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Enola Gay

The Enola Gay is a Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, named after Enola Gay Tibbets, the mother of the pilot, Colonel Paul Tibbets. On 6 August 1945, during the final stages of World War II, piloted by Tibbets and Robert A. Lewis it became the first aircraft to drop an atomic bomb; the bomb, code-named "Little Boy", was targeted at the city of Hiroshima and caused the near-complete destruction of the city. Enola Gay participated in the second atomic attack as the weather reconnaissance aircraft for the primary target of Kokura. Clouds and drifting smoke resulted in a secondary target, being bombed instead. After the war, the Enola Gay returned to the United States, where it was operated from Roswell Army Air Field, New Mexico. In May 1946, it was flown to Kwajalein for the Operation Crossroads nuclear tests in the Pacific, but was not chosen to make the test drop at Bikini Atoll; that year it was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution, spent many years parked at air bases exposed to the weather and souvenir hunters, before being disassembled and transported to the Smithsonian's storage facility at Suitland, Maryland, in 1961.

In the 1980s, veterans groups engaged in a call for the Smithsonian to put the aircraft on display, leading to an acrimonious debate about exhibiting the aircraft without a proper historical context. The cockpit and nose section of the aircraft were exhibited at the National Air and Space Museum in downtown Washington, D. C. for the bombing's 50th anniversary in 1995, amid controversy. Since 2003, the entire restored B-29 has been on display at NASM's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center; the last survivor of its crew, Theodore Van Kirk, died on 28 July 2014 at the age of 93. The Enola Gay was built by the Glenn L. Martin Company at its Bellevue, plant, located at what is now known as Offutt Air Force Base; the bomber was one of the 15 initial examples of B-29s built to the "Silverplate" specification—65 of these being completed during and after World War II—giving them the primary ability to function as nuclear "weapon delivery" aircraft. These modifications included an extensively modified bomb bay with pneumatic doors and British bomb attachment and release systems, reversible pitch propellers that gave more braking power on landing, improved engines with fuel injection and better cooling, the removal of protective armor and gun turrets.

Enola Gay was selected by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets Jr. the commander of the 509th Composite Group, on 9 May 1945, while still on the assembly line. The aircraft was accepted by the United States Army Air Forces on 18 May 1945 and assigned to the 393d Bombardment Squadron, Heavy, 509th Composite Group. Crew B-9, commanded by Captain Robert A. Lewis, took delivery of the bomber and flew it from Omaha to the 509th's base at Wendover Army Air Field, Utah, on 14 June 1945. Thirteen days the aircraft left Wendover for Guam, where it received a bomb-bay modification, flew to North Field, Tinian, on 6 July, it was given the Victor number 12, but on 1 August, was given the circle R tail markings of the 6th Bombardment Group as a security measure and had its Victor number changed to 82 to avoid misidentification with actual 6th Bombardment Group aircraft. During July, the bomber made eight practice or training flights, flew two missions, on 24 and 26 July, to drop pumpkin bombs on industrial targets at Kobe and Nagoya.

Enola Gay was used on 31 July on a rehearsal flight for the actual mission. The assembled Little Boy gun-type fission weapon L-11, weighing 10,000 pounds, was contained inside a 41-inch × 47-inch × 138-inch wooden crate, secured to the deck of the USS Indianapolis. Unlike the six uranium-235 target discs, which were flown to Tinian on three separate aircraft arriving 28 and 29 July, the assembled projectile with the nine uranium-235 rings installed was shipped in a single lead-lined steel container weighing 300 pounds, locked to brackets welded to the deck of Captain Charles B. McVay III's quarters. Both the L-11 and projectile were dropped off at Tinian on 26 July 1945. On 5 August 1945, during preparation for the first atomic mission, Tibbets assumed command of the aircraft and named it after his mother, Enola Gay Tibbets, who, in turn, had been named for the heroine of a novel; when it came to selecting a name for the plane, Tibbets recalled that:... my thoughts turned at this point to my courageous red-haired mother, whose quiet confidence had been a source of strength to me since boyhood, during the soul-searching period when I decided to give up a medical career to become a military pilot.

At a time when Dad had thought I had lost my marbles, she had taken my side and said, "I know you will be all right, son." The name was painted on the aircraft on 5 August by an enlisted man in the 509th. Regularly-assigned aircraft commander Robert Lewis was unhappy to be displaced by Tibbets for this important mission, became furious when he arrived at the aircraft on the morning of 6 August to see it painted with the now-famous nose art. Hiroshima was the primary target of the first nuclear bombing mission on 6 August, with Kokura and Nagasaki as alternative targets. Enola Gay, piloted by Tibbets, took off from North Field, in the Northern Mariana Islands, about six hours' flight time from Japan, accompanied by two other B-29s, The Great Artiste, carrying instrumentation, a then-nameless aircraft called Necessary Evil, commanded by Captain George Marquardt, to take photographs; the director of the Manhattan Project, Major General Leslie R. Groves, Jr. wanted the event r

Live Like We're Dying

"Live Like We're Dying" is a song written by Danny O'Donoghue, Andrew Frampton, Mark Sheehan and Steve Kipner. It appeared as a bonus track on The Script's self-titled debut studio album, a B-side for some of the album's singles, it is better known for being performed by American recording artist Kris Allen. The song serves, it was released for digital download on September 21, 2009. The song received positive reviews, peaking at eighteen in the United States, charting on other U. S. charts, including the top ten of the Pop Songs. It charted abroad in Canada and New Zealand; the song's accompanying music video, which takes place in a desert and features a countdown clock in conjunction with the song's meaning, was received warmly, according to critics, was an end to the low-budget, storyline-centered, debut music videos from previous American Idol alumni. The song had been recorded by Irish band The Script as a bonus track for the Japanese release of their self-titled debut album and a B-side track for their debut single "We Cry" in Australia, Great Britain, New Zealand and Switzerland.

In an interview with MTV News, Allen stated that the song had been earmarked as his album's potential single since he won American Idol back in May 2009. Allen stated, " was one that we had listened to early on, we kind of just fell in love with it. Everyone did." When an interview for his cover story shared with, Idol runner-up, Adam Lambert, Allen explained, "It's a song that has a good message-that we only have so much time, let's make the most of it. It's got one of the choruses where I can picture people rolling down the windows of their cars and singing along to it." After the success of the single, in an interview with Entertainment Weekly, Allen said, "It took a while, but it’s done incredible. It exceeded all my expectations anyway. To be honest, I was a little worried when it wasn't doing great, but I think it’s just about working hard and getting people to hear the song, everyone started believing in it a little bit more. I remember getting a text from Keith Urban saying'I’m not gonna lie: The first time I heard that song I wasn’t crazy about it.

But after a couple listens, I really like it.' And I mean, I think. And I think. You don’t have to love ‘em the first time you hear ‘em, it grew on people." "Live Like We're Dying" is described to be in a "moderate pop rock" groove, consisting of "shuffly" guitar playing. The song has been referred to as "danceable", the chorus as "grooving" and "syncopated", it is written in the key of C major and Allen's vocals span from G3 to A4. The song contains inspirational lyrics, as Allen gives a "muscular" and "engaged" vocal performance, delivers the lines in a rhythmic fashion. According to Michael Slezak of Entertainment Weekly, the song contains new-age sentiments. Bill Lamb of About.com praised the song for being an excellent first single, calling it "possibly the best first post-American Idol single yet by an American Idol champion" and stating that it "could appeal to a massive audience". He applauded the song's "outstanding, inspirational lyrics" and Allen's vocal performance. Entertainment Weekly"s Michael Slezak called the song "a future smash hit" and described it as "downright verbose – packing in some sweet, new-age-y sentiments about existing in the moment, living without regret, saying'I love you' early and to the people in our lives".

He stated that rather than being cliché the song's lyrics are "winningly inspirational thanks to the conviction in Kris’ vocals". Yahoo! News described it as "impressive" and felt that Allen's version of the song "improves on the unreleased version with a nuanced vocal and a nimble, rhythmic delivery". Monica Herrera of Billboard said that Allen "improves" the Script's version "with a nuanced vocal and a nimble, rhythmic delivery". Herrera stated that "Allen still seems "emboldened by the risks he took on Idol" and that his fans "should be feeling the same after hearing the first track from his November 17 debut."James Montgomery of MTV News said that the song seemed "tailor-made" for him, playing on the strengths that led him to win American Idol. Montgomery said, "his husky, broad voice, shuffly guitar playing and genuinely sweet disposition – and wraps them in a well-worn, subtly sexy tune, full of wide-eyed, dare we say inspirational sentiments. Yet, at the same time, it's incredibly earnest in tone."

Misha Berson of the Seattle Times described the song as "surprising, maybe a little jarring at first, if you expected a ballad or a mellow groove with a spare arrangement, like some of Allen's best performances on American Idol that paved the way to his Season 8 win". In spite of Berson's initial surprise at the song's sound, she went on to praise the single as "very catchy, a bit inspirational", "energetic", she praised the chorus and further commended the song as "a marked improvement over what some Idol winners have put out as their first post-show single". The song debuted after its first week of availability at number eighty-nine on the Billboard Hot 100, selling 24,000 copies, it fell off the chart the following week, remained off until it re-entered at number ninety-two on November 21, 2009. It peaked at number eighteen on the chart on the week of March 13, 2010; the song peaked at ten on the Mainstream Top 40 chart, becoming the first male American Idol winner to enter the chart's top ten, the fourth winner to achieve the feat following behind Kelly Clarkson, Carrie Underwood and Jordin Sparks, respectively.

The song peaked on the Adult Contemporary, Ad

Brazilian Anti-Corruption Act

The Brazilian Anti-Corruption Act "Law No. 12,846" and known as the Clean Company Act is a Brazilian law enacted in 2014 targeting corrupt practices among business entities doing business in Brazil. It defines civil and administrative penalties, as well as the possibility of reductions in penalties for cooperation with law enforcement under a written leniency agreement signed and agreed to between the business and the government; the law is directed only at juridical persons which includes corporations and other institutions, but not individuals, who are covered by other laws. The Act has been invoked numerous times, resulting in leniency agreements returning billions of reals to the Brazilian Treasury, notably the agreement with Odebrecht S. A. which by itself was responsible for twelve billion reals. The anti-corruption law is directed at juridical persons only; this includes other institutions, but not individuals. Under this law, corporations are civilly liable for acts of corruption. Criminal liability in Brazil due to acts of corruption applies only to individuals, so there is no possibility of criminal liability for a corporation.

Corruption and other criminal acts by a company or other business organization can result in criminal sanctions only for its employees, partners or other natural persons who have committed the acts, the public prosecutor may decide to charge them with criminal acts punishable by prison, but, a separate juridical procedure targeting a "natural person". To avoid more serious penalties resulting from corruption investigations, companies may decide to cooperate with the investigation voluntarily, enter into a leniency agreement as prescribed by the law; this may reduce their fines by up to two thirds. Other advantages to self-disclosure and signing a leniency agreement include exemption from other provisions of the Clean Company Act which otherwise requires publication of the legal decision imposing the fines, a prohibition from receiving grants from public institutions, restrictions on taking part in bids on public projects; the law was amended in 2015. Provisional Measure 703/2015 made it easier for companies to apply for the benefits of a leniency agreement, changed the nature of the benefits.

The previous cap for reduction in penalties was 2/3, this law changed the cap to 100%. Only the first company to apply for leniency were permitted, only before a lawsuit had commenced; these provisions were removed. The amendment established a compliance and reporting requirement, added to the law. Leniency agreements are defined under the Brazilian Anti-corruption Act in article 16, they target Brazilian companies and foreign ones with a presence in Brazil who are involved in corruption investigations. Under the law, companies are responsible for corruption and can face heavy penalties, a restriction on participation in future bids, confiscation of their assets, suspension of business activity, or dissolution. Brazilian companies have been involved in corruption investigations in countries outside Brazil, some in collaboration with Brazilian justice, have paid fines in agreements reached in such procedures; the most notable such case was the investigation of Brazilian construction corporation Odebrecht carried out by the United States and Switzerland with the cooperation of the Brazilian government.

As a result of the investigation into kickbacks paid to hundreds of politicians, including presidential candidates, as well as to judges on the Supreme Federal Court, Odebrecht agreed to pay a record fine of R$6 billion in a leniency agreement. In a case described by attorney general Deltan Dallagnol as the "largest damages agreement in the history of the world"; some leniency agreements signed by July 2018 include: SBM Offshore R$1.22 billion Odebrecht R$2.72 billion MullenLowe and FCB Brasil R$53.1 million Bilfinger R$9.8 million UTC Engenharia R$574 million Clean Company leniency agreements in Brazil apply to juridical persons, i.e. corporations or other business entities, but not individuals, are not the same as plea bargain agreements which apply only to natural persons, i.e. people. Plea bargain agreements may be reached with executives or employees of those corporations to avoid personal fines or prison time. Individuals accused of involvement in corruption schemes may enter into plea bargains with the Public Prosecutor's Office on their own.

These individual agreements are known as Portuguese: colaboração premiada, lit.'rewarded collaboration', as Portuguese: delação premiada, lit.'rewarded whistleblowing'. Although leniency agreements and plea bargains under Brazilian law are similar in the sense that they both have defined reductions in penalties, monetary on the one hand, monetary or prison time on the other, their differences under Portuguese law is clear: the acordo de leniência is civil and administrative, applies to juridical persons, they are covered by different laws. Some English sources which translate these terms observe the distinction, others may be more lax, confuse the two; the first page of the affidavit between the United States Department of Justice and Odebrecht was filed in District Court in New York, names it as a "plea agreement", with the parties involved in the