Monkeys and apes in space
Before humans went into space, several other animals were launched into space, including numerous other primates, so that scientists could investigate the biological effects of space travel. The United States launched flights containing primate passengers between 1948-1961 with one flight in 1969 and one in 1985. France launched two monkey-carrying flights in 1967; the Soviet Union and Russia launched monkeys between 1983 and 1996. Most primates were anesthetized before lift-off. Overall thirty-two monkeys flew in the space program. Numerous backup monkeys went through the programs but never flew. Monkeys and apes from several species were used, including rhesus macaque, crab-eating macaque, squirrel monkeys, pig-tailed macaques, chimpanzees; the first primate astronaut was Albert, a rhesus macaque, who on June 11, 1948, rode to over 63 km on a V-2 rocket. Albert died of suffocation during the flight. Albert was followed by Albert II who survived the V-2 flight but died on impact on June 14, 1949, after a parachute failure.
Albert II became the first monkey and the first primate in space as his flight reached 134 km - past the Kármán line of 100 km taken to designate the beginning of space. Albert III died at 35,000 feet in an explosion of his V2 on September 16, 1949. Albert IV, on the last monkey V-2 flight, died on impact on December 8 that year after another parachute failure, his flight reached 130.6 km. Alberts, I, II, IV were rhesus macaque while Albert III was a Crab-eating macaque. Monkeys flew on Aerobee rockets. On April 18, 1951, a monkey called Albert V, died due to parachute failure. Yorick called Albert VI, along with 11 mouse crewmates, reached 236,000 ft and survived the landing, on September 20, 1951, the first monkey to do so, although he died 2 hours later. Two of the mice died after recovery. Albert VI's flight surpassed the 50-mile boundary the U. S. was below the international definition of space. Patricia and Mike, two cynomolgus monkeys, flew on May 21, 1952, survived, but their flight was only to 26 kilometers.
On December 13, 1958, Gordo called Old Reliable, a squirrel monkey, survived being launched aboard Jupiter AM-13 by the US Army. He was killed due to mechanical failure of the parachute recovery system in the rocket nose cone. On May 28, 1959, aboard the JUPITER AM-18, Able, a rhesus macaque, Miss Baker, a squirrel monkey flew a successful mission. Able was born at the Ralph Mitchell Zoo in Kansas, they travelled in excess of 16,000 km/h, withstood 38 g. Able died June 1, 1959, while undergoing surgery to remove an infected medical electrode, from a reaction to the anesthesia. Baker became the first monkey to survive the stresses of spaceflight and the related medical procedures. Baker died November 29, 1984, at the age of 27 and is buried on the grounds of the United States Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Able was preserved, is now on display at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum, their names were taken from the 1943-1955 US military phonetic alphabet. On December 4, 1959, Sam, a rhesus macaque, flew on the Little Joe 2 in the Mercury program to 53 miles high.
Miss Sam a rhesus macaque, followed in 1960, on Little Joe 1B although her flight was only to 8 mi in a test of emergency procedures. Ham and Enos flew in the Mercury program but they were chimpanzees; the names'Sam' and'Ham' were acronyms. Sam was named in homage to the School of Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas; the name'Ham' was taken from Holloman Aerospace Medicine at New Mexico. Goliath, a squirrel monkey, died in the explosion of his Atlas rocket on November 10, 1961. A rhesus macaque called Scatback flew a sub-orbital flight on December 20, 1961, but was lost at sea after landing. Bonny, a pig-tailed macaque, flew on Biosatellite 3, a mission which lasted from June 29 to July 8, 1969; this came after longer human spaceflights were common. He died within a day of landing. Spacelab 3 on the Space Shuttle flight STS-51-B featured two squirrel monkeys named No. 3165 and No. 384-80. The flight was from April 29 to May 6, 1985. France launched a pig-tailed macaque named Martine on a Vesta rocket on March 7, 1967, another named Pierette on March 13.
These suborbital flights reached 243 234 km, respectively. Martine became the first monkey to survive more than a couple of hours after flying above the international definition of the edge of space.. The Soviet /Russian space program used only rhesus macaques in its Bion satellite program in 1980s and 1990s; the names of the monkeys began with sequential letters of the Russian alphabet. The animals all survived their missions but for a single fatality in post-flight surgery, after which the program was cancelled; the first monkeys launched by Soviet space program and Bion, flew on Bion 6. They remained aloft from December 14, 1983 – December 20, 1983. Next came Bion 7 with monkeys Verny and Gordy from July 10, 1985 – July 17, 1985. Dryoma and Yerosha on Bion 8 from September 29, 1987 – October 12, 1987. After returning from space Dryoma was presented to Cuban leader Fidel Castro. Bion 9 with monkeys Zhakonya and Zabiyaka followed from September 15, 1989 to September 28, 1989; the two took the space endurance record for monkeys at 13 days, 1
Gregoire was, up until his death, Africa's oldest known chimpanzee. For the last eleven years of his life, he was a resident of the Tchimpounga Sanctuary in the Republic of the Congo, he was observed to have a pair bond relationship with the chimpanzee Clara. He had been confined by himself for more than 40 years in a cage at the Brazzaville Zoo before being rescued by staff of the Jane Goodall Institute and airlifted to the Sanctuary during a time of war, he died in his sleep in his bed of eucalyptus leaves at the Sanctuary's rehabilitation centre on December 17, 2008, aged 66. Gregoire was known around the world as an old chimpanzee, appearing on the cover of National Geographic magazine in 1995, in a BBC special, in an Animal Planet film, Jane Goodall's Return to Gombe. Biography and a video tribute at the Jane Goodall Institute website
Weightlessness is the complete or near complete absence of the sensation of weight. This is termed zero-g, although the term is more "zero g-force." It occurs in the absence of any contact forces upon objects including the human body. Weight is defined by the force which supports bodies at rest in a strong gravitational field; these weight-sensations originate from contact with supporting floors, beds and the like. A sensation of weight is produced when the gravitational field is zero, when contact forces act upon and overcome a body's inertia by mechanical, non-gravitational forces- such as in a centrifuge, a rotating space station, or within an accelerating vehicle; when the gravitational field is non-uniform, a body in free fall experiences tidal effects and is not stress-free. Near a black hole, such tidal effects can be strong. In the case of the Earth, the effects are minor on objects of small dimension and the overall sensation of weightlessness in these cases is preserved; this condition is known as microgravity and it prevails in orbiting spacecraft.
In Newtonian mechanics the term "weight" is given two distinct interpretations by engineers. Weight1: Under this interpretation, the "weight" of a body is the gravitational force exerted on the body and this is the notion of weight that prevails in engineering. Near the surface of the earth, a body whose mass is 1 kg has a weight of 9.81 N, independent of its state of motion, free fall, or not. Weightlessness in this sense can be achieved by removing the body far away from the source of gravity, it can be attained by placing the body at a neutral point between two gravitating masses. Weight2: Weight can be interpreted as that quantity, measured when one uses scales. What is being measured there is the force exerted by the body on the scales. In a standard weighing operation, the body being weighed is in a state of equilibrium as a result of a force exerted on it by the weighing machine cancelling the gravitational field. By Newton's 3rd law, there is an opposite force exerted by the body on the machine.
This force is called weight2. The force is not gravitational, it is a contact force and not uniform across the mass of the body. If the body is placed on the scales in a lift in free fall in pure uniform gravity, the scale would read zero, the body said to be weightless i.e. its weight2 = 0. This describes the condition in which the body is stress undeformed; this is the weightlessness in free fall in a uniform gravitational field. To sum up, we have two notions of weight. Yet'weightlessness' is exemplified not by absence of weight1 but by the absence of stress associated with weight2; this is the intended sense of weightlessness in. A body is stress free, exerts zero weight2, when the only force acting on it is weight1 as when in free fall in a uniform gravitational field. Without subscripts, one ends up with the odd-sounding conclusion that a body is weightless when the only force acting on it is its weight; the apocryphal apple that fell on Newton's head can be used to illustrate the issues involved.
An apple weighs 1 newton. This is the weight1 of the apple and is considered to be a constant while it is falling. During that fall, its weight2 however is zero: ignoring air resistance, the apple is stress free; when it hits Newton, the sensation felt by Newton would depend upon the height from which the apple falls and weight2 of the apple at the moment of impact may be many times greater than 1 N. It was great enough—in the story—to make the great man invent the theory of gravity, it is this weight2. On its way down, the apple in its free fall does not suffer any distortion as the gravitational field is uniform. In a uniform gravitational field: Consider any cross-section dividing the body into two parts. Both parts have the same acceleration and the force exerted on each is supplied by the external source of the field. There is no force exerted by one part on the other. Stress at the cross-section is zero. Weight2 is zero. In a non-uniform gravitational field: Under gravity alone, one part of the body may have a different acceleration from another part.
This would tend to generate internal stresses if the body resists deformation. Weight2 is not 0. Throughout this discussion on using stress as an indicator of weight, any pre-stress which may exist within a body caused by a force exerted on one part by another is not relevant; the only relevant stresses are those generated by external forces applied to the body. The definition and use of'weightlessness' is difficult unless it is understood that the sensation of "weight" in everyday terrestrial experience results not from gravitation acting alone, but instead by the mechanical forces that resist gravity. An object in a straight free fall, or in a more complex inertial trajectory of free fall, all experience weightlessness, since they do not experience the mechanical forces that cause the sensation of weight; as noted above, weightlessness occurs when no resultant force acts on the object uniform gravity acts by itself. For the sake of completeness, a 3rd minor possibility has to be added; this is that a body may be subject to a field, not gravitational but such that the force on the object i
Ham known as Ham the Chimp and Ham the Astrochimp, was a chimpanzee and the first hominid launched into space, on January 31, 1961, as part of America's space program. Ham's name is an acronym for the laboratory that prepared him for his historic mission—the Holloman Aerospace Medical Center, located at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, southwest of Alamogordo, his name was in honor of the commander of Holloman Aeromedical Laboratory, Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton "Ham" Blackshear. Ham was born in 1957 in French Cameroons, captured by animal trappers and sent to Rare Bird Farm in Miami, Florida, he was purchased by the United States Air Force and brought to Holloman Air Force Base in 1959. There were 40 chimpanzee flight candidates at Holloman. After evaluation, the number of candidates was reduced to 18 to six, including Ham. Ham was known as No. 65 before his flight, only renamed "Ham" upon his successful return to Earth. This was because officials did not want the bad press that would come from the death of a "named" chimpanzee if the mission were a failure.
Among his handlers, No. 65 had been known as "Chop Chop Chang". Beginning in July 1959, the two-year-old chimpanzee was trained under the direction of neuroscientist Joseph V. Brady at Holloman Air Force Base Aero Medical Field Laboratory to do simple, timed tasks in response to electric lights and sounds. During his pre-flight training, Ham was taught to push a lever within five seconds of seeing a flashing blue light. What differentiates Ham's mission from all the other primate flights to this point is that he was not a passenger, the results from his test flight led directly to the mission Alan Shepard made on May 5, 1961, aboard Freedom 7. On January 31, 1961, Ham was secured in a Project Mercury mission designated MR-2 and launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a suborbital flight. Ham's vital signs and tasks were monitored by computers on Earth; the capsule suffered a partial loss of pressure during the flight, but Ham's space suit prevented him from suffering any harm. Ham's lever-pushing performance in space was only a fraction of a second slower than on Earth, demonstrating that tasks could be performed in space.
Ham's capsule splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean and was recovered by a rescue ship that day. His only physical injury was a bruised nose, his flight was 16 minutes and 39 seconds long. After the flight, Ham lived for 17 years in the National Zoo in Washington, D. C. before joining a small group of captive chimps at North Carolina Zoo. After his death in 1983, Ham's body was turned over to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology for necropsy. Following the necropsy, the plan was to have him stuffed and placed on display at the Smithsonian Institution, following Soviet precedent with pioneering space dogs Belka and Strelka. However, this plan was abandoned after a negative public reaction. Ham's remains, minus the skeleton, were buried at the International Space Hall of Fame in Alamogordo, New Mexico. Colonel John Stapp gave the eulogy at the memorial service; the skeleton is held in the collection of the National Museum of Medicine. Ham's backup, was the only female chimpanzee trained for the Mercury program.
After her role in the Mercury program ended, Minnie became part of an Air Force chimpanzee breeding program, producing nine offspring and helping to raise the offspring of several other members of the chimpanzee colony. She was the last surviving astro-chimpanzee and died at age 41 on March 14, 1998; the 1967 Disney film Monkeys, Go Home!, former space chimps are depicted causing chaos in a rural French village Tom Wolfe's 1979 book The Right Stuff depicts Ham's spaceflight, as does the subsequent film adaptation. The 1994 The Simpsons episode "Deep Space Homer" story line involved NASA's frustration with lack of public attention leading to an ordinary Joe—Homer Simpson—becoming an astronaut. A NASA officer proposes telling the public the truth: "that the chimps we sent into space came back superintelligent." One consequence of the superintelligent NASA chimps is seen. The 2001 film Race to Space was a fictionalized version of Ham's story. In 2007, a French documentary made in association with Animal Planet, Ham—Astrochimp #65, tells the story of Ham as witnessed by Jeff, who took care of Ham until his departure from the Air Force base after the success of the mission.
It is known as Ham: A Chimp into Space / Ham, un chimpanzé dans l'espace. A 2008 animated film, Space Chimps, was about sending chimpanzees to space; the main character and hero of the movie was named the grandson of Ham. In 2008, Bark Hide and Horn, a folk-rock band from Portland, released a song titled "Ham the Astrochimp", detailing the journey of Ham from his perspective. In the I Dream of Jeannie episode "Fly Me to the Moon" Larry Storch played an astrochimp named Sam, accidentally turned into a human; the story of Ham formed the basis of the exaggerated stories created by comedian and broadcaster Karl Pilkington for his contributions to The Ricky Gervais Show segment "Monkey News". Animals in space Enos: First chimpanzee to orbit the Earth Félicette: First cat in space Monkeys and apes in space Yuri Gagarin, first human in space, orbited in April, 1961 One Small Step: The Story of the Space Chimps Farbman, Melinda. Spacechimp: NASA's Ape in Space. Countdown to Space. Berkeley Heights, New Jersey: Enslow Publishers.
ISBN 978-0-7660-1478-7. OCLC 42080118. Brief biography of Ham, aimed at chil
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, in a ring species. Among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, each clone is a microspecies. All species are given a two-part name, a "binomial"; the first part of a binomial is the genus.
The second part is called the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the genus Boa. None of these is satisfactory definitions, but scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If species were fixed and distinct from one another, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, to grade into one another. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped. Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection; that understanding was extended in the 20th century through genetics and population ecology. Genetic variability arises from mutations and recombination, while organisms themselves are mobile, leading to geographical isolation and genetic drift with varying selection pressures.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer. Viruses are a special case, driven by a balance of mutation and selection, can be treated as quasispecies. Biologists and taxonomists have made many attempts to define species, beginning from morphology and moving towards genetics. Early taxonomists such as Linnaeus had no option but to describe what they saw: this was formalised as the typological or morphological species concept. Ernst Mayr emphasised reproductive isolation, but this, like other species concepts, is hard or impossible to test. Biologists have tried to refine Mayr's definition with the recognition and cohesion concepts, among others. Many of the concepts are quite similar or overlap, so they are not easy to count: the biologist R. L. Mayden recorded about 24 concepts, the philosopher of science John Wilkins counted 26. Wilkins further grouped the species concepts into seven basic kinds of concepts: agamospecies for asexual organisms biospecies for reproductively isolated sexual organisms ecospecies based on ecological niches evolutionary species based on lineage genetic species based on gene pool morphospecies based on form or phenotype and taxonomic species, a species as determined by a taxonomist.
A typological species is a group of organisms in which individuals conform to certain fixed properties, so that pre-literate people recognise the same taxon as do modern taxonomists. The clusters of variations or phenotypes within specimens would differentiate the species; this method was used as a "classical" method of determining species, such as with Linnaeus early in evolutionary theory. However, different phenotypes are not different species. Species named in this manner are called morphospecies. In the 1970s, Robert R. Sokal, Theodore J. Crovello and Peter Sneath proposed a variation on this, a phenetic species, defined as a set of organisms with a similar phenotype to each other, but a different phenotype from other sets of organisms, it differs from the morphological species concept in including a numerical measure of distance or similarity to cluster entities based on multivariate comparisons of a reasonably large number of phenotypic traits. A mate-recognition species is a group of sexually reproducing organisms that recognize one another as potential mates.
Expanding on this to allow for post-mating isolation, a cohesion species is the most inclusive population of individuals having the potential for phenotypic cohesion through intrinsic cohesion mechanisms. A further development of the recognition concept is provided by the biosemiotic concept of species. In microbiology, genes can move even between distantly related bacteria extending to the whole bacterial domain; as a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that kinds of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more similar than 97% to each other need to be checked by DNA-DNA hybridisation to decide if they belong to the same species or not. This concept was narrowed in 2006 to a similarity of 98.7%. DNA-DNA hybri
New Mexico Museum of Space History
The New Mexico Museum of Space History is a museum and planetarium complex in Alamogordo, New Mexico, dedicated to artifacts and displays related to space flight and the space age. It includes the International Space Hall of Fame; the Museum of Space History highlights the role that New Mexico has had in the U. S. space program, is one of eight museums administered by the New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs. The museum has been accredited by American Alliance of Museums since 1993; the museum is a Smithsonian Affiliate. The museum includes exhibits about the planets of the Solar System, space flight and the primates that were used in early space flight experiments conducted by the United States; the museum holds mock-ups and training units of many important space artifacts such as satellites, the Space Shuttle, the lunar lander. The Clyde W. Tombaugh IMAX Theater and Planetarium has a projection dome that doubles as an IMAX screen and as a planetarium. IMAX-format films are screened daily.
The Hubbard Space Science Education Building was dedicated in spring 1991. It holds small archives and curatorial offices; the Museum Support Center is an offsite workshop that prepares items for display. The John P. Stapp Air and Space Park is an outdoor exhibit area holding large artifacts, including the Sonic Wind No. 1 rocket sled ridden by Stapp. Ham, who in 1961 became the first chimp in space, is buried at the museum in front of the flagpoles; the Astronaut Memorial Garden was created and dedicated to the memory of the astronauts who died in the Challenger explosion. After the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, the names of Columbia's astronauts were added to the memorial; the Daisy Track was an air-powered sled track used to test safety devices, including the ancestor of the automobile seat belt. The museum rescued the pieces of the Daisy Track in 1986 and reassembled them as an outdoor exhibit in 2004; the Daisy Track exhibit is outside and inside a building that has some other exhibits.
A temporary exhibit about the Delta Clipper Experimental is housed in this building. The International Space Hall of Fame honors persons who have made great contributions to the advancement of space flight and technology. One of the museum exhibits is a collection of biographies of inductees. Induction is held each year in October. New Mexico Rocketeer Academy Summer Camp is a summer program started in 1986 to interest children in science and engineering; the program emphasizes rocketry, space science, space history, astronomy. There are different classes for different ages groups; the program is open to cadets entering grades kindergarten through 12th grade. The New Mexico Spaceport Authority has declared the museum the repository for materials dealing with Spaceport America, a commercial spaceport near Upham, New Mexico; the museum puts on a large fireworks show every July 4, funded by the museum and by City of Alamogordo. It is visible all over the city, museum members get to view it from the museum grounds.
The museum was created as the International Space Hall of Fame. In 1973 former Alamogordo mayor Dwight Ohlinger was inspired by the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to propose a Space Hall of Fame, further to propose that it be built at Alamogordo because so much of the developmental work for the space program had been done in the Tularosa Basin. Ohlinger rallied support among elected officials at local and national levels, New Mexico Governor Bruce King adopted the idea into the Office of Cultural Affairs; the early plans called for the inclusion of a planetarium. Charles E. Nolan and Associates were hired as the architects; the main building was designed and constructed as a "golden cube" and dedicated on October 5, 1976, opening to the public on November 23, 1976. At the dedication ceremony the initial fifteen Hall of Fame members were inducted; the planetarium was constructed in combination with an IMAX theater and opened in 1981. The combined facility was named after New Mexico resident and discoverer of Pluto.
In 1987 the name of the facility was changed to Space Center, reflecting the growing role of the exhibits. In 2001 the name changed again to its present name of New Mexico Museum of Space History. New Mexico Museum of Space History official site
John Herschel Glenn Jr. was a United States Marine Corps aviator, astronaut and politician. He was the first American to orbit the Earth, circling it three times in 1962. Following his retirement from NASA, he served from 1974 to 1999 as a Democratic United States Senator from Ohio. Before joining NASA, Glenn was a distinguished fighter pilot in World War China and Korea, he shot down three MiG-15s, was awarded six Distinguished Flying Crosses and eighteen Air Medals. In 1957, he made the first supersonic transcontinental flight across the United States, his on-board camera took the first panoramic photograph of the United States. He was one of the Mercury Seven, military test pilots selected in 1959 by NASA as the nation's first astronauts. On February 20, 1962, Glenn flew the Friendship 7 mission, becoming the first American to orbit the Earth, the fifth person and third American in space, he received the NASA Distinguished Service Medal in 1962 and the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978, was inducted into the U.
S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 1990, was the last surviving member of the Mercury Seven. Glenn resigned from NASA in January 1964, he planned to run for a U. S. Senate seat from Ohio, he retired from the Marine Corps the following year. He lost a close primary election in 1970. A member of the Democratic Party, Glenn first won election to the Senate in 1974 and served for 24 years until January 1999. In 1998, while still a sitting Senator, Glenn flew on the Discovery space shuttle's STS-95 mission, became the oldest person to fly in space and the only person to fly in both the Mercury and Space Shuttle programs, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2012. He died at the age of 95 in 2016. John Herschel Glenn Jr. was born on July 18, 1921, in Cambridge, the son of John Herschel Glenn Sr. who worked for a plumbing firm, Clara Teresa née Sproat, a teacher. His parents had married shortly before his father, a member of the American Expeditionary Force, left for the Western Front during World War I.
The family moved to New Concord, soon after his birth, his father started his own business, the Glenn Plumbing Company. Glenn Jr. was only a toddler when he met Anna Margaret Castor, who would become his wife. The two would not be able to recall a time, he first flew in an airplane with his father. He became fascinated by flight, built model airplanes from balsa wood kits. Along with his adopted sister Jean, he attended New Concord Elementary School, he washed cars and sold rhubarb to earn money to buy a bicycle, after which he took a job delivering The Columbus Dispatch newspaper. He was a member of the Ohio Rangers, an organization similar to the Cub Scouts, his boyhood home in New Concord has been restored as a historic house education center. Glenn attended New Concord High School, where he played on the varsity football team as a center and linebacker, he made the varsity basketball and tennis teams, was involved with Hi-Y, a junior branch of the YMCA. After graduating in 1939, Glenn entered Muskingum College, where he studied chemistry, was a member of the Stag Club fraternity, played on the football team.
Annie majored in music with minors in secretarial studies and physical education while competing on the swimming and volleyball teams. Glenn earned a private pilot license and a physics course credit for free through the Civilian Pilot Training Program in 1941, he did not complete his senior year in residence or take a proficiency exam, both required by the school for its Bachelor of Science degree. When the United States entered World War II, Glenn quit college to enlist in the U. S. Army Air Corps, he was never called to duty by the Army, enlisted as a U. S. Navy aviation cadet in March 1942. Glenn attended the University of Iowa in Iowa City for pre-flight training and continued at Naval Air Station Olathe in Kansas for primary training, where he made his first solo flight in a military aircraft. During advanced training at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in Texas, he accepted an offer to transfer to the U. S. Marine Corps. Having completed his flight training in March 1943, Glenn was commissioned as a second lieutenant.
After advanced training at Camp Kearny, California, he was assigned to Marine Squadron VMJ-353, which flew R4D transport planes from there. Glenn married Annie in a Presbyterian ceremony at College Drive Church in New Concord, Ohio, on April 6, 1943; the fighter squadron VMO-155 was at Camp Kearny flying the Grumman F4F Wildcat. Glenn approached the squadron's commander, Major J. P. Haines, who suggested that he could put in for a transfer; this was approved, Glenn was posted to VMO-155 on July 2, 1943, two days before the squadron moved to Marine Corps Air Station El Centro in California. The Wildcat was obsolete by this time, VMO-155 re-equipped with the F4U Corsair in September 1943, he was promoted to first lieutenant in October 1943, shipped out to Hawaii in January 1944. VMO-155 became part of the garrison on Midway Atoll on February 21 moved to the Marshall Islands in June 1944 and flew 57 combat missions in the area, he received two Distinguished Flying Crosses and ten Air Medals. At the end of his one-year tour of duty in February 1945, Glenn was assigned to Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point in North Carolina to Naval Air Station Patuxent River in Maryland.
He was ordered back to Cherry Point. There, he joined VMF-913, another Corsair squadron, learned that he had qualified for a regular commission. In March 1946, he was assigned to Marine Corps Air Station El Toro in southern California, he volunt