Francesc de Borja Moll i Casasnovas
Francesc de Borja Moll Casanovas was a linguist and editor from Menorca. His father was called his mother Maria-Anna Casanovas Oliver, he was the 7th child of their humble marriage. However the first 5 children of the family died. In his book Els meus primers trenta anys he states that both his mother and father, together with his godmother and brother were the most important figures in his life, he wrote its varieties spoken on the Balearic Islands. He was the main collaborator with Father Antoni Maria Alcover in his Diccionari Català-Valencià-Balear. Between 1908 and 1911, he learnt to read and write with his teacher, Miquel Villalonga, he began to learn basic drawing skills, his father played a part in his education, enforcing his love for the Catalan language. In 1912 he enrolled in a school of theology in Cituadella de Menorca and he began his studies, his degree was taught through the medium of Spanish, the most used language at the time. For this reason, in the book mentioned above, Francesc de Borja Moll, remembering his first years at the school of theology, admits that he doesn’t remember the Seminary teaching them about their mother tongue, its history or culture.
He admits that they were never taught about Catalan literature and how to write it. Thanks to the lecturers, he knew. But, all, he wasn’t happy with any other aspect of his education; as a result, when he began to write professionally he couldn’t imagine doing it in the language from Menorca. The arrival of Father Alcover at the Seminary in Cituadella was a great moment in his life. Alcover had travelled to Menorca with the intention of learning about the different dialects of the island and to incorporate them into his dictionary that he was writing at the time, the Catalan-Valencian-Balearic dictionary, which on, Moll would before the co-writer of. Although he didn’t study at university, the collaboration with Anthony Alcover allowed him to meet German linguists such as Meyer Lübke, Leo Spitzer and Bernhard Schädel. In 1921 he moved to Mallorca to work on the dictionary. In 1932, when Alcover died, Moll continued writing the dictionary and the Bolletí to which he applied the orthographical norms of Fabra –which Alcover hadn’t used because he was in disagreement with the Institute of Catalan Studies.
The strong personality of his teacher, who played an important role in his Catalan studies, caused a lot of problems with other linguists, in fact he discredited the launch of the Catalan-Valencian-Balearic dictionary. At the time, they didn’t write neither reviews of the DCVB nor was there any mention by IEC, the biggest linguistic organisation at the time. In fact, the dictionary was edited thanks to Alcover’s efforts as he created his own editorial, which would become Editorial Moll, his life was full highs and lows but one of his lowest moments was when the Spanish Civil War broke out. Moll was called to serve the state against the nationalists. Moll’s main aim was to make Catalan more appreciated and taught. In fact, most of his work focused on grammar and Catalan language courses, his contribution and dedication to l’Obra Cultural Balear was very noteworthy. Moll died in Palma on 18 February 1991, his life was dedicated to studying and promoting the Catalan language. Despite winning many awards and distinctions, he continued to be a humble and hard working man.
Suplement català al "Romanisches etymologisches wörterbuch" Cançons populars mallorquines Rudiments de gramàtica normativa Gramàtica històrica catalana Els llinatges catalans Un home de combat: Mossèn Alcover Epistolari del Bisbe Carsalade a Mossèn Alcover Cinc temes menorquins Els meus primers trenta anys 1903-1934 Polèmica d'en Pep Gonella. L'home per la paraula Els altres quaranta anys 1935-1974 Diccionari Català-Castellà Diccionari Castellà-Català El parlar de Mallorca Textos i estudis medievals Aspectes marginals d'un home de combat "Autobiografía intelectual", Anthropos 44, 1984, p. 7. "L'aventura editorial d'un filòleg", Anthropos44, 1984, p. 17. Curso breve de español para extranjeros: elemental Curso breve de español para extranjeros: superior Promptuari d'ortografia Epistolari Joan Coromines-Francesc de Borja Moll Diccionari escolar Català-Castellà, Castellà-Català Exercicis de gramàtica Gramàtica catalana Llengua de les Balears 1 Llengua de les Balears 2
Castalla is a town located in the comarca of L'Alcoià, in the province of Alicante, Spain. Castalla is located in 35 km from Alicante. Castalla Castle sits on a hill overlooking the valley and the town is around, at the foot of the hill, 680 m above sea level. Castalla La Hoya, whose history is Castalla capital, is a broad valley in the form of T oriented to the southeast and sandwiched between various mountain formations. Castalla occupies the west and southwest of La Hoya which interlock like Maigmó mountains, Cati or Argenya; the climate of the area can be locked in a mid-mountain Mediterranean climate. The average annual temperature is around 17 degrees; the rains are not abundant, around 400mm per year, but mountain ranges favor the formation of cloudiness and local rainfall, increasing these with altitude. Snowfall is common in winter days of February. Communicates with Alicante and Valencia along the A-7. In the castle are Neolithic settlements, Bronze Age, Iberian and Arabs the castle has been the core around which they would bringing together the amullarada city housing.
James I of Aragon took the castle from the Moors after the conquest of Biar and integrated it into the Kingdom of Valencia, under the Treaty of Almizra, was in Castalla border with Castile. For this reason, started rebuilding the castle and was consecrated the first church in the place where the present chapel of the Blood. Since its conquest, was awarded the property Castalla manor to. In 1336, King Pedro IV of Aragon became the property of the Crown. In 1362 the barony was created Castalla, donated to Don Ramon de Vilanova; the castle was inherited in 1729 by the Marquis de Dos Aguas, until in 1989 it became municipal property. During the War of Succession, the whole region Castalla sided with the Bourbon side, the result of this was that, after the war, Philip V granted him a number of privileges and the title of "Very Noble and Loyal Faithful." During the War of Independence two major military actions took place in Castalla. The First Battle of Castalla, which took place on 21 July 1812, was a major defeat for the Spanish army under José O'Donnell.
However, the better-known Second Battle of Castalla on 13 April 1813 was an Anglo-Spanish triumph over Marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet's French army. In the second battle, a Spanish infantry division under the leadership of Samuel Ford Whittingham distinguished itself by repelling French attacks. In 1890, Queen Regent Maria Cristina gave the town of Castalla the title of City; the economy of Castalla is based on farming and the industries of toys, construction materials and textile. The Moros i Cristians festival of Castalla is celebrated each September. Important monuments in Castalla are: the hilltop walled castle the Hermitage of the Blood the Catholic church of la Assumpció the Renaissance style town hall the Estación IX. Located in the historic center it is the ninth place on the “Route of the Cross”, a pilgrimage which takes place every Easter. Route of the Castles of Vinalopó Official website or
Second Spanish Republic
The Spanish Republic known as the Second Spanish Republic, was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 April 1931, after the deposition of Alfonso XIII, it lost the Spanish Civil War on 1 April 1939 to the rebel faction, that would establish a military dictatorship under the rule of Francisco Franco. After the proclamation of the Republic, a provisional government was established until December 1931, when the 1931 Constitution was approved a Constitutional Republic was formally established; the republican government of Manuel Azaña would start a great number of reforms to "modernize" the country. After the 1933 general election, Alejandro Lerroux formed a government with the confidence and supply of the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups. Under Lerroux's premiership, the Republic found itself before an insurrection of anarchists and socialists that took a revolutionary undertone in Asturias; the revolt was suppressed by the Republic with the intervention of the army.
The Popular Front won the 1936 general election. On 17–18 July 1936, a coup d'état fractured the Spanish Republican Armed Forces and failed, marking the beginning of the Spanish Civil War. During the Spanish Civil War, there were three governments; the first was led by left-wing republican José Giral. The second government was led by socialist Francisco Largo Caballero of the trade union General Union of Workers; the UGT, along with the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, were the main forces behind the aforementioned social revolution. The third government was led by socialist Juan Negrín, who led the Republic until the military coup of Segismundo Casado, which ended republican resistance and led to the victory of the nationalists, who would establish a military dictatorship under the rule of Francisco Franco, known as Francoist Spain; the Republican government survived in exile, it had an embassy in Mexico City until 1976. After the restoration of democracy in Spain, the government formally dissolved the following year.
On 28 January 1930 the military dictatorship of General Miguel Primo de Rivera was overthrown. This led various republican factions from a wide variety of backgrounds to join forces; the Pact of San Sebastián was the key to the transition from monarchy to republic. Republicans of all tendencies were committed to the Pact of San Sebastian in overthrowing the monarchy and establishing a republic; the restoration of the royal Bourbons was rejected by large sectors of the populace who vehemently opposed the King. The pact, signed by representatives of the main Republican forces, allowed a joint anti-monarchy political campaign; the 12 April 1931 municipal elections led to a landslide victory for republicans. Two days the Second Republic was proclaimed, King Alfonso XIII went into exile; the king's departure led to a provisional government of the young republic under Niceto Alcalá-Zamora. Catholic churches and establishments in cities like Madrid and Sevilla were set ablaze on 11 May. In June 1931 a Constituent Cortes was elected to draft a new constitution, which came into force in December.
The new constitution established freedom of speech and freedom of association, extended suffrage to women in 1933, allowed divorce, stripped the Spanish nobility of any special legal status. It effectively disestablished the Roman Catholic Church, but the disestablishment was somewhat reversed by the Cortes that same year, its controversial articles 26 and 27 imposed stringent controls on Church property and barred religious orders from the ranks of educators. Scholars have described the constitution as hostile to religion, with one scholar characterising it as one of the most hostile of the 20th century. José Ortega y Gasset stated, "the article in which the Constitution legislates the actions of the Church seems improper to me." Pope Pius XI condemned the Spanish government's deprivation of the civil liberties of Catholics in the encyclical Dilectissima Nobis. The legislative branch was changed to a single chamber called the Congress of Deputies; the constitution established legal procedures for the nationalisation of public services and land and railways.
The constitution provided accorded civil liberties and representation. Catholic churches in major cities were again subject to arson in 1932, a revolutionary strike action was seen in Málaga the same year. A Catholic church in Zaragoza was burnt down in 1933, the cathedral in Oviedo was destroyed by flames in 1934; the church of San Lorenzo in Gijon was set ablaze in the same year. The church of San Juan in Albacete was torched three months prior to the onset of the civil war, in March 1936; the 1931 Constitution was formally effective from 1931 until 1939. In the summer of 1936, after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, it became irrelevant after the authority of the Republic was superseded in many places by revolutionary socialists and anarchists on one side, fascists on the other; the Republican Constitution changed the country's national symbols. The Himno de Riego was established as the national anthem, the Tricolor, with three horizontal red-yellow-purple fields, became the new flag of Spain.
Under the new Constitution, all of Spain's regions had the right to autonomy. Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia (although the Galician Statu
University of Valencia
The University of Valencia is a university located in the Spanish city of Valencia. It is one of the oldest surviving universities in Spain, the oldest in the Valencian Community, is regarded as one of Spain's leading academic institutions; the University was founded in 1499, has around 55,000 students. Most of the courses are given through the medium of Spanish, but the university has promised to increase the number of courses available in Valencian. Moreover, in some degrees part of the teaching is in English, it is located in the Mediterranean Spanish baseline, in the city of Valencia, the capital and most populous city of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third largest city in Spain, with a population of 829,705 in 2014. One of its campuses is located in the metropolitan area of Valencia, in the municipalities of Burjassot and Paterna. There are three campuses: The Burjassot Campus houses the colleges of Biology, Physics, Chemistry and the School of Engineering. On the Avenida de Blasco Ibañez Campus the Schools of Medicine and Dentistry and Educational Sciences, Psychology and History, Physical Education and Nursing.
The third campus, houses the Schools of Law and Business, Social Sciences, the School of Elementary Teacher Training, which moved from its previous location near the Blasco Ibañez Campus. The current chancellor is Esteban Morcillo Sánchez. At the request of James I the Conqueror, Pope Innocent IV in 1246, authorized by a Bull the establishment of estudis generals in Valencia; the University Statutes were passed by the municipal magistrates of Valencia on April 30, 1499. In 1501, Pope Alexander VI signed the bill of approval and one year Ferdinand II the Catholic proclaimed the Royal Mandatory Concession, its foundation was due to the zeal of St. Vincent Ferrer and to the donation of a building by Mosen Pedro Vilaragut. Only meagre accounts have been preserved of the practical workings of the university. From the time of its foundation the courses included Latin, Hebrew, philosophy and physics, Canon law, medicine; the closing years of the seventeenth, the whole of the eighteenth century, witnessed the most prosperous era of the university, Latin and medicine being specially cultivated.
Among the names of illustrious students that of Tosca, Evangelista Torricelli's friend, noted physicist and author of important mathematical works, stands out prominently. Escolano says that it was the leading university in mathematics, the humanities and medicine. Large anatomical drawings were made by the students. Valencia was the first university of Spain to found a course for the study of herbs. Many of the Valencian graduates of medicine became famous. Pedro Ximeno discovered the third small bone of the ear, he had for a pupil the celebrated Vallés. Luis Collado, professor of botany, made some valuable discoveries and carried on exhaustive studies of the plants of the Levant. In the seventeenth century the university divided into two factions, the Thomists and the anti-Thomists; the discussions were aroused partisan feelings throughout the entire Kingdom of Valencia. The university possessed a library of 27,000 volumes, destroyed by the soldiers under the command of General Suchet. Among the most noted professors of the university was D.
Francisco Pérez Bayer, a man of wide culture and great influence in the reign of Charles III of Spain. Around the university several colleges for poor students sprang up: the first was founded by St. Thomas of Villanova in 1561 and followed those founded by Doña Angela Alonsar, Mosen Pedro Martín; the most famous, called Corpus Christi, was founded by Blessed Juan de Ribera. During the Spanish Civil War, in 1938, a fire badly damaged the library. Nowadays it is a modern European public university open to every branch of teaching and learning in humanities, basic sciences and technology, health sciences, social sciences, education; the University of Valencia has three main urban campuses located in Valencia city and in Burjassot-Paterna, some other buildings and facilities in the hearth of Valencia town, such as the Historic Building, Botanical Garden, Cerveró Palace, the Rectorate and others. The University of Valencia has 18 Faculties located in its three main campuses; each one allocates different academic departments and offers undergraduate, official masters and PhD programs.
The University of Valencia offers degrees in all of the academic fields: arts and humanities, health sciences and social sciences. The exchange programs with foreign universities, as well as other programs of International Cooperation and Development Aid, allow students to study in other academic institutions from Europe, North America, Latin America, Asia. Regarding student mobility through Erasmus program, it is among the top ten universities in Europe; the university has partnered with International Studies Abroad, a study abroad provider based in Austin, Texas, to bring inbound students from the United States and Canada. Research is conducted through several ways; the Academic Departments within each School, the Research Institutes, the Science Park and some others. The Research Institutes are conceived as multi-disciplinary research structures beyond the
University of the Balearic Islands
The University of the Balearic Islands is a Balearic Spanish university, founded in 1978 and located in Palma on the island of Majorca. The origins of the University date back to 1483, when King Ferdinand II of Aragon authorized the foundation of the Estudi General Lul·lià in Palma, Majorca; this college was named after writer Ramon Llull. It operated until 1835. After 1835, students from the Balearic Islands attended university in Cervera, subsequently in Barcelona. There was no higher education institution in the Balearic Islands until 1949, when the Estudi General Lul·lià was reinstituted under the auspices of the University of Barcelona; this offered courses in philosophy and philology, which were recognized by the University of Barcelona. The faculties of Science and Arts were added followed by the Faculty of Law; the faculties of the Estudi General Lul·lià were separated from their sponsoring universities in 1978, forming the University of Palma. Work on a new campus began on the road from Palma to Valldemossa.
This was a controversial choice. In 1998 additional sites were opened in Alaior, Menorca. In 1985 the name was changed to the current University of the Balearic Islands; the School of Tourism was added in 1993, the Faculty of Education in 1992, the School of Psychology and the Polytechnic School in 2000. Since 1996 the University has been funded by the Government of the Balearic Islands. Antoni Roig Muntaner: 1979-1981 Antoni Ribera i Blancafort: 1981-1982 Nadal Batle i Nicolau: 1982-1995 Llorenç Huguet: 1995-2003 Avel·lí Blasco: 2003-2007 Montserrat Casas Ametller: 2007-2013 Jaume Carot: 2013-2013 Llorenç Huguet: 2013 The Palma de Mallorca Metro links the university campus to the city of Palma; this was inaugurated on April 25, 2007, but was closed that year due to structural problems caused by flooding. Faculty of Economics and Enterprise, studies administration, business management and economics. Faculty of Education, studies teaching, social education and psychopedagogy. Faculty of Law Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Nursing and Physiotherapy Faculty of Philosophy and Art, studies: philosophy, English philology, Catalan philology, Hispanic philology, history, art history and social work.
Faculty of Psychology Faculty of Science, studies biology, physics, agricultural engineering, speciality hortofructiculture and gardening. Faculty of Tourism Higher Polytechnic School, studies technical architecture, computer engineering, technical engineering computer systems, technical engineering computing management, telecommunications engineering, speciality telematics, industrial engineering, speciality industrial electronics and mathematics; the faculties and schools are divided into autonomous departments, which are divided into subject areas. Each faculty is headed by each department by a director. On the campus are the Institute of Educational Sciences, for teacher training, the Cultural Activities Service, which organizes the Open University, a student residence and a restaurant; the UIB has University Schools Adscritas, private establishments offering university degrees recognized by the University of the Balearic Islands. The University Schools Adscritas are: University School Alberta Gimenez.
Studies teaching and journalism. University School of Industrial Relations. Studies industrial relations. University School of Tourism's Island Council of Ibiza and Formentera. Studies tourism. University School of Tourism Felipe Moreno. Studies tourism; the Palma campus is incomplete. The last building to be inaugurated in 2004, was Block Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, the current headquarters of the faculties of Economics and Law; the remaining buildings include a multi-faith chapel and additional parking. Work is underway on the recovery of ancient natural areas, to form green zones which will be studied by biology students. Proposed are the modification and expansion of the Ramon Llull building, the linking of the two Faculty of Sciences buildings and the construction of a building along the Ma-1110 access road, to be called Block Beatriu of Pinós II; the UIB Grupo 9 networks of universities. It has signed cooperation agreements with most Spanish universities and with research centers in Europe, America and Asia.
Students from the United Kingdom and United States can study at the UIB under the International Students Exchange Program. The working languages of the UIB are Catalan and English Francesc de Borja Moll, philologist. Camilo José Cela Conde, son of Camilo José Cela and professor of Philosophy of Law and Policy. Francesc Antich Oliver, former president of the Government of the Balearic Islands Alejandra Forlán, Uruguayan psychologist and activist Cristòfol Soler i Cladera, former president of the Government of the Balearic Islands Antumi Toasijé, historian Vives Network List of medieval universities List of universities in Spain Palma University of the Balearic Islands Website
University of Alicante
The University of Alicante was established in 1979 on the basis of the Center for University Studies, founded in 1968. The University main campus is located in San Vicente del Raspeig/Sant Vicent del Raspeig, bordering the city of Alicante to the north; as of 2011/12 academic year, there are 27,500 students studying there. The University inherits the legacy of the University of Orihuela, established by Papal Bull in 1545 and remained open for two centuries; the University of Alicante offers courses in more than fifty degrees. It comprises over seventy departments and research groups in areas of Social Science and Law, Experimental science, Liberal Arts and Health Sciences, five research institutes. All classes are taught in Spanish language, some are in English, in particular, in computer science and in business degrees, a few are in Valencian language. Spanish language courses are offered for foreign students during the summer; the University offers English Language versions to PhD level including religion.
Julian Havell was the first to graduate from this scheme. The Department of Economics runs, in Europe, a well-known Graduate Program in Economics, an American-style full-time program taught in English; the program provides students with a thorough theoretical and practical training in microeconomics and econometrics, as well as specialization in applied fields. The aim of the program is to prepare students for professional careers in universities and private research organizations, international institutions and business; the University has a modern campus of one square kilometer. La Rabassa airfield was located on these lands until the opening of El Altet Airport in 1967. University of Alicante is part of European University Association, Compostela Group of Universities and Catalan network Xarxa Vives d'Universitats; the University hosts Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. It is the largest open-access repository of digitised Spanish-language historical texts and literature from the Ibero-American world.
Apertium, a free software for machine translation, is being developed at the University in cooperation with Spanish and Catalan governments. The software is distributed under GNU GPL license. University website Cicerone UA - Virtual visit to the campus of the University of Alicante Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes