Padua is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy. It is the capital of the economic and communications hub of the area. Padua's population is 214,000; the city is sometimes included, with Venice and Treviso, in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area which has a population of c. 2,600,000. Padua stands on 29 km southeast of Vicenza; the Brenta River, which once ran through the city, still touches the northern districts. Its agricultural setting is the Venetian Plain. To the city's south west lies the Euganaean Hills, praised by Lucan and Martial, Ugo Foscolo, Shelley, it hosts the University of Padua, founded in 1222, where Galileo Galilei was a lecturer between 1592 and 1610. The city is picturesque, with a dense network of arcaded streets opening into large communal piazze, many bridges crossing the various branches of the Bacchiglione, which once surrounded the ancient walls like a moat. Padua is the setting for most of the action in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. There is a play by the Irish writer Oscar Wilde entitled The Duchess of Padua.
The city is known for being the city where Saint Anthony, a Portuguese Franciscan, spent part of his life and died in 1231. The original significance of the Roman name Patavium is uncertain, it may be connected with the ancient name of the River Po. Additionally, the root pat-, in the Indo-European language may refer to a wide open plain as opposed to nearby hills; the suffix -av (also found in the name of the rivers such as the Timavus and Tiliaventum is of Venetic origin indicating the presence of a river, which in the case of Padua is the Brenta. The ending - ium, signifies the presence of villages. Padua claims to be the oldest city in northern Italy. According to a tradition dated at least to the time of Virgil's Aeneid and to Livy's Ab Urbe Condita, Padua was founded in around 1183 BC by the Trojan prince Antenor. After the Fall of Troy, Antenor led a group of Trojans and their Paphlagonian allies, the Eneti or Veneti, who lost their king Pylaemenes to settle the Euganean plain in Italy.
Thus, when a large ancient stone sarcophagus was exhumed in the year 1274, officials of the medieval commune declared the remains within to be those of Antenor. An inscription by the native Humanist scholar Lovato dei Lovati placed near the tomb reads: This sepulchre excavated from marble contains the body of the noble Antenor who left his country, guided the Eneti and Trojans, banished the Euganeans and founded Padua However, more recent tests suggest the sepulchre dates to the between the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Archeological remains confirm an early date for the foundation of the center of the town to between the 11th and 10th centuries BC. By the 5th century BC, rose on the banks of the river Brenta, which in the Roman era was called Medoacus Maior and until AD 589 followed the path of the present day Bacchiglione. Padua was one of the principal centers of the Veneti; the Roman historian Livy records an attempted invasion by the Spartan king Cleonimos around 302 BC. The Spartans came up the river but were defeated by the Veneti in a naval battle and gave up the idea of conquest.
Still the Veneti of Padua repulsed invasions by the Etruscans and Gauls. According to Livy and Silius Italicus, the Veneti, including those of Padua, formed an alliance with the Romans by 226 BC against their common enemies, first the Gauls and the Carthaginians. Men from Padua died beside the Romans at Cannae. With Rome's northwards expansion, Padua was assimilated into the Roman Republic. In 175 BC, Padua requested the aid of Rome in putting down a local civil war. In 91 BC, along with other cities of the Veneti, fought with Rome against the rebels in the Social War. Around 49 BC, Padua was made a Roman municipium under the Lex Julia Municipalis and its citizens ascribed to the Roman tribe, Fabia. At that time the population of the city was 40,000; the city was reputed for the wool of its sheep. In fact, the poet Martial remarks on the thickness of the tunics made there. By the end of the first century BC, Padua seems to have been the wealthiest city in Italy outside of Rome; the city became so powerful that it was able to raise two hundred thousand fighting men.
However, despite its wealth, the city was renowned for its simple manners and strict morality. This concern with morality is reflected in Livy's Roman History wherein he portrays Rome's rise to dominance as being founded upon her moral rectitude and discipline. Still Pliny, referring to one of his Paduan protégés' Paduan grandmother, Sarrana Procula, lauds her as more upright and disciplined than any of her strict fellow citizens. Padua provided the Empire with notable intellectuals. Nearby Abano was the birthplace, after many years spent in Rome, the deathplace of Livy, whose Latin was said by the critic Asinius Pollio to betray his Patavinitas. Padua was the birthplace of Thrasea Paetus, Asconius Pedianus, Valerius Flaccus. Christianity was introduced to much of the Veneto by Saint Prosdocimus, he is venerated as the first bishop of the city. His deacon, the Jewish convert Daniel, is a
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Antonio Berlese was an Italian entomologist. Berlese worked on pest insects notably of fruit trees, he published over 300 articles and a book Gli insetti loro organizzazione, abitudini e rapporti con l’uomo. He was a specialist in Hemiptera Coccoidea. With his brother, Augusto Napoleone Berlese, a plant and mushroom disease specialist, he founded the Revista di Patologia vegetale in 1892. In 1903 he founded the review Redia; this publication promoted zoological studies in agriculture, in urban contexts, with an emphasis on entomology and nematology. The aim was to increase taxonomic knowledge of groups with pest species. Partial publication list for 1896 giving an idea of his output. Le cocciniglie Italiane viventi sugli agrumi. Parte II. I. Lecanium. Riv. Patol. Veget. 3: 49-100. With Leonardi, G.. Diagnosi di cocciniglie nuove. Riv. Patol. Veget. 4: 345-352. With Leonardi, G. Diagnosi di cocciniglie nuove. Riv. Patol. Veget. 4: 1-352. With Leonardi, G. Le cocciniglie Italiane viventi sugli argumi. Parte III. I Diaspiti.
Riv. Patol. Veget. 4: 74-170. With Leonardi, G. Diagnosi di cocciniglie nuove. Riv. Patol. Veget. 4: 345-352. Translated from French Wikipedia. Conci, C. 1975: Repertorio delle biografie e bibliografie degli scrittori e cultori italiani di entomologia. Mem. Soc. Ent. Ital. 48 1969 817-1069. Conci, C. & Poggi, R. 1996: Iconography of Italian Entomologists, with essential biographical data. Mem. Soc. Ent. Ital. 75 159-382, Portrait
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology. In the past the term "insect" was more vague, the definition of entomology included the study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla, such as arachnids, earthworms, land snails, slugs; this wider meaning may still be encountered in informal use. Like several of the other fields that are categorized within zoology, entomology is a taxon-based category. Entomology therefore overlaps with a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics, biomechanics, systematics, developmental biology, ecology and paleontology. At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms, date back some 400 million years, have many kinds of interactions with humans and other forms of life on earth. Entomology is rooted in nearly all human cultures from prehistoric times in the context of agriculture, but scientific study began only as as the 16th century. William Kirby is considered as the father of Entomology.
In collaboration with William Spence, he published a definitive entomological encyclopedia, Introduction to Entomology, regarded as the subject's foundational text. He helped to found the Royal Entomological Society in London in 1833, one of the earliest such societies in the world. Entomology developed in the 19th and 20th centuries, was studied by large numbers of people, including such notable figures as Charles Darwin, Jean-Henri Fabre, Vladimir Nabokov, Karl von Frisch, two-time Pulitzer Prize winner E. O. Wilson. There has been a history of people becoming entomologists through museum curation and research assistance, such as Sophie Lutterlough at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Insect identification is an common hobby, with butterflies and dragonflies being the most popular. Most insects can be recognized to order such as Hymenoptera or Coleoptera. However, insects other than Lepidoptera are identifiable to genus or species only through the use of Identification keys and Monographs.
Because the class Insecta contains a large number of species and the characteristics separating them are unfamiliar, subtle, this is very difficult for a specialist. This has led to the development of automated species identification systems targeted on insects, for example, Daisy, ABIS, SPIDA and Draw-wing. In 1994, the Entomological Society of America launched a new professional certification program for the pest control industry called the Associate Certified Entomologist. To qualify as a "true entomologist" an individual would require an advanced degree, with most entomologists pursuing a PhD. While not true entomologists in the traditional sense, individuals who attain the ACE certification may be referred to as ACEs or Associate Certified Entomologists. Many entomologists specialize in a single order or a family of insects, a number of these subspecialties are given their own informal names derived from the scientific name of the group: Coleopterology – beetles Dipterology – flies Odonatology – dragonflies and damselflies Hemipterology – true bugs Isopterology – termites Lepidopterology – moths and butterflies Melittology – bees Myrmecology – ants Orthopterology – grasshoppers, etc.
Trichopterology – caddis flies Vespology – Social wasps Like other scientific specialties, entomologists have a number of local and international organizations. There are many organizations specializing in specific subareas. Amateur Entomologists' Society Deutsches Entomologisches Institut Entomological Society of America Entomological Society of Canada Entomological Society of Japan Entomologischer Verein Krefeld Entomological Society of India International Union for the Study of Social Insects Netherlands Entomological Society Royal Belgian Entomological Society Royal Entomological Society of London Société entomologique de France Here is a list of selected museums which contain large insect collections. Zoological survey of India National Pusa Collection, Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India Pakistan Museum of Natural History Garden Avenue, Islamabad, Pakistan Natal Museum, South Africa Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, France Museum für Naturkunde, Germany Kelvingrove Art Gallery, Scotland Natural History Museum, Budapest Hungarian Natural History Museum Natural History Museum, Geneva Natural History Museum, the Netherlands Natural History Museum, United Kingdom Natural History Museum, Oslo Norway Natural History Museum, St. Petersburg Zoological Collection of the Russian Academy of Science Naturhistorisches Museum, Austria Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden The Bavarian State Collection of Zoology Zoologische Staatssammlung München World Museum Liverpool, the Bug House Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia American Museum of Natural History, New York City Auburn University Museum of Natural History, Ala
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori. It is an economically important insect. A silkworm's preferred food is white mulberry leaves, though they may eat other mulberry species and osage orange. Domestic silkmoths are dependent on humans for reproduction, as a result of millennia of selective breeding. Wild silkmoths are different from their domestic cousins. Sericulture, the practice of breeding silkworms for the production of raw silk, has been under way for at least 5,000 years in China, whence it spread to India, Korea and the West; the silkworm was domesticated from the wild silkmoth Bombyx mandarina, which has a range from northern India to northern China, Korea and the far eastern regions of Russia. The domesticated silkworm derives from Chinese rather than Korean stock. Silkworms were unlikely to have been domestically bred before the Neolithic age. Before the tools to manufacture quantities of silk thread had not been developed; the domesticated B. mori and the wild B. mandarina can still sometimes produce hybrids.
Domestic silkmoths are different from most members in the genus Bombyx. Mulberry silkworms can be categorized into types; the major groups of silkworms fall under the bivoltine categories. The univoltine breed is linked with the geographical area within greater Europe; the eggs of this type hibernate during winter due to the cold climate, cross-fertilize only by spring, generating silk only once annually. The second type is called bivoltine and is found in China and Korea; the breeding process of this type takes place twice annually, a feat made possible through the warmer climates and the resulting two life cycles. The polyvoltine type of mulberry silkworm can only be found in the tropics; the eggs are laid by female moths and hatch within nine to 12 days, so the resulting type can have up to eight separate life cycles throughout the year. Eggs take about 14 days to hatch into larvae, they have a preference for white mulberry. They are not monophagous since they can eat other species of Morus, as well as some other Moraceae Osage orange.
They are covered with tiny black hairs. When the color of their heads turns darker, it indicates. After molting, the larval phase of the silkworms emerge white and with little horns on their backs. After they have molted four times, their bodies become yellow and the skin becomes tighter; the larvae prepare to enter the pupal phase of their lifecycle, enclose themselves in a cocoon made up of raw silk produced by the salivary glands. The final molt from larva to pupa takes place within the cocoon, which provides a vital layer of protection during the vulnerable motionless pupal state. Many other Lepidoptera produce cocoons, but only a few—the Bombycidae, in particular the genus Bombyx, the Saturniidae, in particular the genus Antheraea—have been exploited for fabric production. If the animal is allowed to survive after spinning its cocoon and through the pupal phase of its lifecycle, it releases proteolytic enzymes to make a hole in the cocoon so it can emerge as an adult moth; these enzymes are destructive to the silk and can cause the silk fibers to break down from over a mile in length to segments of random length, which reduces the value of the silk threads, but not silk cocoons used as "stuffing" available in China and elsewhere for doonas, jackets etc.
To prevent this, silkworm cocoons are boiled. The heat kills the water makes the cocoons easier to unravel; the silkworm itself is eaten. As the process of harvesting the silk from the cocoon kills the larva, sericulture has been criticized by animal welfare and rights activists. Mahatma Gandhi was critical of silk production based on the Ahimsa philosophy "not to hurt any living thing"; this led to Gandhi's promotion of cotton spinning machines, an example of which can be seen at the Gandhi Institute. He promoted Ahimsa silk, wild silk made from the cocoons of wild and semiwild silkmoths; the moth – the adult phase of the lifecycle – is not capable of functional flight, in contrast to the wild B. mandarina and other Bombyx species, whose males fly to meet females and for evasion from predators. Some may emerge with the ability to lift off and stay airborne, but sustained flight cannot be achieved; this is because their bodies are too heavy for their small wings. However, some silkmoths can still fly.
Silkmoths have a wingspan of 3 -- a white, hairy body. Females are about two to three times bulkier than males, but are colored. Adult Bombycidae do not feed, though a human caretaker can feed them; the cocoon is made of a thread of raw silk from 300 to about 900 m long. The fibers are fine and lustrous, about 10 μm in diameter. About 2,000 to 3,000 cocoons are required to make a pound of silk. At least 70 million pounds of raw silk are produced each year. Due to its small size and ease of culture, the silkworm has become a model organism in the study of lepidopteran and arthropod biology. Fundamental findings on pheromones, brain structures, physiology have been made with the silkworm. One example of this was the m