Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
German Formula Three Championship
The German Formula Three Championship was the national Formula Three championship of Germany, the former West Germany, from 1950 to 2002 as Formel 3 until 2014. In 2003, the series had merged with the French Formula Three Championship to form the Formula 3 Euro Series; the lower-level series, the ATS Formel 3 Cup, subsequently operated in Germany, but it folded after the end of the 2014 season. Since the late 1980s, the list of German F3 champions has included many notable drivers, including Formula One World Champion Michael Schumacher and nine-time Le Mans winner Tom Kristensen; the first few years of Formula Three in Germany were subject to the effects of the country's post-war geo-political situation, which resulted in the existence of two separate championships. The West German championship ran from 1950 to 1954, while the East German equivalent continued until 1956. During this period, both championships used the then-standard 500cc two-stroke formula; this era was notable for BMW's first foray into open-wheeled racing as an engine supplier, having enjoyed success in pre-war motorcycle racing and touring cars.
The 500cc Formula 3 specification was superseded in 1958 by Formula Junior, with engine capacities of 1000cc or 1100cc that were derived from production cars, rather than motorcycles. This new specification was adopted in a revived German F3 Championship in 1960, won by Gerhard Mitter; the 1961 title was won by Kurt Ahrens, Jr. who became champion again in 1963. He was a back-to-back winner, because there was no championship in 1962. In 1964, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile ended Formula Junior and returned to Formula Three, but this time with 1000cc four-cylinder production-based engines. However, it would be ten years; the first German F3 champion of this era was Giorgio Francia of Italy, who won the title in 1974. He was the first non-German driver to win the title. Other notable drivers of this era were Frank Jelinski. Schäfer drove for his eponymous team, Bertram Schäfer Racing, which won the championship with Jelinski. BSR became a stalwart of German F3, it still competes in the series today.
In the 1980s, the German F3 Championship began to produce some notable champions that would graduate to Formula One and achieve title-winning success in other championships. Bernd Schneider and Joachim Winkelhock went on to make F1 appearances and became champions at the highest levels of touring car racing. 1985 champion Volker Weidler competed in F1 and won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1991. However, the 1990 champion was arguably the most notable of them all: Michael Schumacher. Four years before winning the first of his seven F1 World Championship titles, Schumacher had attracted attention with his performances in F3 and the World Sportscar Championship at a time when the profile of German F3 was rising, within a year, he had made his Grand Prix début. Heinz-Harald Frentzen competed against Schumacher, became a winner of three Grands Prix. Schumacher's championship successor, Tom Kristensen from Denmark, embarked on a sportscar career that peaked with a record number of eight Le Mans wins.
He has since established himself in the DTM touring car series. During the 1990s, two more future Grand Prix winners graduated from the German F3 Championship – Ralf Schumacher and Jarno Trulli – together with many other notable drivers that include Alexander Wurz, Jos Verstappen, Norberto Fontana, Nick Heidfeld and Christijan Albers; the last champion of this period, Gary Paffett, went on to win the DTM drivers' championship title and worked as a test driver for McLaren-Mercedes. In 2007, he returned to racing in the DTM. In 2002, the motorsport governing bodies of France and Germany collaborated to revive the concept of a European F3 championship; the F3 Euroseries was supposed to replace the German and French national championships – indeed, the French championship came to an end at that point. However, the German championship had more entrants, many of whom had concerns about the inevitable cost increase that a pan-European event calendar would entail. Bertram Schäfer led moves to maintain some form of national F3 series in Germany, had support from ADAC and the F3V.
In 2003, the new series was inaugurated, with Schäfer himself functioning as the series promoter. The Recaro Formel 3 Cup had title sponsorship from a racing parts company based in Germany, it was replaced in 2007 by wheel manufacturer ATS. In 2005, a two-tier championship class system was adopted for chassis specifications from the previous three-year lifecycle; this system was adopted by the British F3 Championship in the 1990s and has since gained favour in many other F3 championships throughout Europe. It can provide an important entry point for teams without a competitive budget. After a 2014 season in which grid numbers ranged between nine and 14 cars, the series' organisers rejected a proposed merger with the British Formula 3 Championship with the intention of continuing the F3 Cup in 2015 under the name German Formula Open in order to circumvent FIA rules on national F3 championships which stipulate that they can hold no more than one round outside their home country. However, in January 2015 it was announced that the series would not be held in 2015, although it was hoped that it could be revived in the near future.
Despite the fact that F3 is still an open formula for which an
A1 Grand Prix
A1 Grand Prix was a'single make' open wheel auto racing series that ran from 2005 until 2009. It was unique in its field in that competitors represented their nation as opposed to themselves or a team, the usual format in most formula racing series; as such, it was promoted as the "World Cup of Motorsport". The series was ratified by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and races were held in the traditional Formula One off-season, the northern hemisphere winter; the nation-based A1GP concept was founded by Sheikh Maktoum Hasher Maktoum Al Maktoum of Dubai in 2003. After a successful first season of A1GP, it was announced on 29 September 2006 that Maktoum was to sell his position as Chairman & Director of A1GP; the transfer of his share in the organisation of A1 Grand Prix to RAB Capital was finalized in December 2006. Tony Teixeira took control of the series in 2006, leading it to liquidation by 2009; the nation-based A1GP concept was founded by Sheikh Maktoum Hasher Maktoum Al Maktoum of Dubai in 2003.
Once the series had received the backing of the FIA, a management structure including new executive directors Brian Menell and Tony Teixeira were appointed to oversee the sale of franchises for the operation of international teams. Thirty franchises were made available. Twenty-five of the franchises were purchased in time for the 2005–06 A1 Grand Prix season, which began on 25 September 2005 with the A1 Grand Prix of Nations Great Britain at the Brands Hatch circuit in Kent, United Kingdom; the first season was planned for 12 rounds. Nelson Piquet, Jr. won the inaugural race of the series for A1 Team Brazil. Their winning form was not to continue. Wins at Estoril and Malaysia saw A1 Team France build up a sizeable gap. By the start of the winter break, France had run away with the lead with A1 Team Switzerland 28 points behind. At the final race of the season in Shanghai, A1 Team France were crowned the first-ever A1 Grand Prix world champions with 172 points. Switzerland were second with A1 Team Great Britain third with 97 points.
Katherine Legge was the first woman to drive A1 Grand Prix cars during test session in December 2005 on Dubai Autodrome. Changes were made for the 2006–07 season to race durations and distances to improve the spectacle for attendees and TV viewers; the 2006–07 schedule was released on 7 July 2006, with the first race at Circuit Park Zandvoort on 1 October 2006, the last race at Brands Hatch on 29 April 2007. New teams Team Singapore and Team Greece joined the competition but Team Turkey failed to secure funding for the season. Team Austria, Team Japan, Team Portugal and Team Russia did not return for the second season. However, after securing funding Team Portugal competed in the final four rounds of the second season in South Africa, Mexico and Britain. Team Germany won the series with 128 points, 35 points lead ahead of Team New Zealand. On 29 September, Sheikh Maktoum announced he was resigning his position as chairman and chief executive of the series, seeking to have his place taken by increased shareholder interests: Maktoum announced his intended resignation in September and his exit from the organisation was confirmed in December.
The 2007–08 season was the final season that used the Lola-Zytek A1GP car, with rule changes including two mandatory pit-stops in the Feature Race and an introduction of E30 biofuel as the cars' fuel. Team Switzerland was the winning team with Neel Jani behind the wheel. In what proved to be the series' final season, the 2008–09 season was the only season in which the "Powered by Ferrari" A1GP car was used. According to 2007–08 champion Neel Jani, 90% of teams in the paddock warned Teixeira ahead of time that this car change was untimely and an inefficient use of funds. Rule changes included shorter qualifying sessions, a pit-stop during the now longer Sprint Race, removal of limits on Friday test drivers, reduced Sprint Race points scoring. Throughout the season, three rounds were cancelled for various reasons, a proposed race in Brazil fell through; the opening round of the season, scheduled as part of the well established Nikon SuperGP race meeting, was cancelled five days before practice was due to begin.
With cars and series infrastructure still tied up in London and no comment forthcoming from A1GP, organisers in Australia were forced to announce the series would not appear at what had been a high-profile addition to the A1 Grand Prix calendar. The event was underwritten by the Queensland state government, who mentioned the possibility of taking legal recourse against A1 Grand Prix; the series was thrown into further doubt as more races were cancelled, with an announcement made on 5 November 2009 stating that the races in China and Malaysia would not be taking place. The last race, to be held in the season, the Dutch round, was switched for Superleague Formula; this put an end to the hopes the season would start and put the future of the series in doubt. Each A1 Grand Prix team represented a nation. Drivers must have the same nationality as the team; the team car should represent the country. The team owner and crew, did not need to have the same nationality as the team. Twenty-nine nations started one race in A1GP – as in the table below: A1 Grands Prix of Nations took place over a three-day period, from Friday to Sunday.
The teams were given five sets of dry weather slick tires, two sets of wet weather treaded tires per weekend. However, if
World Series Formula V8 3.5
The World Series Formula V8 3.5 the World Series by Nissan from 1998 to 2004, the Formula Renault 3.5 Series from 2005 to 2015 and the Formula V8 3.5 in 2016 and 2017, was a motor racing series promoted by RPM Racing and Renault Sport. The series came out of the Spanish Formula Renault Championship, which ran from 1991 to 1997; the World Series was founded as Open Fortuna by Nissan in 1998, was based in Spain, but visited other countries throughout its history, including France, Italy and Brazil. The organization was handled by RPM Comunicacion, founded by Jaime Alguersuari Tortajada; the series changed name a number of times adopting the name of its main sponsor, but was known by other common names such as the unofficial "Formula Nissan". In its early years, the series used chassis built with a 2.0 L Nissan SR20 engine. The series slotted in between Formula Three and Formula 3000. In 2002, it adopted a new format, with chassis supplied by Dallara and the engine upgraded to the VQ30; the series became more international, with more than half of the race calendar held outside Spain.
Renault started the Formula Renault V6 Eurocup in 2003, as a support series in Eurosport's Super Racing Weekends. The series ran with a Nissan 3.5 L V6 engine. In 2005, Renault left the Super Racing Weekend and started the World Series by Renault and the Formula Renault 3.5 Series, merging both the World Series by Nissan and Renault V6 Eurocup. The Dallara chassis was retained, while the Renault V6 was improved to 425 PS. Formula Renault 2.0 Eurocup and the Eurocup Mégane Trophy joined the series in 2005 to support the main FR3.5 series. At the end of July 2015, Renault Sport announced it would be withdrawing its backing to the Formula Renault 3.5 from 2016 onwards, handing the control of the series to co-organiser RPM. However, Renault Sport said it would continue the World Series by Renault with the Renault Sport Trophy and the Formula Renault 2.0 Eurocup. As a result of this, RPM decided to change the series' name to Formula V8 3.5. In December 2016, the series' name was changed again to World Series Formula V8 3.5, giving extra recognition to the championship.
On 17 November 2017 was announced that due to lack of entries the series would not take place in 2018 with a possibility of relaunch in the near future. From 2008–2011, the chassis for the Formula Renault 3.5 Series is a Dallara built carbon fibre monocoque and the engine a 3.5 litre V6 Nissan VQ35 unit producing 480 bhp with a rev limit of 8500 rpm. The gearbox is a 6 speed semi-automatic supplied by Ricardo with steering wheel paddle shift. Total weight of the car is 600 kg. Starting from 2012 season, the Formula Renault 3.5 Series adopted a new chassis, the Dallara T12, powered by a 3.4 litre V8 engine producing 530 BHP at 9250 rpm developed by Zytek. The cars lost 15 kg of weight. In addition, a Drag Reduction System is used, which operates in a similar way to the one in use in Formula One. Engine displacement: 3.4 L DOHC V8 Gearbox: 6-speed paddle shift gearbox Weight: 623 kg Power output: 530 hp Fuel: Elf LMS 102 RON unleaded Fuel capacity: 29 US gallons Fuel delivery: Fuel injection Aspiration: Normally-aspirated Length: 5,070 mm Width: 1,930 mm Wheelbase: 3,125 mm Steering: Power-assisted rack and pinion
Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya
The Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya is a motorsport race track in Montmeló, Spain. With long straights and a variety of corners, the Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya is seen as an all-rounder circuit; the track has stands with a capacity of 140,700. The circuit has FIA Grade 1 license; until 2013 the track was known only as the Circuit de Catalunya, before a sponsorship deal with Barcelona City Council added Barcelona to the track's title. The Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya was built in 1991 and began hosting the Spanish Grand Prix that same year. Construction coincided with the Olympic Games scheduled to take place in Barcelona the next year, where the circuit acted as the start and finish line for the road team time trial cycling event; the Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya should not be confused with the Montjuïc circuit, which hosted the Spanish Grand Prix four times between 1969 and 1975 and, unlike the Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya, is located within the city of Barcelona. Because so much testing is done at this circuit, Formula One drivers and mechanics are familiar with it.
This has led to criticism that drivers and mechanics are too familiar with Catalunya, reducing the amount of on-track action. When first used, overtaking was frequent as cars could follow through the last two corners and slipstream down the long straight; as aerodynamic balance became more critical, this overtaking method drastically decreased as the cars were unable to follow each other through the fast final corner due to turbulence created by the leading car. The 2007 season saw the first of the two final sweepers replaced with a slow chicane in an effort to improve overtaking; the Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya has hosted a motorcycle Grand Prix since 1992 the European motorcycle Grand Prix from 1992 and the Catalan motorcycle Grand Prix since 1996. There are at least five points on the track; as in Formula 1, Turn 1 is arguably the most popular place for overtaking. The circuit is not known to produce copious amounts of overtaking, despite the long straights; the Formula 1 circuit changes were not instituted for MotoGP.
The FIM made a further change to the chicane for 2017 by moving up the chicane to prevent riders from cutting the pit lane entrance, but, abandoned because the motorcycle chicane had a surface change that created more safety issues with the transition. Further changes were made to the circuit in December 2017 as grandstands were removed to add additional runoff that allowed the FIM to eliminate that chicane; the circuit hosted many other international racing series, including the FIA Sportscar Championship, European Touring Car Championship, FIA GT Championship, Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters, European Le Mans Series, World Series by Renault. The FIA World Rallycross Championship visits Catalunya since 2015; the track is demanding of a car's aerodynamic qualities. The wind direction at the circuit can change drastically during the day, a significant factor given the importance of aerodynamics to modern Formula One cars, it is hard to find a good setup since cars can have massive aerodynamic drag and understeer on one part of the circuit in the morning, but suffer oversteer at the same part of the circuit in the afternoon.
A given tyre compound can work well. These changeable conditions can make for unexpected performances from some teams during the race; the changeable wind conditions have caused accidents at the circuit, with Fernando Alonso's testing accident in 2015 blamed on the severity of the wind. The MotoGP layout uses the 1995-2003 version of the Grand Prix circuit; the layout was the same as Formula One, but in 2004 the La Caixa turn was modified. The F1 layout was implemented in 2016 following the fatal accident of Luis Salom in Europcar on 3 June 2016 race control switched to the F1 circuit for qualifying and the race on 5 June 2016. On 15 December 2016, the FIM announced the change was permanent by announcing plans for a chicane ahead of the current car chicane. However, during the 2017 race, the new chicane was deemed dangerous by riders because of a surface change, the car chicane was used during that event. After changes to the track in the off-season including removing grandstands in Turn 12 in creating additional runoff and a complete repaving of the circuit, the F1 layout from 2004-06, including the new La Caixa hairpin instead of sweeper, will be used, eliminating the chicane.
The World RX of Spain uses parts of the track near turns 11–15, with two additional gravel sections. Turn 1 is the main overtaking point at Catalunya, as it is a braking zone at the end of a long DRS straight; the inside and outside are difficult for overtaking. The corners themselves make up a medium-speed chicane – drivers brake rather late for turn one and shift down to gear two, turn two is full throttle as they try to gain as much exit speed as possible. Turn 3 is a long, flat-out right-hander that has a g-force of about four, it leads to a short straight before turn 4, the Repsol curve. Another right-hander, turn four is similar to Monza's Curva Parabolica – drivers br
Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours
Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours is a motor racing circuit located in central France, near the towns of Magny-Cours and Nevers, some 250 km from Paris and 240 km from Lyon. It staged the Formula One French Grand Prix from 1991 to 2008, the 24-hour Bol d'Or motorcycle endurance events from 2000 to 2014, it hosted the French motorcycle Grand Prix in 1992, the Superbike World Championship in 1991 and annually since 2003. Magny-Cours has hosted several additional international championships, like the World Sportscar Championship, World Touring Car Championship, FIA GT Championship, World Series by Renault and Formula 3 Euroseries; the FFSA GT Championship has visited the circuit since 1997. A campus of the French engineering college Institut supérieur de l'automobile et des transports is located on the circuit. Dubbed Magny-Cours, it was built in 1960 by Jean Bernigaud and was home to the prestigious Winfield racing school, which produced drivers such as François Cevert, Jacques Laffite and Didier Pironi.
However, in the 1980s the track fell into disrepair and was not used for international motor racing until it was purchased by the Regional Conseil de la Nièvre. In the 1990s the Ligier Formula One team was based at the circuit and did much of its testing at Magny-Cours, it had hosted the French Formula One Grand Prix since 1991, the Bol d'Or since 2000. The circuit was re-designed in 2003 and used for a wide range of events include various sports and commercial use. For the 2003 event, the final corner and chicane were changed in an effort to increase overtaking, with little effect; this did, change the approach to strategy at this circuit as it made the pitlane much shorter. Because less time was lost making a pit stop, Michael Schumacher was able to win the 2004 French Grand Prix using an unprecedented four-stop strategy. In 2006, Michael Schumacher became the first driver to win any single Formula One Grand Prix a total of 8 times and at the same circuit; the 2008 race was to mark the last French Grand Prix at Magny-Cours, as the French Grand Prix had been indefinitely suspended from the Formula One calendar.
Bernie Ecclestone confirmed that F1 would not return to Magny-Cours in 2008, instead moving to an alternative location in Paris. However in a striking U-turn, it was revealed that the 2008 French Grand Prix would take place at Magny-Cours with the release of the official calendar in July 2007. In May 2008, Ecclestone confirmed that Magny-Cours would stop hosting the French Grand Prix after the 2008 race, suggesting that he was looking into the possibility of hosting the French Grand Prix on the streets of Paris; the venue suffered from poor attendances due to its remote location, poor access and insufficient accommodation. In June 2008, the provisional calendar for the 2009 season was released, a French Grand Prix at Magny-Cours appeared on it, scheduled for 28 June. However, in October 2008 the 2009 French Grand Prix was cancelled after the French Motorsports Federation withdrew financing for the event. In 2009 the track hosted its first Superleague Formula event, it hosted a second event in 2010.
The circuit was used as part of stage three of the 2014 Paris–Nice cycling race, with the peloton completing a full lap of the circuit – in the reverse direction to its motorsport use – before the finish on the front straight. The track nowadays is a smooth circuit with good facilities for the teams, although restricted access prevents spectators from reaching many parts of the circuit. Unusually, many corners are modelled on famous turns from other circuits, are named after those circuits, i.e.. The fast Estoril corner, the Adelaide hairpin and the Nürburgring and Imola chicanes, it has a mix of slow hairpins and high-speed chicane sections which includes a long fast straight into the first-gear Adelaide hairpin, the best overtaking opportunity on the circuit. The circuit is flat with negligible change in elevation; the circuit provides few overtaking opportunities, despite modifications in 2003, which means the races here are regarded as quite uneventful. Formula 1 races at Magny-Cours tend to have a processional nature, with most overtaking occurring during pit stop sequences.
More varied racing occurs when it rains, such as in the 1999 race, interrupted by a downpour. After a restart, most top contenders developed problems, which paved the way for Heinz-Harald Frentzen to claim a surprising victory in his Jordan. Although the Bol d'Or 24-hour motorcycle endurance race was held at Magny Cours for several years, it never quite matched the cachet of the Le Mans event. World Superbike Tom Sykes Magny-Cours Lap Record. Official website Google Maps satellite view of Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours Nevers Magny-Cours History and Statistics Track info from official F1 site A lap of Magny-Cours with Honda’s Alexander Wurz Magny-Cours - the technical requirements
Red Bull Ring
The Red Bull Ring is a motorsport race track in Spielberg, Austria. The race circuit was founded as Österreichring and hosted the Austrian Grand Prix for 18 consecutive years, from 1970 to 1987, it was shortened and renamed the A1-Ring, it hosted the Austrian Grand Prix again from 1997 to 2003. When Formula One outgrew the circuit, a plan was drawn up to extend the layout. Parts of the circuit, including the pits and main grandstand, were demolished, but construction work was stopped and the circuit remained unusable for several years before it was purchased by Red Bull's Dietrich Mateschitz and rebuilt. Renamed the Red Bull Ring the track was reopened on 15 May 2011 and subsequently hosted a round of the 2011 DTM season and a round of the 2011 F2 championship. Formula One returned to the circuit in the 2014 season. Built in 1969 to replace the bland and bumpy Zeltweg Airfield circuit, the Österreichring track was situated in the Styrian mountains and it was a spectacular and unique circuit; the track was fast, every corner was a fast sweeper and was taken in no lower than 3rd gear in a 5-speed gearbox and 4th in a 6-speed gearbox and the track had noticeable changes in elevation during the course of a lap, 65 metres from lowest to highest point.
Like most fast circuits it was a hard circuit on engines but more difficult on tires, because of the speeds being so high. Many considered the Österreichring to be dangerous the Bosch Kurve, a 180-degree downhill right-hand corner with no run-off area which, by 1986 when turbos pushed Formula One engine power to upwards of 1,400 bhp in qualifying, saw Derek Warwick speed trapped at 344 km/h in his BMW powered Brabham BT55 on the run to the Bosch Kurve. There were other testing corners such as Voest-Hugel, a flat-out 180 mph right hander that led to the 150 mph Sebring-Auspuff Kurve, an essential corner to get right because of the long straight afterwards that led to the Bosch Kurve; some of the track was just road with little to no protection at all up to the final Austrian Grand Prix there in 1987, a race that had to be restarted twice because of 2 progressively more serious accidents both caused by the narrow pit straight in a similar manner to the 1985 race when the race was stopped after one lap following a start line shunt that had taken out three cars including championship leader Michele Alboreto's Ferrari and local driver Gerhard Berger's Arrows-BMW.
In practice for the 1987 race McLaren's Stefan Johansson narrowly avoided serious injury or worse when at over 150 mph he collided with a deer that had made its way onto the track while Johansson was cresting a blind brow before the Jochen Rindt Kurve behind the pits. Increasing speeds were a concern at the Österreichring. At the time it was second only in F1 average speed to Keke Rosberg's 160.9 mph pole lap of the Silverstone Circuit set during the 1985 British Grand Prix. Both times were set using a turbocharged Williams-Honda. American driver Mark Donohue died after crashing at the Vost-Hugel Kurve in 1975. In 1976, the Vost-Hugel Kurve was tightened and made into one right hander rather than 2 right-handers with a small section between, in 1977 it was slowed down and became the Hella-Licht chicane, going from the fastest to the slowest corner on the track, it is known that four-times World Champion Alain Prost said that all tracks can be changed but that the Österreichring should remain unchanged, just adding run-off areas would be fine, which did happen up until the original track's final year in 1995.
The track was known for having many crashes at the start of races because the start–finish straight was narrow and it did not provide enough space for cars attempting to pass others cars that stalled or broke at the start. Motorcycle rider Hans-Peter Klampfer died after a collision with another rider at the Bosch Kurve and 29-year-old Hannes Wustinger was killed after a crash at the Tiroch Kurve at a race for the Austrian Touring car championship and this sealed the decision to build a new circuit. Triple World Champion and long time hero of the home crowd Niki Lauda is the only Austrian driver to win his home Grand Prix, he won the 1984 Austrian Grand Prix at the Österreichring driving a McLaren-TAG Porsche. Lauda went on to win his third and final championship in 1984, beating his team mate Alain Prost by the smallest margin in F1 history, only half a point, he announced his permanent retirement from driving at the circuit before the 1985 race. The Österreichring's safety concerns had reached a head in the mid 1990s, in 1995 and 1996 it was rebuilt, at the same site, by Hermann Tilke.
Its length was shortened from 5.942 km to 4.326 km, the fast sweeping corners were replaced by three tight right-handers, in order to create overtaking opportunities. Its three long straights, as well as a twisty infield section, asked for a setup compromise; as much of the construction work was paid for by the mobile phone provider A1, the track was renamed the A1-Ring. It proceeded to host seven Formula One Austrian Grands Prix between 1997 and 2003, as well as several DTM races and Austrian motorcy