Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Penn Avenue is a major arterial street in Pittsburgh. Its western terminus lies at Gateway Center in downtown Pittsburgh. For its westernmost ten blocks it serves as the core of the Cultural District with such attractions as Heinz Hall, the Benedum Center and the Byham Theater as well as the David L. Lawrence Convention Center and the Heinz History Center bordering it. Exiting downtown it is the major route through the city's Strip District, Little Italy and East Liberty neighborhoods, its eastern portion exits the city at Wilkinsburg where it continues to exist as Penn Avenue with a numbering system that begins anew using small numbers as it approaches Interstate 376 the "Parkway East". Penn Avenue is about 8.7 miles long. From downtown, Penn Avenue travels in the same general direction as the Allegheny River, thus it passes close by a number of the bridges of the city that cross that river. In the downtown area, Penn Avenue is the main bisecting street of the Three Sister Bridges that form the Roberto Clemente Bridge, Andy Warhol Bridge and Rachel Carson Bridge.
It passes the 16th Street Bridge, goes straight through the Strip District. In the 18th century, settlers entered the area from the eastern part of Pennsylvania via a road which came to be called the Greensburg Pike early in the 19th century; the road passed through a tiny settlement which grew to become Pa.. In Pittsburgh, Greensburg Pike became Penn Avenue, Penn Avenue is the oldest and most historically-significant street in Pittsburgh. In early 2014, the City of Pittsburgh announced the installation of the first set of protected bike lanes in the area. After deliberation, it was decided; the eastbound lane of Penn Avenue was removed from the David McCullough Bridge to 6th Street in Downtown to provide protected bike lanes. The lanes have provided bikers with a safe and effective way of leaving Downtown
East Liberty (Pittsburgh)
East Liberty is a culturally diverse neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's East End. It is bordered by Highland Park, Stanton Heights, Friendship and Larimer, is represented on Pittsburgh City Council by Councilwoman Deborah Gross and Rev. Ricky Burgess. One of the most notable features in the East Liberty skyline is the East Liberty Presbyterian Church, an area landmark. Around the time of the American Revolution, East Liberty was a free grazing area in Allegheny County located a few miles east of the young, growing town called Pittsburgh. Two farming patriarchs owned much of the nearby land, their descendants' names grace streets in and around East Liberty today. John Conrad Winebiddle owned land west of present-day East Liberty, in what are now Bloomfield and Friendship, his daughter Barbara inherited a portion close to what is now East Liberty. Alexander Negley owned a farm called "Fertile Bottom" north of present-day East Liberty along the southern bank of the Allegheny River. Negley's land included some of present-day East Liberty and much of nearby Highland Park, Morningside and Stanton Heights.
Alexander Negley's son Jacob married Barbara Winebiddle, built a manor house, developed a village that he called East Liberty after the old grazing commons. In 1816, Negley saw to it that the Pittsburgh-Greensburg turnpike was built through East Liberty, which made the area a trading center and ensured its future growth. East Liberty began to develop as a commercial area in 1843, when Jacob's daughter Sarah Jane Negley married the ambitious lawyer Thomas Mellon. Mellon had first visited the area of modern-day East Liberty in 1823, when as a 10-year-old he saw the Negley mansion for the first time and decided he wanted something like it, he achieved this goal and much more: after first becoming a prosperous lawyer, he made his true fortune by marrying Sarah Jane Negley, selling or renting the land near East Liberty that she inherited, using the proceeds to finance Pittsburgh's nascent industries. Like Jacob Negley before him, Thomas Mellon worked to make East Liberty a transportation hub: Mellon convinced some of Pittsburgh's first trolley lines to pass through East Liberty.
East Liberty developed more or less independently of Pittsburgh until the Pennsylvania Railroad opened the East Liberty station in the 1850s. This passenger depot served to connect East Liberty to the city; the rail connection was of crucial importance for the area's future development, because Pittsburgh was just about to enter its industrial boom period that would last between the end of the Civil War and World War I. As the city's population swelled to fuel the burgeoning iron and steel industry, East Liberty grew too; the neighborhood's population increased from under 1,000 in 1850 to over 46,000 by 1910. East Liberty acted as a first-ring residential suburb for elite families looking to escape the industrial smoke and soot of the city. By the turn of the century, it was one of the richest suburbs in America, containing many of the wealthy industrialists’ mansions. However, East Liberty was not an elite, Anglo-American neighborhood; the East Liberty Station brought floods of European immigrants and African American migrants from the South, who were drawn by Pittsburgh's manufacturing and industrial jobs.
The neighborhood became home to an impressive number of churches for various religions and ethnicities by the late nineteenth century. There were separate places of worship for German and Italian Protestants, Irish and German Catholics, as well as a Presbyterian church for Anglo-Americans and an AME church for African Americans. East Liberty's diverse mix of Italian, Anglo-American, African-American, Polish and Irish residents stayed intact until after World War II. On June 30, 1868, the City of Pittsburgh annexed Collins Twp. What is now East Liberty. Thanks to its favorable location and Mellon's guiding hand, East Liberty became a thriving commercial center in the following years. East Liberty's merchants served many of Pittsburgh's industrial millionaires, who settled in nearby Shadyside and Point Breeze. Professionals in Highland Park and Friendship and laborers in Bloomfield and Garfield shopped in East Liberty. There were four movie theaters. Actor-singer Dick Powell got his start singing at the Enright Theater.
By 1950, the area was a bustling and urban marketplace, anchored by Sears-Roebuck store on Highland Avenue and Mansmann's Department Store on Penn Avenue. It had become the largest, in terms of sales dollars, non-center-city business district in the country. East Liberty's decline was precipitated by a series of government policies relating to the underwriting of mortgages for homes referred to as redlining; the residential areas surrounding East Liberty's main business district consisted of packed wood frame homes built in the mid-to-late 1800's.. In 1937, The George F Cram Company undertook the creation of federally sponsored surveys and maps which became the'redlined' maps used by banks for underwriting; the Cram Maps listed this housing stock as "obsolete," noted the "infiltration of Jews... and Negroes", the large number of people on relief as justification for redlining the area. The result of this redlining was two-fold; because homes require routine maintenance and occasional u
Highland Park (Pittsburgh neighborhood)
Highland Park is a racially diverse residential neighborhood in the northeastern part of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Highland Park, the neighborhood encompasses the park with the same name; the neighborhood has 6,395 residents according to the 2010 United States Census. It occupies 748 acres built around the 380-acre park, is bordered by the neighborhoods of East Liberty and Larimer to the south, Morningside to the west, Lincoln-Lemington-Belmar to the east, the Allegheny River to the north; the neighborhood is set apart from surrounding areas by Heth's Run, which separates Highland Park from Morningside to the west, by Negley Run, which separates it from Lincoln-Lemington-Belmar to the east and Larimer to the south. The only direct land routes to Highland Park are from East Liberty, via Negley Avenue, Highland Avenue, several other streets; the first permanent European settler in Highland Park was a Swiss settler. In 1778, Negley purchased a 278-acre farm along the Allegheny River that he called “Fertile Bottom” and which extended over much of what is now Highland Park north of Bryant Street.
His son Jacob married Barbara Winebiddle, the daughter of other local landowners, in 1795, in 1799 purchased the 443-acre farm that adjoined his father’s farm to the south and west. Jacob and Barbara Negley built a brick house at what is now the corner of Stanton and Negley Avenues in 1808, which became the seat of a substantial land holding when the two farms were combined upon the death of Alexander Negley in 1809. Jacob Negley was one of the most prominent citizens in the early nineteenth century of the East Liberty Valley, the ancient river bottom that lies north of Squirrel Hill in the eastern section of Pittsburgh and provides relief from the hilly topography of the city; the earliest highway from the east, the Greensburg & Pittsburgh Turnpike, which followed the line that the British cut during the French and Indian War, ran east–west through the East Liberty Valley. Jacob Negley won the contract to pave a five-mile section of the turnpike between 1813 and 1819, he played a substantial role in the founding of a village in East Liberty, building a steam-powered grist mill on the turnpike in 1816, establishing a bank, helping to found the East Liberty Presbyterian Church in 1819.
His daughter Sara Jane married the lawyer Thomas Mellon, patriarch of the banking family, in 1843. Upon the death of Jacob Negley in 1827, his widow Barbara built a new farmhouse for herself in 1829, which still stands and which gives its name to the "Farmhouse Park" playground within Highland Park, she resolved certain debts that she and Jacob had incurred during the Panic of 1819 by selling some parcels of her land. In 1837, Barbara Winebiddle Negley divided the remainder of the estate among her children; this started the process of subdivision of land in East Liberty and Highland Park that led to the development of those neighborhoods in the nineteenth century. With the subdivision of the estate, the County Surveyor, Robert Hilands laid out the first streets in the Highland Park area, he formally established Negley Avenue along the line of the country lane that connected Penn Avenue with the Negley homestead, laid out Hiland Avenue as the principal street running north out of the center of the village of East Liberty, converted the Negleys’ principal east–west “Country Lane” into what is now called Stanton Avenue.
In the first half of the nineteenth century, most of the development in the East End of Pittsburgh occurred in the East Liberty section. This growth was spurred on by the construction of the Pennsylvania Railroad’s main line to Pittsburgh through the East Liberty Valley in 1852. By 1868, there was a population of about 5000 in the general vicinity of East Liberty. In that year, the municipalities east of Pittsburgh were annexed by the City of Pittsburgh as part of a campaign of expansion that tripled the size of the city and extended its boundaries south of the Monongahela River. Further transportation improvements followed the incorporation of East Liberty into the city. In 1870, the City Councils passed the Penn Avenue Act, which provided a mechanism for the paving of local streets, in 1872 horse-drawn streetcar service was extended out of Pittsburgh to East Liberty. In addition, the city Water Commission purchased land and began construction in 1872 of a reservoir on the top of the hill at the head of Hiland Avenue that opened in 1879.
The land purchases for the reservoir provided the germ of the Highland Park landscape park, founded in 1889. The Highland Park neighborhood was developed as a streetcar suburb: residents walked or used streetcars to reach East Liberty, where they worked, shopped, or took trains to other portions of the City of Pittsburgh; as such, the neighborhood was almost wholly residential, with homes that are in many cases quite substantial. These homes are spaced further apart than the rowhouses of urban neighborhoods such as Bloomfield and Lawrenceville, but they are much closer together than is typical in a post-1940s automobile suburb; the Highland Park neighborhood's appeal derived in large part from its setting between the large public park to the north and the East Liberty business district to the south. That appeal declined to some extent from 1970–2000, when East Liberty went through an extended period of decline, but East Liberty's renaissance as a commercial district after 2000 has caused the Highland Park neighborhood to become more appealing as well
The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette known as the PG, is the largest newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, United States. It has won six Pulitzer Prizes since 1938; the Post-Gazette began its history as a four-page weekly called The Pittsburgh Gazette, first published on July 29, 1786 with the encouragement of Hugh Henry Brackenridge. It was the first newspaper published west of the Allegheny Mountains. Published by Joseph Hall and John Scull, the paper covered the start of the nation; as one of its first major articles, the Gazette published the newly adopted Constitution of the United States. In 1820, under publishers Eichbaum and Johnston and editor Morgan Neville, the name changed to Pittsburgh Gazette and Manufacturing and Mercantile Advertiser. David MacLean bought the paper in 1822, reverted to the former title. Under combative editor Neville B. Craig, whose service lasted from 1829 to 1841, the Gazette championed the Anti-Masonic movement. Craig turned the Gazette into the city's first daily paper, issued every afternoon except Sunday starting on July 30, 1833.
In 1844, shortly after absorbing the Advocate, the Gazette switched its daily issue time to morning. Its editorial stance at the time was conservative and favoring the Whig Party. By the 1850s the Gazette was credited with helping to organize a local chapter of the new Republican Party, with contributing to the election of Abraham Lincoln; the paper was one of the first to suggest tensions between North and South would erupt in war. After consolidating with the Commercial in 1877, the paper was again renamed and was known as the Commercial Gazette. In 1900, George T. Oliver acquired the paper, merging it six years with The Pittsburg Times to form The Gazette Times; the Pittsburgh Post first appeared on September 1842, as the Daily Morning Post. It had its origin in three pro-Democratic weeklies, the Mercury, Allegheny Democrat, American Manufacturer, which came together through a pair of mergers in the early 1840s; the three papers had for years engaged in bitter editorial battles with the Gazette.
Like its predecessors, the Post advocated the policies of the Democratic Party. Its political opposition to the Whig and Republican Gazette was so enduring that an eventual combination of the two rivals would have seemed unlikely; the 1920s were a time of consolidation in the long-overcrowded Pittsburgh newspaper market. In 1923, local publishers banded together to kill off the Dispatch and Leader. Four years William Randolph Hearst negotiated with the Olivers to purchase the morning Gazette Times and its evening sister, the Chronicle Telegraph, while Paul Block arranged to buy out the owner of the morning Post and evening Sun. After swapping the Sun in return for Hearst's Gazette Times, Block had both morning papers, which he combined to form the Post-Gazette. Hearst united the evening papers. Both new papers debuted on August 2, 1927. In 1960, Pittsburgh had three daily papers: the Post-Gazette in the morning, the Pittsburgh Press and the Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph in the evening and on Sunday.
The Post-Gazette moved into the Sun-Telegraph's Grant Street offices. The Post-Gazette tried to publish a Sunday paper to compete with the Sunday Press but it was not profitable. In November 1961, the Post-Gazette entered into an agreement with the Pittsburgh Press Company to combine their production and advertising sales operations; the Post-Gazette owned and operated its own news and editorial departments, but production and distribution of the paper was handled by the larger Press office. This agreement stayed in place for over 30 years; the agreement gave the Post-Gazette a new home in the Press building, a comfortable upgrade from the hated "Sun-Telly barn." Constructed for the Press in 1927 and expanded with a curtain wall in 1962, the building served as the Post-Gazette headquarters until 2015. On May 17, 1992, a strike by workers for the Press shut down publication of the Press. During the strike, the Scripps Howard company sold the Press to the Block family, owners of the Post-Gazette.
The Blocks did not resume printing the Press, when the labor issue was resolved and publishing resumed, the Post-Gazette became the city's major paper, under the full masthead name Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Sun-Telegraph/The Pittsburgh Press. The Block ownership did not take this opportunity to address labor costs, which had led to sale of the Press; this would come back to lead to financial problems. During the strike, publisher Richard Mellon Scaife expanded his paper, the Greensburg Tribune-Review, based in the county seat of adjoining Westmoreland County, where it had published for years. While maintaining the original paper in its facilities in Greensburg, he expanded it with a new Pittsburgh edition to serve the city and its suburbs. Scaife named this paper the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Scaife has invested significant amounts of capital into upgraded facilities, separate offices and newsroom on Pittsburgh's North Side and a state of the art production facility in Marshall Township north of Pittsburgh in Allegheny County.
Relations between the Post-Gazette and Tribune-Review, during its existence as a local print publication, were competitive and hostile, given Scaife's longstanding distaste for what he considered the Blocks' liberalism. On November 14, 2011, the Post-Gazette revived the Pittsburgh Press as an afternoon online newspaper. On February 12, 2014, the paper purchased a new distribution facility in suburban Findlay Township, Pennsylvania. In 2015, the paper moved into a new, sta
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Focaccia is a flat oven-baked Italian bread product similar in style and texture to pizza dough. Focaccia can be used as a side as sandwich bread. Focaccia al rosmarino is a common focaccia style in Italian cuisine that may be served as an antipasto, table bread, or snack. Focaccia is similar to the Greek flatbread lagana. In Ancient Rome, panis focacius was a flat bread baked on the hearth; the word is derived from the Latin focus meaning "hearth, place for baking." The basic recipe is thought by some to have originated with the Etruscans, but today it is associated with Ligurian cuisine. As the tradition spread, the different dialects and diverse local ingredients resulted in a large variety of bread. Due to the number of small towns and hamlets dotting the coast of Liguria, the focaccia recipe has fragmented into countless variations, with some bearing little resemblance to its original form; the most extreme example is a specialty called focaccia col formaggio, made in Recco, near Genoa. Other than the name, this Recco version bears no resemblance to other focaccia varieties, having a stracchino cheese filling sandwiched between two layers of paper-thin dough.
Out of Liguria, focaccia comes in many regional variations and its recipe, its texture, its flavor remarkably varies from north to south of Italy. In some parts of the Northwest, for example, a popular recipe is focaccia dolce, consisting of a basic focaccia base and sprinkled with sugar, or including raisins, honey, or other sweet ingredients. Another sweet focaccia from the Northeast is focaccia veneta, a typical cake of the Venetian Easter tradition: it is based on eggs and butter and it looks quite similar to panettone or to another Venetian cake like pandoro. In South Tyrol and in the small village of Krimml in Austria, the so-called Osterfochaz is the traditional Easter gift of the Godparents to their Godchildren. Therefore, the bread is thinner in the middle, in order to put in the coloured Easter eggs. Focaccia al rosmarino is a common flatbread style in Italian cuisine that may be served as an antipasto, table bread, or snack. Similar dishes include focaccia alla salvia, pizza bianca and potato rosemary focaccia, the latter of, referred to as "potato pizza" in New York City.
Like other focaccie, focaccia al rosmarino is sometimes considered to be a kind of pizza, though they are distinguished in Italy. Focaccia al rosmarino is a popular style of flatbread in Italian cuisine prepared using focaccia dough, olive oil and salt, sea salt or kosher salt. Focaccia al rosmarino may be served as table bread or snack. Whole or sliced fresh rosemary leaves may be used, it sprinkled with salt. Focaccia al rosmarino may have a moist texture, the ingredients used in its preparation and the shape it is formed in varies in different regions, it may be prepared as a sweet dish. The dish is baked, although it is sometimes fried in oil. Rosemary is among the most common herbs used to flavor focaccia bread. Additional ingredients such as garlic, or basil may be used, it is sometimes served accompanied with slices of an Italian dry-cured ham. It can be prepared as a vegan dish, it may be used in the preparation of sandwiches. A similar style is focaccia alla salvia, prepared by substituting sage for the rosemary.
Pizza bianca is another similar style, prepared using pizza dough, olive oil, chopped rosemary and salt. The term "pizza bianca" refers to focaccia in some areas of Italy. Potato rosemary focaccia is a variation, referred to as "potato pizza" in New York City. Pizza is a similar dish. Pane, focacce e torte salate. Voglia di cucinare. Giunti Demetra. 2010. P. 229. ISBN 978-88-440-3944-8