Geotourism deals with the natural and built environments. Geotourism was first defined in England. There are two viewpoints of geotourism: Purely geological and geomorphologically-focused sustainable tourism as abiotic nature based tourism; this is the definition followed in most of the world. Geographically sustainable tourism, the most common definition in the USA; this emphasises preservation of the geographical sense of a place in general, beyond simple geological and geomorphological features, as a new charter & concept in the sustainable tourism. Key definitions in the geological sense include: “…part of the tourist’s activity in which they have the geological patrimony as their main attraction, their objective is to search for the protected patrimony through the conservation of their resources and of the tourist’s Environmental Awareness. For that, the use of the interpretation of the patrimony makes it accessible to the lay public, promoting its popularization and the development of the Earth sciences”.
“Geotourism is a knowledge -based tourism, an interdisciplinary integration of the tourism industry with conservation and interpretation of abiotic nature attributes, besides considering related cultural issues, within the geosites for the general public”. "A form of natural area tourism that focuses on landscape and geology. It promotes tourism to geosites and the conservation of geo-diversity and an understanding of Earth sciences through appreciation and learning; this is achieved through independent visits to geological features, use of geo-trails and view points, guided tours, geo-activities and patronage of geosite visitor centers". “The provision of interpretative and service facilities for geosites and geomorphosites and their encompassing topography, together with their associated in-situ and ex-situ artefacts, to constituency-build for their conservation by generating appreciation and research by and for current and future generations”. Geotourism adds to ecotourism's principal focus on plants and animals by adding a third dimension of the abiotic environment.
Thus it is growing around the world through the growth of geoparks as well as independently in many natural and urban areas where tourism's focus in on the geological environment. Most of the world defines geotourism as purely the study of geological and geomorphological features. "Looking at the environment in a simplistic manner, we see that it is made up of Abiotic and Cultural attributes. Starting with the'C' or cultural component first, we note that of three features it is this one, the most known and interpreted, that is, through information about the built or cultural environment either in the past or present. The'B' or biotic features of fauna and flora has seen a large focus of interpretation and understanding through ecotourism, but it is the first attribute of the'A' or abiotic features including rocks and processes that has received the least attention in tourism, is the least known and understood. This is the real power of geotourism, in that it puts the tourist spotlight on geology, brings it to the forefront of our understanding through tourism".
What is a GEOSITE? A geosite is a location that has a particular geomorphological significance; as well as its inherent geological characteristics it may have cultural or heritage significance. The geographical-character definition of G. S. T was influenced by the National Geographic Society, which defines G. S. T as tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place – its environment, aesthetics and the well-being of its residents; the concept of Geographical sustainable tourism with coining of the word geotourism, was introduced publicly in the USA in a 2002 report by the Travel Industry Association of America and National Geographic Traveler magazine. National Geographic senior editor Jonathan B. Tourtellot and his wife, Sally Bensusen, coined the term in 1997 in response to requests for a term and concept more encompassing than ecotourism and sustainable tourism. So National Geographic's Geographical sustainable tourism is "best practice" tourism that sustains, or enhances, the geographical character of a place, such as its culture, environment and the well-being of its residents.
National Geographic's Geotourism program incorporates sustainability principles, but in addition to the do-no-harm ethic focuses on the place as a whole. The idea of enhancement allows for development based on character of place, rather than standardized international branding, generic architecture, so on. National Geographic Society has drawn up a "G. S. T Charter" based on 13 principles: Integrity of place: Enhance geographical character by developing and improving it in ways distinctive to the local, reflective of its natural and cultural heritage, so as to encourage market differentiation and cultural pride. International codes: Adhere to the principles embodied in the World Tourism Organization's Global Code of Ethics for Tourism and the Principles of the Cultural Tourism Charter established by the International Council on Monuments and Sites. Market selectivity: Encourage growth in tourism market segments most to appreciate and disseminate information about the distinctive assets of the locale.
Market diversity: Encourage a full range of appropriate food and lodging facilities, so as to appeal to the entire demographic spectrum of the geotourism market and so maximize economic resiliency over both the short and
Jungle tourism is a subcategory of adventure travel defined by active multifaceted physical means of travel in the jungle regions of the earth. Although similar in many respects to adventure travel, jungle tourism pertains to the context of region and activity. According to the Glossary of Tourism Terms, jungle tours have become a major component of green tourism in tropical destinations and are a recent phenomenon of Western international tourism. Of the regions that take part in tourism-driven sustainable development practices and eco tourism, Mexican and South American practices are the most pervasive in the industry. Other regions include jungle territories in Africa and the South Pacific; the majority of jungle tour operators are concentrated in what is known as the Mayan World or "Ruta Maya". The Mayan World encompasses five different countries that hosted the entirety of the Mayan Civilization: Mexico, Belize, Honduras and El Salvador. Most tours consist of visits to popular Mayan archaeological sites such as Tikal, Chichen Itza, Copan.
These day visits will consist of a guided tour of a tourist-concentrated Mayan and archaeological site. Tikal and Chichen Itza are prime examples of popular day-visit sites; such sites involve a tour guide, designated either by the state government or by a private company, for the tourists. These tour guides are predominantly trained professionals, certified to take large parties of fifty through populated archaeological sites. Nicaragua and Costa Rica are popular destinations for this type of adventure travel. Although most of the visits to these more prominent sites involve day trips, there are many jungle tour operators that showcase less-known, remote Mayan jungle ruins such as Nakum, El Mirador; these tours involve much more preparation and funding to explore as they are in remote and inaccessible regions of the Mayan jungles. These ruins and sites are reached by alternative and physically taxing means of travel such as bicycle, horseback or hiking; this is what differentiates jungle tourism from any other sort of adventure travel tours.
There are several tour operators. Another difference is that the majority of tour operators that travel deep into the Central and South American jungle will cap the number of persons traveling in the group at ten to fifteen; this is done to minimize the impact on the jungle fauna. Federal laws in some countries prohibit any given group large than fifteen people traveling through the Mayan jungle, a protected region, but limited resources for enforcing such laws have allowed such practices to occur under the radar. In Guatemala it has become popular to hike through the jungle of the Mayan Biosphere due to the discovery of El Mirador known as the Lost City of Maya. There are no roads. Many take a quick flight from Flores while others hike through the jungles of the department of Petén. Groups should be smaller than 15 people in order not to reduce the impact on the environment. Ecotourism Encyclopedia of Tourism: pp. 341–342
Santa Barbara County, California
Santa Barbara County, California the County of Santa Barbara, is a county located in the southern region of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 423,895; the county seat is Santa Barbara, the largest city is Santa Maria. Santa Barbara County comprises CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Most of the county is part of the California Central Coast. Mainstays of the county's economy include engineering, resource extraction, winemaking and education; the software development and tourism industries are important employers in the southern part of the county. Southern Santa Barbara County is sometimes considered the northern cultural boundary of Southern California; the Santa Barbara County area, including the Northern Channel Islands, was first settled by Native Americans at least 13,000 years ago. Evidence for a Paleoindian presence has been found in the form of a fluted Clovis-like point found in the 1980s along the western Santa Barbara Coast, as well as the remains of Arlington Springs Man found on Santa Rosa Island in the 1960s.
For thousands of years, the area was home to the Chumash tribe of Native Americans, complex hunter-gatherers who lived along the coast and in interior valleys leaving rock art in many locations, including Painted Cave. Europeans first contacted the Chumash in AD 1542, when three Spanish ships under the command of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo explored the area; the Santa Barbara Channel received its name from Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno when he sailed along the California coast in 1602. Spanish ships associated with the Manila Galleon trade made emergency stops along the coast during the next 167 years, but no permanent settlements were established; the first land expedition to explore California, led by Gaspar de Portolà explored the coastal area in 1769, on its way to Monterey Bay. The party traveled the same route on the return to San Diego in January 1770; that same year, a second expedition to Monterey again passed through the area. The DeAnza expeditions of 1774-76 followed Portola's trail.
The Presidio of Santa Barbara was established in 1782, followed by Mission Santa Barbara in 1786 – both in what is now the city of Santa Barbara. The presidio and mission kept Vizcaino's denomination, as did the city and county – a common practice which has preserved the names of many of the 21 California Missions. European contacts had devastating effects on the Chumash people, including a series of disease epidemics that drastically reduced Chumash population; the Chumash survived and thousands of Chumash descendants still live in the Santa Barbara area or surrounding counties. A tribal homeland was established in the Santa Ynez Reservation. Following the Mexican secularization of the missions in the 1830s, the mission pasture lands were broken up into large ranchos and granted to prominent local citizens who lived in the area. 604 of these land grants were confirmed by the state of California, with 36 in Santa Barbara County. Santa Barbara County was one of the 27 original counties of California, formed in 1850 at the time of statehood.
The county's territory was divided to create Ventura County in 1873. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,789 square miles, of which 2,735 square miles is land and 1,054 square miles is water. Four of the Channel Islands – San Miguel Island, Santa Cruz Island, Santa Rosa Island and Santa Barbara Island – are in Santa Barbara County, they form the largest part of the Channel Islands National Park. Santa Barbara County has a mountainous interior abutting several coastal plains on the west and south coasts of the county; the largest concentration of population is on the southern coastal plain, referred to as the "south coast" – meaning the part of the county south of the Santa Ynez Mountains. This region includes the cities of Santa Barbara and Carpinteria, as well as the unincorporated areas of Hope Ranch, Mission Canyon and Isla Vista, along with stretches of unincorporated area such as Noleta/Nanta Barbara. North of the Santa Ynez range in the Santa Ynez Valley are the towns of Santa Ynez, Buellton, Lompoc.
North of the Santa Ynez Valley are the cities of Santa Maria and Guadalupe, the unincorporated towns of Orcutt, Los Alamos, Casmalia and Sisquoc. In the extreme northeastern portion of the county are the small cities of New Cuyama and Ventucopa; as of January 1, 2006, Santa Maria has become the largest city in Santa Barbara County. The principal mountain ranges of the county are the Santa Ynez Mountains in the south, the San Rafael Mountains and Sierra Madre Mountains in the interior and northeast. Most of the mountainous area is within the Los Padres National Forest, includes two wilderness areas: the San Rafael Wilderness and the Dick Smith Wilderness; the highest elevation in the county is 6820 feet at Big Pine Mountain in the San Rafaels. North of the mountains is the arid and sparsely populated Cuyama Valley, portions of which are in San Luis Obispo and Ventura Counties. Oil production and agriculture dominate the land use in the owned parts of the Cuyama Valley.
Disaster tourism has been defined as the practice of visiting locations at which an environmental disaster, either natural or man-made, has occurred. Although a variety of disasters are the subject of subsequent disaster tourism, the most common disaster tourist sites are the areas surrounding volcanic eruptions. Opinions on the morality and impact of disaster tourism are divided. Advocates of disaster tourism claim that the practice raises awareness of the event, stimulates the local economy, educates the public about the local culture, while critics claim that the practice is exploitative, profits on loss, mischaracterizes the events in question. An Article by smartertravel defines the conventional motivations present in individuals practicing disaster tourism. Attraction is derived from personal connection in a social, academic or cultural essence. Another population of visitors hope to aid in providing relief to the affected areas—some directly through volunteer work and some indirectly through donations.
Other visitors have no connection to the site or the event, but happen to be there as tourists and visit those places as part of their sightseeing. A common example of this is tourists who come to Italy to sightsee in Rome and end up visiting Pompeii and its neighboring cities without intending to do so. Disaster tourism had a mixed reception, with critics labelling it as voyeuristic and profiting off of loss and with advocates arguing that the tourism stimulates the recovering economy and brings awareness to local culture. Although the public perception of tourism depends on a wide variety of factors, such whether the disaster was man-made or natural and how long it has been since incident, there are some general trends in the reception of tourism. Depending on the site or tour, disaster tourism can be seen to be an educational experience or exploitative. Whether or not a tourist site is handled in a respectful and tactful manner is determined both by those organizing the events and the tourists themselves.
Moreover, advocates of disaster tourism point out that attractions are capable of re-examining disasters in an educational manner despite that the operators are motivated by profit. Many of these advocates argue that when distasteful disaster tourism occurs, the blame lies on the tourists for providing an insensitive demand rather on the operators for fulfilling such a demand. For both tourists and operators, parsing the difference between an educational and an exploitative one requires asking what areas are crucial for understanding the disaster and clarifying how behavior, appropriate in a destroyed area is different from behavior, appropriate in newly built homes or temporary camps; the effect of tourism on the local economy is nuanced due to the specifics in how tourism affects local income. It is accepted that if the tours comprise public events organized by volunteers there are consistent but small increases to charity donations. However, if the tours are organized by private companies it is not always clear how what proportion of the profits go back into relief efforts.
Furthermore, while governmental regulation prevents private tours from slowing down or reversing reconstruction in areas where reconstruction has began, critics argue that private touring may deincentivize the reconstruction of locations and sites, in which reconstruction has yet to occur. Another possible situation is that the tours are not organized by formal entities but instead by less cohesive groups of citizens; these cases are unstudied due to their rarity. Visiting disaster sites is thought to have an effect on empathy, but the nature of the effect it has depends on the particulars of the visit. Unorganized visits, for example, can raise empathy by forcing the visitors to see suffering up close and prompting them to consider how to interact with victims. More organized visits, on the other hand, have been accused of lowering empathy because they compromised tourists “acting like tourists and dressing like tourists,” which dilutes and sanitizes the experience. In September 2017, Hurricane Maria devastated the Dominican Puerto Rico.
Hurricane Maria is estimated to caused 4,645 deaths total, in Puerto Rico, it is estimated to have caused $94 billion in property damage and displaced 60,000 people. On October 9, 2017, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook social VR chief Rachel Franklin used a livestream to showcase Facebook’s new VR app, Facebook Spaces, by taking a virtual tour of the devastated areas Puerto Rico. During the 10 minute video, Zuckerberg explains how Facebook partnered with Red Cross to build population map from satellite imagery and better allocate the relief effort; the public reception to the tour was unanimously negative. Zuckerberg drew criticism for describing VR as "magical" in its ability to transport people to disaster zones, most viewers considered the cartoon avatars of Zuckerberg and Franklin to be an inappropriately jovial tone; the day following the livestream, Zuckerberg apologized, explaining, "When you're in VR yourself, the surroundings feel quite real. But that sense of empathy doesn't extend well to people watching you as a virtual character on a 2D screen."
When the nearby volcano Mt Vesuvius erupted in 79 AD, the eruption buried the city of Pompeii and the nearby city of Herculaneum and preserved everything from its streets to its frescoes under mounds of pumice and ash. Although Pompeii was rediscovered in 1599, tourism was undesirable until Spanish engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre performed a much larger excavation in 1748, which revealed many noteworthy structures, such as a intact Roman theatre. Today, Pompeii belongs to the much larger Vesuvius Nat
Archaeotourism or Archaeological tourism is a form of cultural tourism, which aims to promote public interest in archaeology and the conservation of historical sites. Archaeological tourism can include all products associated with public archaeological promotion, including visits to archaeological sites, interpretation centers, reenactments of historical occurrences, the rediscovery of indigenous products, festivals, or theaters. Archaeological tourism walks a fine line between promoting archaeological sites and an area's cultural heritage and causing more damage to them, thus becoming invasive tourism. Archaeologists have expressed concerns that tourism encourages particular ways of seeing and knowing the past; when archaeological sites are run by tourist boards, ticket fees and souvenir revenues can become a priority, the question remains whether a site is worth opening to the public or remaining closed and keeping the site out of harm's way. Damage to irreplaceable archaeological materials is not only direct, as when remains are disordered, destroyed, or looted, but the indirect result of poorly planned development of tourism amenities, such as hotels, restaurants and shops.
These can drastically alter the environment in ways that produce flooding, landslides, or undermine ancient structures. ArqueotuR Institutional network for the promotion of archaeological tourism and local development. Co-ordinated by the University of Barcelona
Garden tourism is a type of niche tourism involving visits or travel to botanical gardens and places which are significant in the history of gardening. Garden tourists travel individually in countries with which they are familiar but prefer to join organized garden tours in countries where they might experience difficulties with language, travel or finding accommodation in the vicinity of the garden. In the year 2000 the Alhambra and the Taj Mahal both received over 2 million visitors; this poses problems for the landscape manager. The list of famous gardens which attract garden tourists from afar includes: Sissinghurst Castle Garden and Stourhead in England, Giverny, Rivau in France, Keukenhof in the Netherlands, Villa d'Este and Villa Lante in Italy, Alhambra in Spain, Longwood Gardens and Filoli in the USA, Taj Mahal in India, Ryōan-ji in Japan. Despite its popularity, garden tourism remains a niche commercial enterprise. Throughout the world, there are a limited number of boutique tour operators offering guided tours to the public.
The garden tour in England and Wales involves private gardens and gardens that does not accept visitors under the National Gardens Scheme, when "Gardens of England and Wales Open for Charity" served as a guide book for those seeking to visit gardens in England and Wales. The first issue of the Yellow Book was published as a supplement to a British magazine "Country Life" in 1931, after Elsie Wagg of an institution serving for district nursing came up with the basic idea of National Gardens Scheme, in which a charity and garden tour was combined when gardening was quite popular in the UK; the movement to open gardens for charity spread to private gardens when it was announced in 1927, owners of such gardens agreed to collect 1 Shiring fee from each visitors that they donated to the charity. 609 such gardens raised £8,000 and in 1928 the institution renames to The Queen's Institute of District Nursing. With the publication of the first Yellow Book, there were 1,000 gardens to participate in the Scheme, in 2015 they have donated £4.5 million since 1927.
Those owners of private gardens sometimes donated to those charities they choose, amounting to £40,000. As the garden tour expanded since 1948 when the National Gardens Scheme involved the National Trust: while National Trust offered important gardens for garden tours which they have restored and conserved, number of visitors increased; the Queen's Institute of District Nursing offered them funds which in tern encouraged the Trust to work on additional garden projects. It was in 2013 when the Yellow Page was renamed as "Gardens To Visit". Michel de Montaigne was one of the earliest garden tourists to record his impressions of gardens. John Evelyn recorded his visits to gardens in France and Italy, as did Fynes Moryson. Maggie Campbell-Culver wrote a biography of John Evelyn as she sourced from woods and gardens Evelyn took steps in, described trees from oak as an Evelyn's symbol to evergreens he favored the most. At the start of the 21st century, with a history of over 100 years of garden tours, Britain had the largest number of gardens open to the public for tourist visits: in 2013, 3,700 gardens are listed in Gardens of England and Wales Open for Charity, when the Yellow 3,500 gardens are listed in Gardens of England and Wales Open for Charity.
The Holocaust tourism is a term used by the media in relation to round-trip travel to destinations connected with the extermination of Jews during the Holocaust in World War II, including visits to sites of Jewish martyrology such as former Nazi death camps and concentration camps turned into state museums. It belongs to a category of the so-called'roots tourism' across parts of Central Europe, or more the Western-style dark tourism to sites of death and disaster; the term Holocaust, first used in the late 1950s, was derived from the Greek word holokauston meaning a burnt offering to God. It has come to symbolize the systematic extermination of six million European Jews by Nazi Germany in occupied territories from 1933 to 1945; the term can be applied to mean the estimated five to seven million non-Jewish victims who were murdered by the Nazis in the same time period. The term'dark tourism' was first coined in 1996. According to P. R. Stone, there is a dark tourism spectrum, which differentiates between the shades of the dark tourism: The spectrum aids in identifying the intensity of both the framework of supply and the consumption.
The darkest tourism is characterized by the following elements: education orientation, historic background, location authenticity in terms of relics, limited tourism infrastructure. The objects of lightest tourism have opposite features: entertainment orientation, commercial centralization, commercial purposefulness, higher level of tourism infrastructure. Professor William F. S. Miles stipulates that death and violent events – transmitted between generations through survivors and witnesses – are darker than other events. Miles notes that the level of darkness of a tourist destination may depend on the family background of the prospective tourists. Stone distinguishes seven dark suppliers, which create experience; the model of seven dark suppliers demonstrate dark tourism as multi-faceted phenomenon, with the extermination camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau conceivably the darkest in terms of influence. The Dark Camps of Genocide are sites where genocide and violence were perpetrated. All such sites belong to this category.
Auschwitz was the largest of the Nazi death camps in World War II, is at the top of this list. Holocaust sites depend on government's sponsorship. Among the seven dark suppliers are war sites and battlefields, places of remembrances, cemeteries of famous people and courthouses, exhibits associated with death and suffering, the tourist sites which emphasize entertainment. Holocaust tourism sites are related to'postmemory' as well as cultural identity, with postmemory being an important element in the motivations of Holocaust tourists. Marianne Hirsch defines it in the following way. Postmemory characterizes the experience of those who grow up dominated by narratives that preceded their birth, whose own belated stories are evacuated by the stories of the previous generation shaped by traumatic events that can be neither understood nor recreated. Postmemory is an interrelation between survivors, post-Holocaust generations of Jews, to save and transmit the Holocaust experience; the first studies regarding the second generation began to appear in the 1970s.
For example, Helen Epstein's 1979 book Children of the Holocaust: Conversations with Sons and Daughters of Survivors consists of interviews with survivors' children from all over the world. Some survivors' children's identities are dependent on their parents' Holocaust experience; the Jewish visits to Holocaust sites are efforts to explore the origins of their identity. Erica Lehrer considers this Jewish identity quest as "a way to step into the flow of family and history from which one feels displaced". Many Jewish tours are made to establish a connection of survivors and second generation with an unknown place and or identity. During the last 20 years Central Europe has become the most popular region for Jewish heritage travels; the recent increase in tourism is due to several historic events which have opened the region: Poland's Solidarity movement. Though many of the tourists have no direct experience of the Holocaust, many Holocaust tours visit authentic Holocaust sites, such as cemeteries and crematoria.
Two principal destinations of Holocaust tourism are Israel. The relationship between those two countries in Holocaust tourism was best illustrated by the anthropologist Jack Kugelmass who employed a'performance approach' to the Shoa group missions; the trip is orchestrated so as to minimize contact with modern Poland and instil a negative sense of place. The death camps serve as condensation symbols for the entire Jewish past. By identifying with the Shoa dead, the participants seek to reaffirm their own vulnerability... as opposed to their privileged position as Jews in American society, while pledging to resist assimilation. The trips end in Israel, mythicized as'the Jewish future.' In Israel, the March of the Living was established in 1988, which organizes Holocaust tours for teenagers. Annually, MOTL sends thousands of young people from more than fifty countries to Israel. Poland is one of the countries most visited by Holocaust tourists due to the number of death camps in Poland. Prior to World War II, Poland had the largest Jewish community in Europe, of which over three million were murdered.
Death and labor camps were built in Central Europe by the German occupational authorities in the late 1930s and early 1940s, man