". Numerous early settlers of this area were natives of South Carolina and picked their local hero as the county's namesake; the Act creating the county of Marion of the Territory of Florida was signed on March 14, 1844, by the territorial governor, R. K. Call.
The county motto is "Kingdom of the Sun." During the post-Reconstruction period, there was considerable racial violence by whites against blacks in Marion County. Whites lynched 19 African Americans here from 1877-1950; this was the 4th highest total of any county in the state. The rural area has been developed for breeding racehorses, some farms have been quite successful. Since the mid-20th-century, thoroughbred farms in the county have become known for such race champions as Needles, bred at Bonnie Heath Farm, in 1956 becoming the first Florida-bred horse to win the Kentucky Derby. Carl G. Rose, who had come to Florida in 1916 from Indiana to oversee construction of the first asphalt road in the state, developed the first horse farm in 1943; as an engineer, he had become familiar with the area's limestone, which he realized supported good pasture for raising strong horses. In 1943, Rose bought land at $10 per acre, which became Rosemere Farm; the next year one of his horses, won at Miami's Tropical Park, becoming the first Florida-raised thoroughbred to win a Florida race.
Close on Rose's heels, entrepreneur Bonnie Heath set up his own thoroughbred farm, producing Needles, which in 1956 became the state's first native-bred winner of the Kentucky Derby.. Bonnie Heath Farm is operated by Bonnie Heath III and his wife Kim. Rosemere Farm was sold long ago, the large site was redeveloped for the retail center Paddock Mall and the College of Central Florida. In 1956, the Ocala-area Thoroughbred industry received a boost when Needles became the first Florida-bred to win the Kentucky Derby. In 1978, Marion County-bred-and-raised Affirmed won the Triple Crown. Today, Marion County is a major world thoroughbred center with more than 1200 horse farms, including about 900 thoroughbred farms, totaling some 77,000 acres. Ocala is well known as a "horse capital of the world." The nearby community of Silver Springs developed around the Silver Springs, a group of artesian springs on the Silver River. In the 19th century, this site became Florida's first tourist destination. Today, well known for glass-bottom boat tours of the area, Silver Springs is owned by the State of Florida and was incorporated into Silver Springs State Park in 2013.
Other nearby natural attractions include the Florida Trail. Several prominent man-made attractions in the Ocala area existed in the past, such as the Western-themed Six Gun Territory theme park and the Wild Waters water park. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,663 square miles, of which 1,585 square miles is land and 78 square miles is water. Marion County is composed of rolling hills, some high and some low; the majority of its trees consist of live oaks and palm trees. Marion County is considered the southernmost county in North Central Florida, the northernmost county in Central Florida, it is about a two-hour drive from many of Florida's major cities, Orlando is 75 minutes to the southeast while Daytona Beach is about 90 minutes to the east. Tampa is about 75 minutes to the southwest. Jacksonville is a two-hour drive northeas
A pin-up model is a model whose mass-produced pictures see wide appeal as popular culture. Pin-ups are intended for informal display, i.e. meant to be "pinned-up" on a wall. Pin-up models may be fashion models, or actors; these pictures are sometimes known as cheesecake photos. Cheesecake was an American slang word, considered a publicly acceptable term for seminude women because pin-up was considered taboo in the early twentieth century; the term pin-up may refer to drawings and other illustrations as well as photographs. The term was first attested to in English in 1941. Pin-up images could be cut out on a postcard or lithograph; such pictures appear on walls, desks, or calendars. Posters of pin-ups were mass-produced, became popular from the mid-20th century. Male pin-ups were less common than their female counterparts throughout the 20th century, although a market for homoerotica has always existed as well as pictures of popular male celebrities targeted at women or girls. Examples include Jim Morrison.
Beginning in the early nineteenth century, pin-up modeling had "theatrical origins", burlesque performers and actresses sometimes used photographic advertisement as business cards to advertise shows. These adverts and business cards could be found backstage in every theater's green room, pinned-up or stuck into "frames of the looking-glasses, in the joints of the gas-burners, sometimes lying on-top of the sacred cast-case itself." Understanding the power of photographic advertisements to promote their shows, burlesque women self-constructed their identity to make themselves visible. Being recognized not only within the theater itself but outside challenged the conventions of women's place and women's potential in the public sphere. "To understand both the complicated identity and the subversive nature of the 19th-century actress, one must understand that the era's views on women's potential were inextricably tied to their sexuality, which in turn was tied to their level of visibility in the public sphere: regardless of race, class or background, it was assumed that the more public the woman, the more'public,' or available, her sexuality, according to historian Maria Elena Buszek.
Being sexually fantasized, famous actresses in early-20th-century film were both drawn and photographed and put on posters to be sold for personal entertainment. Among the celebrities who were considered sex symbols, one of the most popular early pin-up girls was Betty Grable, whose poster was ubiquitous in the lockers of G. I.s during World War II. In Europe, prior to the First World War, the likes of Fernande Barrey, were arguably the world's first pin-ups as is known in the modern sense. Miss Barrey displayed full frontal nudity, her pictures were cherished by soldiers on both sides of the First World War conflict. Other pin-ups were artwork depicting idealized versions of what some thought a beautiful or attractive woman should look like. An early example of the latter type was the Gibson Girl, a representation of the New Woman drawn by Charles Dana Gibson. "Because the New Woman was symbolic of her new ideas about her sex, it was inevitable that she would come to symbolize new ideas about sexuality."
Unlike the photographed actresses and dancers generations earlier, fantasy gave artists the freedom to draw women in many different ways. The 1932 Esquire "men's" magazine featured many drawings and "girlie" cartoons but was most famous for its Vargas girls. Prior to World War II they were praised for their beauty and less focus was on their sexuality. However, during the war, the drawings transformed into women playing dress-up in military drag and drawn in seductive manners, like that of a child playing with a doll; the Vargas girls became so popular that from 1942–46, owing to a high volume of military demand, "9 million copies of the magazine-without adverts and free of charge was sent to American troops stationed overseas and in domestic bases." The Vargas Girls were adapted as nose art on many World War II fighter aircraft. Among the other well-known artists specializing in the field were Earle K. Bergey, Enoch Bolles, Gil Elvgren, George Petty, Rolf Armstrong, Zoë Mozert, Duane Bryers and Art Frahm.
Notable contemporary pin-up artists include Olivia De Berardinis, known for her pin-up art of Bettie Page and her pieces in Playboy. Many people believe that since its beginnings the pin-up "...has presented women with models for expressing and finding pleasure in their sexual subjectivity". According to Joanne Meyerowitz in "Women and Borderline Material" an article in Journal of Women's History, "As sexual images of women multiplied in the popular culture, women participated in constructing arguments to endorse as well as protest them."As early as 1869, women have been supporters and protesters of the pin-up. Female supporters of early pin-up content considered these to be a "positive post-Victorian rejection of bodily shame and a healthy respect for female beauty."Additionally, pin-up allows for women to change the everyday culture. The models "...succeed in the feminist aim of changing the rigid, patriarchal terms". It has further been argued by some critics that in the early 20th century, these drawings of women helped define certain body images—such as being clean, being healthy, being wholesome—and were enjoyed by both men and
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air and rail hubs, the city had a population of 285,154 in 2017, making it the nation's 70th-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000. Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest cities in the United States, its location at the mouth of the Passaic River has made the city's waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark–Elizabeth is the primary container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal commercial airport in the United States, today is one of its busiest. Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible.com, IDT Corporation, Manischewitz. A number of important higher education institutions are in the city, including the Newark campus of Rutgers University.
The U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well. Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, the Prudential Center and the Newark Museum. Newark is divided into five political wards and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000. Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony, it was conceived as a theocratic assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31, 1693, it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713, it was incorporated on February 21, 1798 by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships.
During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, Caldwell Township, Orange Township, Bloomfield Township and Clinton Township. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836; the independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood; as a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known. The name of the city is thought to derive from Newark-on-Trent, because of the influence of the original pastor, Abraham Pierson, who came from Yorkshire but may have ministered in Newark, Nottinghamshire, but Pierson is supposed to have said that the community reflecting the new task at hand should be named "New Ark" for "New Ark of the Covenant and some of the colonists saw it as "New-Work", the settlers' new work with God. Whatever the origins, the name was shortened to Newark, although references to the name "New Ark" are found in preserved letters written by historical figures such as David Ogden in his claim for compensation, James McHenry, as late as 1787.
During the American Revolutionary War, British troops made several raids into the town. The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminating in the 1967 Newark riots; the city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. In 2018 the city passed legislation to protect residents from displacement brought about by gentrification. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 26.107 square miles, including 24.187 square miles of land and 1.920 square miles of water. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U. S. behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, Florida. The city's altitude ranges from 0 in the east to 230 feet above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods.
In the 19th century and early 20th century, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, Weequahic. Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop, as the marshes were wilderness, with a few dumps and cemeteries on their edges. During the 20th century, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was able to reclaim 68 acres of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands. Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west, the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north; the city is the largest in New Jersey's Gateway Region, said to have received its name from Newark's nickname as the "Gateway City"
National Academy of Design
The National Academy of Design is an honorary association of American artists, founded in New York City in 1825 by Samuel Morse, Asher Durand, Thomas Cole, Martin E. Thompson, Charles Cushing Wright, Ithiel Town, others "to promote the fine arts in America through instruction and exhibition." The original founders of the National Academy of Design were students of the American Academy of the Fine Arts. However, by 1825 the students of the American Academy felt a lack of support for teaching from the academy, its board composed of merchants and physicians, from its unsympathetic president, the painter John Trumbull. Samuel Morse and other students set about forming "the drawing association", to meet several times each week for the study of the art of design. Still, the association was viewed as a dependent organization of the American Academy, from which they felt neglected. An attempt was made to reconcile differences and maintain a single academy by appointing six of the artists from the association as directors of the American Academy.
When four of the nominees were not elected, the frustrated artists resolved to form a new academy and the National Academy of Design was born. Morse had been a student at the Royal Academy in London and emulated its structure and goals for the National Academy of Design. After three years and some tentative names, in 1828 the academy found its longstanding name "National Academy of Design", under which it was known for one and a half centuries. In 1997, newly appointed director Annette Blaugrund rebranded the institution as the "National Academy Museum and School of Fine Art", to reflect "a new spirit of integration incorporating the association of artists and school", to avoid confusion with the now differently understood term "design"; this change was reversed in 2017. 1825 The New York Drawing Association 1826 The National Academy of The Arts of Design 1828 The National Academy of Design 1997 The National Academy Museum and School of Fine Art 2017 The National Academy of Design The Academy occupied several locations in Manhattan over the years.
Notable among them was a building on Park Avenue and 23rd Street designed by architect P. B. Wight and built 1863–1865 in a Venetian Gothic style modeled on the Doge's Palace in Venice. Another location was at West 109th Amsterdam Avenue. Since 1942 the academy has occupied a mansion at Fifth Avenue and Eighty-ninth Street, the former home of sculptor Anna Hyatt Huntington and philanthropist Archer M. Huntington, who donated the house in 1940; the academy is a professional honorary organization, with a museum. One cannot apply for membership, which since 1994, after many changes in numbers, is limited to 450 American artists and architects. Instead, members are elected by their peers on the basis of recognized excellence. Full members of the National Academy are identified by the post-nominal "NA", associates by "ANA"; the school offers studio instruction, master classes, intensive critiques, various workshops, lunchtime lectures. Scholarships are available; the museum houses a public collection of over 7,000 works of American art from the 19th, 20th, 21st centuries.
As of November 2018 the academy's Board of Governors consists of 18 board members, with Bruce Fowle as President and James Siena as Chairman of the Abbey Council. Maura Reilly serves as Executive Director since 2015. Among the teaching staff were numerous artists, including Will Hicok Low, who taught from 1889 to 1892; the famous American poet William Cullen Bryant gave lectures. Architect Alexander Jackson Davis taught at the academy. Painter Lemuel Wilmarth was the first full-time instructor. Silas Dustin was a curator; some of the Academy's better-known members include: American Watercolor Society Effects of the financial crisis of 2007–2009 on museums List of museums and cultural institutions in New York City Official website National Academy of Design at Google Cultural Institute
Film Fun was a British celebrity comics comic book that ran from 17 January 1920 to 15 September 1962, when it merged with Buster, a total of 2225 issues. There were annuals in the forties and fifties, it was renamed Film Fun and Thrills in 1959. As the title suggests, the comic featured comic strip versions of people from films from the 1920s to the 1960s. Pre-war circulation at its peak was around 800,000 copies per week; the cover of the first edition featured Harold Lloyd but named as "Winkle", the screen name by which he was known in Britain at the time. Frederick George Cordwell was better known to Film Fun fans as Eddie the Happy Editor. Cordwell edited the comic until his death in 1949, aged 62 in Surrey. Cordwell wrote many scripts for the strips as well as text stories for Film Fun, he introduced the idea of characters receiving huge plates of bangers and mash, giant Christmas puddings and such from grateful beneficiaries of their efforts. Cordwell made it into the stories himself, meeting Laurel and Hardy a number of times, Joe E Brown and Woolsey and other characters.
Picture Fun merged with Film Fun soon after its launch in 1920, followed by Kinema Comic in 1932, Film Picture Stories in 1935, Illustrated Chips in 1953 and Top Spot in 1960. In 1962, sales of Film Fun dropped below 125,000 a week, prompting IPC to merge the comic with Buster. Apart from Laurel and Hardy, Film Fun used to feature many film and stage comedians of that era like Charlie Chaplin and Costello, Buster Keaton, Ben Turpin, Jackie Coogan, Fatty Arbuckle, Joe E. Brown, George Formby, Wheeler & Woolsey, Max Miller, Lupino Lane, Red Skelton, Harold Lloyd, W. C. Fields, Terry-Thomas, Sid Field, Frank Randle, Morecambe & Wise, James Cagney, Tony Hancock, Sid James, The Goon Show, Frankie Howerd, Tommy Cooper, Martin & Lewis, Arthur Lucan and Bruce Forsyth. There would be serialised cowboy films featuring stars like Roy Rogers and Gene Autry. There were detective stories featuring a fictional detective named Jack Keen. Walter Bell Bertie Brown Freddie Crompton Fred Holmes Albert Pease Tom Radford Eric Roberts George William Wakefield Terence Wakefield Jos "Josiah" Walker Norman Yendell Ward Roy WilsonFilms stills Media related to Film Fun at Wikimedia Commons
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A Zippo lighter is a reusable metal lighter manufactured by American Zippo Manufacturing Company of Bradford, United States of America. Thousands of different styles and designs have been made in the eight decades since their introduction including military versions for specific regiments. Since its invention Zippos have been sold around the world and have been described "a legendary and distinct symbol of America". In 2012 the company produced the 500-millionth unit. Since its inception Zippo Lighters have been exclusively manufactured in the United States, with the exception of those manufactured in Niagara, Canada. American George G. Blaisdell founded Zippo Manufacturing Company in 1932, produced the first Zippo lighter in early 1933, being inspired by an Austrian cigarette lighter of similar design made by IMCO, it got its name because Blaisdell liked the sound of the word "zipper" and "zippo" sounded more modern. On March 3, 1936, a patent was granted for the Zippo lighter. Zippo lighters became popular in the United States military during World War II—when, as the company's web site says, Zippo "ceased production of lighters for consumer markets and dedicated all manufacturing to the US military".
Period Zippos were made of brass, but Zippo used a black crackle finished steel during the war years because of metal shortages. While the Zippo Manufacturing Company never had an official contract with the military and armed forces personnel insisted that base exchange and post exchange stores carry this sought-after lighter. While it had been common to have Zippos with authorized badges, unit crests, division insignias, it became popular among the American soldiers of the Vietnam War to get their Zippos engraved with personal mottos; these lighters are now sought after popular souvenirs for visitors to Vietnam. After World War II, the Zippo lighter became used in advertising by companies large and small through the 1960s. Much of the early Zippo lighter advertising are works of art painted by hand, as technology has evolved, so has the design and finish of the Zippo lighter; the basic mechanism of the Zippo lighter has remained unchanged, but they developed into a popular fashion accessory, with a huge variety of artistic designs produced.
In 2002, Zippo expanded its product line to include a variety of utility-style multi-purpose lighters, known as Zippo MPLs. This was followed in 2005 with the Outdoor Utility Lighter, known as the OUL; these lighters are fueled with butane. In August 2007, Zippo released a new butane lighter called the Zippo BLU. A museum called "Zippo/Case visitors center" is located in Bradford, Pennsylvania, at 1932 Zippo Drive; this 15,000-square-foot building contains rare and custom made Zippo lighters, sells the entire Zippo line. The museum was featured on the NPR program Weekend Edition on Sunday, January 25, 2009; the museum contains an enormous collection of Case knives. Since the Zippo company's 60th anniversary in 1992, annual editions have been produced for Zippo collectors. From 1949 to 2002, Zippos were produced in Niagara Falls, Canada. Since 1933, over 500,000,000 Zippo lighters have been produced. In 2009, Zippo announced plans to purchase Ronson Consumer Products Corporation, a long-time competitor in the lighter market.
On February 3, 2010, the deal was finalized. In March 2011, due to significant decrease of sales from 18 million lighters a year in the mid-1990s to about 12 million lighters a year combined with increasing pressure on people not to smoke, Zippo Manufacturing Co. tried offering a wider variety of products using the Zippo name, such as watches, leisure clothing and eau de cologne. This strategy is similar to the success Victorinox Swiss Army Brands Inc. has had selling watches, luggage and fragrance. On June 5, 2012, the company manufactured its 500,000,000th lighter and celebrated its 80th anniversary. Zippo lighters, which have gained popularity as “windproof” lighters, are able to stay lit in harsh weather, due to the design of the windscreen and adequate rate of fuel delivery. A consequence of the windproofing is. However, if the flame is blown from the top down, it will be extinguished; the proper way to extinguish the lighter is to close the top half, which starves the flame of oxygen, but unlike other lighters, this does not cut off the fuel supply.
One of the recognizable features of Zippo is the fact. Opening the top lid produces an recognizable "clink" sound for which Zippo lighters are known, a different but recognizable "clunk" when the lighter is closed; this noise is produced by the spring-loaded toggling cam, a little lever that keeps the lid closed or opened securely. Unlike disposable lighters, Zippo lighters purchased. Instructions for safely fueling the Zippo are included in its packaging. Zippo offers for sale a name brand lighter fluid. Morley Safer, in his August 5, 1965 CBS News report of the Cam Ne affair and Private First Class Reginald "Malik" Edwards, the rifleman 9th Regiment, US Marine Corps Danang whose profile comprises chapter one of Wallace Terry's book, Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans, describe the use of Zippo lighters in search and destroy missions during the Vietnam War. Edwards stated: ``, you don't use torches. It's not like in the 1800s. You used a Zippo. Now you would use a Bic.
That's just the way. You went in there with your Zippos. Everybody. That's. Everybody had a Zippo, it was for burnin' shit down.""Zippo squad" be