Behavioral enrichment is an animal husbandry principle that seeks to enhance the quality of captive animal care by identifying and providing the environmental stimuli necessary for optimal psychological and physiological well-being. Environmental enrichment can either be active or passive, depending on whether it requires direct contact between the animal and the enrichment. A variety of enrichment techniques are used to create desired outcomes similar to an animals individual and species' history; each of the techniques used are intended to stimulate the animal's senses to how they would be activated in the wild. Provided enrichment may be seen in the form of auditory, habitat factors, research projects and objects. Environmental enrichment improves the overall welfare of animals in captivity and creates a habitat similar to what they would experience in their wild environment, it aims to maintain an animal's physical and psychological health by increasing the range or number of species-specific behaviors, increasing positive interaction with the captive environment, preventing or reducing the frequency of abnormal behaviors, such as stereotypies, increasing the individual's ability to cope with the challenges of captivity.
Stereotypes are seen in captive animals due to boredom. This includes pacing, over-grooming, head-weaving, etc.. Environmental enrichment can be offered to any animal in captivity, including: Animals in zoos and related facilities Animals in sanctuaries Animals in shelters and adoption centers Animals used for research Animals used for companionship, e.g. dogs, rabbits, etc. Environmental enrichment can be beneficial to a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates such as land mammals, marine mammals, amphibians. In the United States, specific regulations must be followed for enrichment plans in order to guarantee and provide appropriate living environments and stimulation for animals in captivity. Moreover, the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, requires that animal husbandry and welfare be a main concern for those caring for animals in captivity. Passive enrichment provides sensory stimulation but no direct control; this type of enrichment is used for its potential to benefit several animals as well as requiring limited direct animal contact.
Visual enrichment is provided by changing the layout of an animal's holding area. The type of visual enrichment can vary, from something as simple as adding pictures on walls to videotapes and television. Visual enrichment such as television can benefit animals housed in single cages. Mirrors are a potential form of enrichment for animals that display an understanding of self-recognition, such as non-human primates. In addition to using mirrors to reflect the animal's own image, mirrors can be angled so the animal is able to see out-of-sight areas of the holding area. Enclosures in modern zoos are designed to facilitate environmental enrichment. For example, the Denver Zoo's exhibit Predator Ridge allows different African carnivores to be rotated among several enclosures, providing the animals with a differently sized environment. In the wild, animals are exposed to a variety of sounds that they do not encounter in captivity. Auditory enrichment can be used to mimic the animal's natural habitat.
Types of nature-based auditory enrichment include con-specific vocalizations. The most common form of auditory enrichment is music, whose principal stems from its benefit to humans; the benefits of classical music have been studied in animals, from sows to non-human primates. Studies have looked at various other genres, such as pop and rock, but their ability to provide effective enrichment remains inconclusive. Most types of music that are selected for enrichment are based on human preferences, causing anthropomorphic biases that may not translate to animals. Therefore, music, attuned to the animal's auditory senses could be beneficial. Species-specific sounds require further research to find what pitch and range is most suitable for the animal. Active enrichment requires the animal to perform some sort of physical activity as well as direct interaction with the enrichment object. Active enrichment items can temporarily reduce stereotypic behaviors as their beneficial effects are limited to the short periods of active use.
Food-based enrichment is meant to mimic. This is important because in the wild, animals are adapted to work hard for what they eat. A lot of time and energy is spent finding food, why this tactic is used to make it more challenging for the animal rather than just feeding it simple food. Forcing the animal to work for its food causes more stimulation, preventing it from becoming bored; this kind of enrichment can help with a captive animal's physical health because it could force the animal to be more active. For example, food can be hidden and spread cross an enclosure making the animal search for it. Other common manipulable tactile objects include. Instead of providing the food directly, foraging devices are useful in increasing the amount of searching and foraging of food, comparable to the amount of time they would spend in the wild. Most food-based enrichment occurs in the context of searching for food, such as cracking open a nut or digging holes in tree trunks for worms. Structural Enrichment is when objects are added to an enclosure to mimic an animal’s natural habitat.
These objects can be switched out or kept
Chaptalization is the process of adding sugar to unfermented grape must in order to increase the alcohol content after fermentation. The technique is named after the French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal; this process is not intended to make the wine sweeter, but rather to provide more sugar for the yeast to ferment into alcohol. Chaptalization has generated controversy and discontent in the French wine industry due to advantages that the process is perceived to give producers in poor-climate areas. In response to violent demonstrations by protesters in 1907, the French government began regulating the amount of sugar that can be added to wine. Chaptalization is sometimes referred to as enrichment, for example in the European Union wine regulations specifying the legality of the practice within EU; the legality of chaptalization varies by country and wine type. In general, it is legal in regions that produce grapes with low sugar content, such as the Northern regions of France and the United States.
Chaptalization is, prohibited in Argentina, California, Italy and South Africa. Germany prohibits the practice for making Prädikatswein; the technique of adding sugar to grape must has been part of the process of winemaking since the Romans added honey as a sweetening agent. While not realizing the chemical components, Roman winemakers were able to identify the benefits of added sense of body or mouthfeel. While the process has long been associated with French wine, the first recorded mention of adding sugar to must in French literature was the 1765 edition of L'Encyclopedie, which advocated the use of sugar for sweetening wine over the accepted practice of using lead acetate. In 1777, the French chemist Pierre Macquer discovered that the actual chemical benefit of adding sugar to must was an increase in alcohol to balance the high acidity of underripe grapes rather than any perceived increase in sweetness. In 1801, while in the services of Napoleon, Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal began advocating the technique as a means of strengthening and preserving wine.
In the 1840s, the German wine industry was hard hit by severe weather that created considerable difficulty for harvesting ripened grapes in this cool region. A chemist named Ludwig Gall suggested Chaptal's method of adding sugar to the must to help wine makers compensate for the effects of detrimental weather; this process of Verbesserung helped sustain wine production in the Mosel region during this difficult period. At the turn of the twentieth century, the process became controversial in the French wine industry with vignerons in the Languedoc protesting the production of "artificial wines" that flooded the French wine market and drove down prices. In June 1907, huge demonstrations broke out across the Languedoc with over 900,000 protesters demanding that the government take action to protect their livelihood. Riots in the city of Narbonne prompted Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau to send the French army to the city; the ensuing clash resulted in the death of five protesters. The following day, Languedoc sympathizers burned the prefecture in Perpignan.
In response to the protests, the French government increased the taxation on sugar and passed laws limiting the amount of sugar that can be added to wine. Different techniques are employed to adjust the level of sugar in the grape must. In the normal chaptalization process, cane sugar is the most common type of sugar added, although some winemakers prefer beet sugar or corn syrup. In many wine regions, brown sugar is an illegal additive, in regions that disallow chaptalization altogether, grape concentrate may be added. After sugar is added to the must occurring enzymes break down the sucrose molecules in sugar into glucose and fructose, which are fermented by the yeast and converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. In warmer regions, where overripening is a concern, the opposite process of rehydration and acidification is used; this is used in jurisdictions such as areas of California, where if the must has excess sugar for normal fermentation, water may be added to lower the concentration.
In acidification, tartaric acid is added to the must to compensate for the high levels of sugar and low levels of acid found in ripe grapes. In Champagne production, measured quantities of sugar and sometimes Brandy are added after fermentation and prior to corking in a process known as dosage. Chaptalization, on the other hand, involves adding sugar prior to fermentation. Champagne producers sometimes employ chaptalization in their winemaking when the wine is still in the form of must; some wine journalists contend that chaptalization allows wine makers to sacrifice quality in favor of quantity by letting vines overproduce high yields of grapes that have not ripened. Winemakers have been using technological advances, such as reverse osmosis to remove water from the unfermented grape juice, thereby increasing its sugar concentration, but decreasing the volume of wine produced. Control of chaptalization is strict in many countries, only permitted in more northerly areas where grapes might not ripen enough.
In the European Union, the amount of chaptalization allowed depends on the wine growing zone. Dispensation to add another 0.5% ABV may be given in years when climatic conditions have been exceptionally unfavorable. National wine regulations may further ban chaptalization for certain classes of wine. In some areas, such as Germany, wine regulations dictate that the wine makers must label whether or not the wines are "natural," i.e. without sugar. Other areas, such as France, do not have such label requirements. In the United States, federal law permits chaptalization when producing natural grape wine from juice wi
Environmental enrichment is the stimulation of the brain by its physical and social surroundings. Brains in richer, more stimulating environments have higher rates of synaptogenesis and more complex dendrite arbors, leading to increased brain activity; this effect takes place during neurodevelopment, but during adulthood to a lesser degree. With extra synapses there is increased synapse activity, leading to an increased size and number of glial energy-support cells. Environmental enrichment enhances capillary vasculation, providing the neurons and glial cells with extra energy; the neuropil expands. Research on rodent brains suggests that environmental enrichment may lead to an increased rate of neurogenesis. Research on animals finds that environmental enrichment could aid the treatment and recovery of numerous brain-related dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's disease and those connected to aging, whereas a lack of stimulation might impair cognitive development. Moreover, this research suggests that environmental enrichment leads to a greater level of cognitive reserve, the brain's resilience to the effects of conditions such as aging and dementia.
Research on humans suggests that lack of stimulation impairs cognitive development. Research finds that attaining and engaging in higher levels of education, environments in which people participate in more challenging cognitively stimulating activities, results in greater cognitive reserve. Donald O. Hebb in 1947 found that rats raised as pets performed better on problem solving tests than rats raised in cages, his research, did not investigate the brain nor use standardized impoverished and enriched environments. Research doing this first was started in 1960 at the University of California, Berkeley by Mark Rosenzweig, who compared single rats in normal cages, those placed in ones with toys, tunnels, running wheels in groups; this found. This work led in 1962 to the discovery that environmental enrichment increased cerebral cortex volume. In 1964, it was found that this was due to increased cerebral cortex thickness and greater synapse and glial numbers. Starting around 1960, Harry Harlow studied the effects of maternal and social deprivation on rhesus monkey infants.
This established the importance of social stimulation for normal cognitive and emotional development. Rats raised with environmental enrichment have thicker cerebral cortices that contain 25% more synapses; this effect of environmental richness upon the brain occurs whether it is experienced following birth, after weaning, or during maturity. When synapse numbers increase in adults, they can remain high in number when the adults are returned to impoverished environment for 30 days suggesting that such increases in synapse numbers are not temporary. However, the increase in synapse numbers has been observed to reduce with maturation. Stimulation affects not only synapses upon pyramidal neurons but stellate ones, it can affect neurons outside the brain in the retina. Environmental enrichment affects the length of the dendrite arbors. Higher-order dendrite branch complexity is increased in enriched environments, as can the length, in young animals, of distal branches. Synapses in animals in enriched environments show evidence of increased synapse activation.
Synapses tend to be much larger. Gamma oscillations become larger in amplitude in the hippocampus; this increased energy consumption is reflected in glial and local capillary vasculation that provides synapses with extra energy. Glial cell numbers per neuron increase 12–14% The direct apposition area of glial cells with synapses expands by 19% The volume of glial cell nuclei for each synapse is higher by 37.5% The mean volume of mitochondria per neuron is 20% greater The volume of glial cell nuclei for each neuron is 63% higher Capillary density is increased. Capillaries are wider Shorter distance exist between any part of the neuropil and a capillary These energy related changes to the neuropil are responsible for increasing the volume of the cerebral cortex. Part of the effect of environmental enrichment is providing opportunities to acquire motor skills. Research upon “acrobatic” skill learning in the rat shows that it leads to increased synapse numbers. Environmental enrichment during pregnancy has effects upon the fetus such as accelerating its retinal development.
Environmental enrichment can lead to the formation of neurons and reverses the loss of neurons in the hippocampus and memory impairment following chronic stress. However, its relevance has been questioned for the behavioral effects of enriched environments. Enriched environments affect the expression of genes in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus that determine neuronal structure. At the molecular level, this occurs through increased concentrations of the neurotrophins NGF, NT-3, changes in BDNF; this alters the activation of cholinergic neurons, 5-HT, beta-adrenolin. Another effect is to increase proteins such as PSD-95 in synapses. Changes in Wnt signaling have been found to mimic in adult mice the effects of environmental enrichment upon synapses in the hippocampus. Increase in neurons numbers could be linked to changes in VEGF. Research in animals suggests that environmental enrichmen
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, values and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, teaching and directed research. Education takes place under the guidance of educators and learners may educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational; the methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. Formal education is divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and college, university, or apprenticeship. A right to education has been recognized by the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age. Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin word ēducātiō from ēducō, related to the homonym ēdūcō from ē- and dūcō. Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society.
In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge and skills from one generation to the next; as cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom. Plato founded the Academy in the first institution of higher learning in Europe; the city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476. In China, Confucius, of the State of Lu, was the country's most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea and Vietnam. Confucius gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.
The Aztecs had a well-developed theory about education, which has an equivalent word in Nahuatl called tlacahuapahualiztli. It means "the art of raising or educating a person" or "the art of strengthening or bringing up men." This was a broad conceptualization of education, which prescribed that it begins at home, supported by formal schooling, reinforced by community living. Historians cite that formal education was mandatory for everyone regardless of social class and gender. There was the word neixtlamachiliztli, "the act of giving wisdom to the face." These concepts underscore a complex set of educational practices, oriented towards communicating to the next generation the experience and intellectual heritage of the past for the purpose of individual development and his integration into the community. After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe; the church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education.
Some of these establishments evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe's modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School; the medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of inquiry, produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation, Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research. Founded in 1088, the University of Bologne is considered the first, the oldest continually operating university. Elsewhere during the Middle Ages, Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate, established across the Middle East, extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus in the east and to the Almoravid Dynasty and Mali Empire in the south.
The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly; the European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, religion and sciences spread out across the globe. Missionaries and scholars brought back new ideas from other civilizations – as with the Jesuit China missions who played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge and culture between China and Europe, translating works from Europe like Euclid's Elements for Chinese scholars and the thoughts of Confucius for European audiences; the Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe. In most countries today, full-time education, whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age. Due to this the proliferation of compulsory education, combined with population growth, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.
Formal education occurs in a structured environment. Formal education takes place in a school environme
Living Enrichment Center
Living Enrichment Center was a New Thought organization and retreat center in the U. S. state of Oregon. It was founded in the farmhouse of senior minister Mary Manin Morrissey of Scholls, Oregon, in the mid-1970s. Over the course of its existence, the congregation grew from less than a dozen to an estimated 4,000, making it the biggest New Thought church in the state. Living Enrichment Center maintained an in-house bookstore, retreat center, café, kindergarten and elementary school, an outreach television ministry. Living Enrichment Center closed in 2004 as a result of a $10.7 million financial scandal. Edward Morrissey pleaded guilty to money laundering and using church money for the personal expenses of himself and his wife, he was sentenced to two years in federal prison. He was released in early 2007. Living Enrichment Center dissolved in 2004, from which several ministries emerged including New Thought Center for Spiritual Living. Celebration Church and Whole Life Center in Lake Oswego; the origins of the Living Enrichment Center were in a church called The Truth Center that Mary Manin Morrissey and her first husband started in the living room of their small farm in rural Oregon in 1974.
The church was not successful, in 1979 Morrissey and her husband took the family and their ministry on the road, offering workshops on building self-esteem in churches around the country. After a year on the road, Morrissey founded a church in the Odd Fellows Hall in Beaverton, after she felt she had received divine guidance to start a ministry. A church management consultant advised Morrissey and her husband to name the church after what they aimed to do. In November 1992, Living Enrichment Center acquired the former Callahan Center, in Wilsonville, which consisted of a three-level 94,000-square-foot building on a 93-acre lot; the lot included 13 cabins, with over 70 rooms, which were used for spiritual retreats conducted via the church's sister organization, Namaste Retreat Center. By 1997 the church were engaged in a campaign via a Portland Sunday TV message and outreach programs, to grow the local congregation by an extra 200 members. Living Enrichment Center maintained an in-house bookstore, retreat center, cafe and elementary school, an outreach television ministry.
The Namaste Retreat and Conference Center was started in 1994, by 1996 the annual revenue was $1.5 million with an operating surplus. The retreat center took its name from the sanskrit word namaste. In its literature, Namaste Retreat Center billed itself as "Oregon's leading spiritual retreat center." Many personalities within the New Age and New Thought communities conducted retreats at Namaste Retreat Center. Retreat leaders included: Marianne Williamson, Wayne Dyer, Deepak Chopra, Jean Houston, Barbara Marx Hubbard, Shakti Gawain, Stanislav Grof, Arun Gandhi. Cristofori School was a kindergarten through third grade school, headquartered at Living Enrichment Center during the mid-to-late 1990s. Students were taught the usual age-appropriate lessons in math, writing, etc. Students were exposed to the ecumenical philosophy of New Thought, the governing philosophy of Cristofori's governing institution Living Enrichment Center. In April of, LEC began a 1/2 hour weekly taped television show on commercial TV in Los Angeles, San Francisco Bay area, including Sacramento, Dallas, Fort Worth, Seattle.
LEC committed to spend $120,000 on this aspect of the ministry. It is anticipated that the broadening of this ministry will develop additional revenue from the sale of products and be an additional source of contribution revenue, taking the pressure off the local congregation and the retreat center to support the operation of the Center. 15% of the contributions LEC receives comes from outside the Portland metropolitan area. Life Keys was a name brand created by Rev. Morrissey. Life Keys produced audio tapes, CDs, video cassettes of Mary Morrissey's Sunday talks; the videos were broadcast on many Public-access television cable TV stations across the West Coast of the United States. The audio and video cassettes were available for purchase in Living Enrichment Center's Living Bookends Bookstore. Audio cassettes of a Sunday service were available after service; the audio tapes were available via a mail subscription. The audio cassette and CD recordings produced by Life Keys were sold to an audience from all over the world.
Though most of the talks in the Life Keys series were delivered by Mary Manin Morrissey, some were recordings of talks given by visiting speakers such as Arun Gandhi, Marianne Williamson, Wayne Dyer. Audio products fall into three categories: audio books, audio albums on a particular subject, a weekly tape of Mary's Sunday talk. We have two audio publishers, it is anticipated that we will self-publish the weekly message which, through subscription and the small group process, would become the basis for the national outreach. The weekly message subscriptions are $260/year; the weekly message will be available soon by subscription on the Internet at a price of $3/week. This has the advantage of delivering the talk on audio with no additional cost for duplication and handling; the Life Keys series discontinued in 2004 when Living Enrichment Center filed for bankruptcy and closed its doors. Mary Manin Morrissey's last talk distributed in the Life Keys series was entitled The Right Questions to Ask and was r