National University of Córdoba
The National University of Córdoba, founded in 1613, is the oldest university in Argentina, the fourth oldest in South America and the sixth oldest in Latin America. It is located in the capital of Córdoba Province. Since the early 20th century it has been the second largest university in the country in terms of the number of students and academic programs; as the location of the first university founded in the land, now Argentina, Córdoba has earned the nickname La Docta. In 1610 the Society of Jesus founded the Collegium Maximum in Córdoba, attended by students of the order. An institution of the highest intellectual caliber for the time, this was the precursor of the university. While still under the control of the Jesuits, during the administration of the Bishop of Tucumán, Juan Fernando de Trejo y Sanabria, advanced studies began to be offered at what was now known as the Colegio Maximo de Córdoba; the school did not yet have authority to confer degrees. This milestone would be soon reached.
With this authorization, with the approval of the church hierarchy and the provincial head of the Jesuits, Pedro de Oñate, the university began its official existence. This marks the beginning of the history of higher education in Argentina; the Jesuits remained in control of the university until 1767, when they were expelled by order of King Carlos III. Leadership passed to the Franciscan order. For the first 150 years after its founding, the university maintained an exclusive focus on philosophy and theology; the first secondary school in Cordoba was Our Lady of Monserrat, founded by a Jesuit priest, Father Ignacio Duarte y Quirós, in 1687 and incorporated into the university's aegis in 1907. The College of Montesrrat, as well as the original physical plant of the university and the Jesuit church, are part of the Jesuit Block, were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2000. At the end of the 18th century, law studies were added, from this time forward studies at the university were no longer theological.
Following a conflict between the Franciscans and the secular clergy over the direction of the university, the house of study was renamed to Royal University of Saint Charles and Our Lady of Monserrat. With this new name the university acquired the double title of Royal and Pontifical, Monsignor Gregorio Funes was appointed president. With these changes, the Franciscans were replaced by the secular clergy as leaders of the university. Monsignor Funes introduced new subjects. On May 25, 1810 the May Revolution began, the new regime took control of the University of Córdoba, although Monsignor Funes remained in his post. In 1820 the university was relocated in other parts of the province of Córdoba, due to a situation of disorganization and chaos across the nation. Around the middle of the 19th century, a new national constitution was ratified, which outlined the new framework for the political organization of Argentina. At this time there were two provincial universities in the country: one in Córdoba and one in Buenos Aires.
The former was nationalized in 1856, the latter in 1881, leaving both under control of the national government. Between 1860 and 1880, many academic reforms were instituted, similar to those occurring at other universities around the world. In 1864 theological studies were eliminated. During the presidency of Faustino Sarmiento the sciences gained momentum through the recruitment of foreign lecturers specializing in Mathematical-Physical Science, leading to the opening of the School of Exact and Natural Sciences; this period saw the birth of the Academy of Exact Sciences and the Astronomical Observatory. In 1877 the School of Medicine was opened. In 1885 the Law of Avellaneda, the first law pertaining to universities, was passed, laying out the ways in which the bylaws of the national universities could be amended, their administrative framework, leaving other matters under the control of the universities themselves. In 1886 the bylaws of the university in Córdoba were modified to conform to the new law.
In June 1918 the student body at the university of Córdoba launched a movement, to which others all around the continent soon lent their voices, to fight for genuine democratization of the nation's academic activities. Hitherto controlled by interests related to the Catholic Church and the conservative lawmakers tied to the landed gentry, universities in Argentina gained unprecedented autonomy following these reforms. In May 1969 a series of socio-economic events connected to the French May, with participation by students of the university as well as by workers of the middle and lower classes, led to changes in the educational and political strategies of the university. During the 20th century a number of new schools were created within the university, most of which began as institutes or departments within existing schools: the School of Philosophy and the Humanities, the School of Economics, the School of Architecture and Urban Studies, the School of Dentistry, the School of Chemistry, the School of Agriculture, the School of Mathematics and Physics.
Created were the College of Languages and the Manuel Belgrano College of Business. In 2005 tensions erupted among the teaching staff, involving forceful tactics such as strikes and large-scale
Juan Manuel de Rosas
Juan Manuel de Rosas, nicknamed "Restorer of the Laws", was a politician and army officer who ruled Buenos Aires Province and the Argentine Confederation. Although born into a wealthy family, Rosas independently amassed a personal fortune, acquiring large tracts of land in the process. Rosas enlisted his workers in a private militia, as was common for rural proprietors, took part in the disputes that led to numerous civil wars in his country. Victorious in warfare influential, with vast landholdings and a loyal private army, Rosas became a caudillo, as provincial warlords in the region were known, he reached the rank of brigadier general, the highest in the Argentine Army, became the undisputed leader of the Federalist Party. In December 1829, Rosas became governor of the province of Buenos Aires and established a dictatorship backed by state terrorism. In 1831, he signed the Federal Pact, recognising provincial autonomy and creating the Argentine Confederation; when his term of office ended in 1832, Rosas departed to the frontier to wage war on the indigenous peoples.
After his supporters launched a coup in Buenos Aires, Rosas was asked to return and once again took office as governor. Rosas reestablished his dictatorship and formed the repressive Mazorca, an armed parapolice that killed thousands of citizens. Elections became a farce, the legislature and judiciary became docile instruments of his will. Rosas created a cult of personality and his regime became totalitarian in nature, with all aspects of society rigidly controlled. Rosas faced many threats to his power during early 1840s, he fought a war against the Peru–Bolivian Confederation, endured a blockade by France, faced a revolt in his own province and battled a major rebellion that lasted for years and spread to several Argentine provinces. Rosas persevered and extended his influence in the provinces, exercising effective control over them through direct and indirect means. By 1848, he had extended his power beyond the borders of Buenos Aires and was ruler of all of Argentina. Rosas attempted to annex the neighbouring nations of Uruguay and Paraguay.
France and Great Britain jointly retaliated against Argentine expansionism, blockading Buenos Aires for most of the late 1840s, but were unable to halt Rosas, whose prestige was enhanced by his string of successes. When the Empire of Brazil began aiding Uruguay in its struggle against Argentina, Rosas declared war in August 1851, starting the Platine War; this short conflict ended with Rosas absconding to Britain. His last years were spent in exile living as a tenant farmer until his death in 1877. Rosas garnered an enduring public perception among Argentines as a brutal tyrant. Since the 1930s, an authoritarian, anti-Semitic, racist political movement in Argentina called Revisionism has tried to improve Rosas's reputation and establish a new dictatorship in the model of his regime. In 1989, his remains were repatriated by the government in an attempt to promote national unity, seeking forgiveness for him and for the 1970s military dictatorship. Rosas remains a controversial figure in Argentina in the 21st century.
Juan Manuel José Domingo Ortiz de Rosas was born on 30 March 1793 at his family's town house in Buenos Aires, the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He was the first child of Agustina López de Osornio. León Ortiz was the son of an immigrant from the Spanish Province of Burgos. A military officer with an undistinguished career, León Ortiz had married into a wealthy Criollo family; the young Juan Manuel de Rosas's character was influenced by his mother Agustina, a strong-willed and domineering woman who derived these character traits from her father Clemente López de Osornio, a landowner who died defending his estate from an Indian attack in 1783. As was common practice at the time, Rosas was schooled at home until the age of 8, enrolled in what was regarded the best private school in Buenos Aires. Though befitting the son of a wealthy landowner, his education was unremarkable. According to historian John Lynch, Rosas' education "was supplemented by his own efforts in the years that followed.
Rosas was not unread, though the time, the place, his own bias limited the choice of authors. He appears to have had a sympathetic, if superficial, acquaintance with minor political thinkers of French absolutism."In 1806, a British expeditionary force invaded Buenos Aires. A 13-year-old Rosas served distributing ammunition to troops in a force organised by Viceroy Santiago Liniers to counter the invasion; the British returned a year later. Rosas was assigned to the Caballería de los Migueletes, although he was barred from active duty during this time due to illness. After the British invasions had been repelled and his family moved from Buenos Aires to their estancia, his work there further shaped his character and outlook as part of the Platine region's social establishment. In the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, owners of large landholdings provided food and protection for families living in areas under their control, their private defense forces consisted of laborers who were drafted as soldiers.
Most of these peons, as such workers were called, were gauchos. The landed aristocracy of Spanish descent considered the illiterate, mixed-race gauchos, who comprised the majority of the population, to be ungovernable and untrustworthy; the gauchos were tolerated because there was no other labor force available, but were treated with contempt by the landowners. Rosas got along well with the gauchos in his service, despite his harsh and authorit
Luis Jorge Fontana
Luis Jorge Fontana was an Argentine military officer, geographer and politician. He was the first governor of founder of the city of Formosa. Fontana was born in Buenos Aires on April 19, 1846, his father was an official in the government of Juan Manuel de Rosas. When Fontana was young, his family moved to Carmen de Patagones. At age thirteen, Fontana entered the Military Command of Río Negro as a trainee. After the war ended, he lived for a time in Buenos Aires, where he studied natural sciences and physics under Hermann Burmeister, he returned to the army, he was deployed on border expeditions exploring the Gran Chaco. During one expedition, he lost his left arm in a violent encounter with an indigenous group in the region. In 1879, Fontana founded the city of Formosa, he was awarded the rank of lieutenant colonel, he returned to Patagonia, which he had visited as a child, in 1884 he was named the first governor of the national territory of Chubut. There he directed the expedition to the west with an exploratory group named the Chubut Riflement, which discovered the October 16 Valley, a fertile area in the foothills that would be the site of the Welsh colony of Trevelin.
Fontana spent his years in San Juan, where he held various public and community offices. He died on October 18, 1920. List of Governors of Chubut 1881: El Gran Chaco, description of the geography and fauna of Northeast Argentina 1883: Viaje de exploración al río Pilcomayo 1886: Estudio sobre el caballo fósil 1886: Viaje de exploración a la Patagonia Austral 1908: Enumeración sistemática de las aves 1912: Ad ovo, essay on prehistoric themes Amaya, Lorenzo. Fontana el territoriano. Buenos Aires: Talleres gráficos de L. L. Gotelli. OCLC 25806585. Guerrero, César H. El coronel Luis Jorge Fontana en el cincuentenario de su muerte. San Juan, Argentina: Museo Histórico y Biblioteca Sarmiento. OCLC 22008722. Olivera, Justo Lindor. Fontana: biografia de un patriota. Buenos Aires: Corregidor. OCLC 713562914
Resistencia is the capital and largest city of the province of Chaco in north-eastern Argentina. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city proper was 291,720 inhabitants, it is the anchor of a larger metropolitan area, Greater Resistencia, which comprises three more municipalities for a total population of 387,340 as of 2010. This conurbation is the largest in the province, the eleventh most populous in the country, it is located along the Negro River, a tributary of the much larger Paraná River, opposite the city of Corrientes, Corrientes Province. The area was inhabited by Guaycuru aboriginals such as the Tobas, their resistance to evangelisation postponed substantial European settlement until the late 19th century. Not until 1865 was a proper settlement established, on January 27, 1878, Resistencia was formally established as the territorial capital; the national government supported immigration, in 1878 the first Italian immigrants arrived. The first City Council was made up of members originating from that country.
The area where Resistencia lies was the site of the Guaycuru peoples, pedestrian tribes that live on hunting and fishing. Of these, the Abipón to the south of Bermejo were the first to advance towards central and southern Chaco; the Abipones were composed of three groups: the Riicagé, the nacaigetergé and the Yaaucanigá, each with their own dialect. The Payaguá settled on the Paraguay River at north of the Bermejo river, they were engaged in trade and piracy along the Paraná-Paraguay river; the Spanish had traversed the entire perimeter of the Chaco between 1541 and 1580. In 1588, Corrientes was founded on the opposite bank of the Parana. Resistencia was founded on January 27, 1878, the date on which the initial measurement was approved and created; the date of February 2 is celebrated as the arrival date of the first Friulian immigrants. However, historical studies agree; the initial colonization process was the result of an official policy of settlement of this region based on Immigration Law No.
817, widespread in Europe during those years. The progress was due to the contribution of institutions such as the Italian Society, founded by the first Italians and which brought together a large part of the professional community, including medical partners, lawyers, among others. In 1953 the National Territory of the Chaco was declared a province and Resistancia, the capital of the National Territory, becomes the provincial capital. On July 3, 1939, Pope Pius XII split the diocese of Santa Fe to create the Diocese of Resistance, elevated to an archdiocese on April 1, 1984 by John Paul II. In the decade of the 1950s, during the governorship of Felipe Gallardo and Deolindo Felipe Bittel, the construction of the Resistencia International Airport was initiated; the public transport service Resistencia-Barranqueras was created, along with numerous buildings for schools, police stations and health centers. Resistencia is one of the warmest cities in Argentina, is known for its hot, humid summer weather with frequent lightning.
The climate is humid subtropical, with dryer season and a long, humid summer. Fall and spring are marked by sudden transitions from summer weather patterns to winter weather patterns. During the summer, temperatures attain highs of 30 to 35 °C on a daily basis, up to 38 °C; the record temperature is 44.4 °C on October 16, 2014. Nights are warm and sticky, between 19 to 25 °C, afternoon thunderstorms are common; the transition to fall is slow: March's temperatures are similar to midsummer, April is still warm with an average high of 26.2 °C and a low of 17.0 °C, rainfall is abundant: 284.9 millimetres during that month. The dry, cool season lasts until September. During its peak in June and July, the average high is 20 °C and the average low is 10 °C, with rainfall below 50 millimetres in a month; these averages reflect the fact that there are two distinct weather patterns that alternate in the winter: the northerly, tropical pattern, the southerly pattern of the Pampas: thus, there are periods of warm, dry weather with warm nights followed by strong southerly winds accompanied with drizzle and temperatures that hover around 10 °C for days at a time, followed by dry air and blue skies and cold nights and pleasant, cool days between 15 and 20 °C ).
Light frost occurs under calm conditions with cold air in place. On occasion, under cold weather patterns, measured temperatures reach −2 °C, with a record low of −4.7 °C on June 29, 1996. The city's economy based on agriculture and trade, has diversified into the service sector in recent decades. Resistencia is known nationally as the "city of sculptures" and "open-air museum" because of the more than 500 monuments and other works of art spread among its streets; the city has organized a Biennial International Sculptures Contest since 1988. Since 1997, the event has been sponsored by UNESCO. Resistencia is home to a number of museums, includi
Francisco Pascasio Moreno was a prominent explorer and academic in Argentina, where he is referred to as Perito Moreno. Perito Moreno has been credited as one of the most influential figures in the Argentine incorporation of large parts of Patagonia and its subsequent development. Moreno was born to Juana Thwaites Madero in Buenos Aires. Raised in a traditional patrician family, he studied in local parochial schools, he shared his spare time with his father searching for artifacts and fossils and, at age 14, created a homemade museum of his extensive collections. Following graduation in 1872, he participated in the founding of the Argentine Scientific Society, he embarked on the first of the series of scientific expeditions that made him well known: a survey of Río Negro Territory uncharted country. In January 1876, he reached Lake Nahuel-Huapi in the southern Andes, on February 15, 1877, he discovered and named Lake Argentino, he explored numerous rivers in Patagonia. On March 2, he discovered and named Mount Fitz Roy, after the commander of the expedition of HMS Beagle in the 1830s.
The native people called it Chalten.' In 1880, Moreno went to France, where he spoke at a meeting of the Anthropology Society of Paris, discussing two prehistoric skulls he had unearthed in Río Negro territory. He believed one was from the Quaternary period, the other had ritual deformation in a manner similar to the skulls of the Aymara people of the Andes and Altiplano. After his return to Argentina, that year he embarked on his second major expedition to the territory of Patagonia, he was condemned to death. He escaped on March one day before the appointed execution. During this period he met the Tehuelche chief, hospitable to him. Inacayal led a resistance to the government, not surrendering until 1884. In 1882–1883 Moreno explored the Andes from Bolivia southward, in 1884–1885 he made new explorations of the territory south of the Río Negro and of Patagonia, he was appointed as chief of the Argentine exploring commission of the southern territories, member of numerous European scientific societies.
For his contributions to science, Moreno received a doctorate Honoris causa from the National University of Córdoba in 1877. He is known for his role in defending Argentine interests, he made defining surveys that led to the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Argentina. In honor to this contribution, the Argentinian glacier Perito Moreno, was named after him; these surveys and others yielded Moreno a vast collection of archaeological and anthropological data and artifacts, for which he founded an anthropological museum in Buenos Aires in 1877. In 1888, he founded the La Plata Museum of Natural History, the most important of its kind in South America; the scholar Jens Andermann has studied how Moreno's collection of artifacts at these two museums helped establish Argentine history, the government's claim to its territory. Through these scientific and cultural collections, Moreno contributed to the national mythology, he brought artifacts and materials in from remote regions to be examined and studies at the museum in the capital.
Andermann has written that such museums of natural history and anthropology "enabled and justified state control of both the natural resources and indigenous populations of Argentina." They helped develop the national narratives being shaped. Moreno served as the first Director of Museo de la Plata, guiding it until 1906; as director of La Plata Museum of Natural History Moreno sacked Florentino Ameghino in 1888 denying him entry to the museum. In 1902 Moreno was appointed Perito, in which capacity he disproved Chilean claims to the continental divide in the Southern Cone. Moreno proved that many Patagonian lakes draining to the Pacific Ocean were part of the Atlantic Ocean basin. During the quaternary glaciations, they had become dammed by moraines, which changed their outlets to drain to the west and Chilean territory. In 1903, Moreno donated some of the land given to him in order to establish the Nahuel Huapi National Park, he was appointed Assistant Director of the National Education Council in 1911 and helped secure funding for the Bernasconi Institute, a landmark primary school built in Buenos Aires.
It was constructed on land Moreno sold to Swiss Argentine industrialist Félix Bernasconi. Its archaeological and natural history museums were created in part with his extensive collections of artifacts, he established the Scouting and Guiding in Argentina, the Argentine Boy Scouts Association in 1912, joined former U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt in a tour of Patagonia, he continued to oversee the La Plata Museum well after his official retirement. In years Moreno responded to political developments in South America at the time of World War I by joining the reactionary Argentine Patriotic League shortly before his death in 1919. Moreno was first interred in a La Recoleta Cemetery crypt. In 1944 his remains were reinterred at Centinela Isle in Lake Nahuel Huapi. Media related to Francisco Pascasio Moreno at Wikimedia Commons Works by Francisco Pascasio Moreno at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Francisco Moreno at Internet Archive Biography Biography His statue [http://gdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de/ Zoologica Göttingen State and University Library Digitised Viaje á la Patagonia austral emprendido bajo los auspicios del gobierno nacional 1876-1877
The Gran Chaco or Dry Chaco is a sparsely populated and semi-arid lowland natural region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided among eastern Bolivia, western Paraguay, northern Argentina and a portion of the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, where it is connected with the Pantanal region. This land is sometimes called the Chaco Plain; the name Chaco comes from a word in Quechua, an indigenous language from the Andes and highlands of South America. The quechua word chaqu meaning "hunting land" comes from the rich variety of animal life present throughout the entire region; the Gran Chaco is about 647,500 km ² in size. It is located west of the Paraguay River and east of the Andes, is an alluvial sedimentary plain shared among Paraguay and Argentina, it stretches from about 17° to 33° South latitude and between 65° and 60° West longitude, though estimates differ. The Chaco has been divided in three main parts: the Chaco Austral or Southern Chaco, south of the Bermejo River and inside Argentinian territory, blending into the Pampa region in its southernmost end.
Locals sometimes divide it today by the political borders, giving rise to the terms Argentinian Chaco, Paraguayan Chaco and Bolivian Chaco. The Chaco Boreal may be divided in two: closer to the mountains in the west, the Alto Chaco, sometimes known as Chaco Seco, is dry and sparsely vegetated. To the east, less arid conditions combined with favorable soil characteristics permit a seasonally dry higher-growth thorn tree forest, further east still higher rainfall combined with improperly drained lowland soils result in a somewhat swampy plain called the Bajo Chaco, sometimes known as Chaco Húmedo, it has a more open savanna vegetation consisting of palm trees, quebracho trees and tropical high-grass areas, with a wealth of insects. The landscape is flat and slopes at a 0.004 degree gradient to the east. This area is one of the distinct physiographic provinces of the Parana-Paraguay Plain division; the areas more hospitable to development are along the Paraguay and Pilcomayo Rivers. It is a great source of timber and tannin, derived from the native quebracho tree.
Special tannin factories have been constructed there. The wood of the palo santo from the Central Chaco is the source of oil of guaiac. Paraguay cultivates mate in the lower part of the Chaco. Large tracts of the central and northern Chaco have high soil fertility, sandy alluvial soils with elevated levels of phosphorus and a topography, favorable for agricultural development. Other aspects are challenging for farming: a semi-arid to semi-humid climate with a six-month dry season and sufficient fresh groundwater restricted to one third of the region, two thirds being without groundwater or with groundwater of high salinity. Soils are erosion prone once the forest has been cleared. In the central and northern Paraguay Chaco, occasional dust storms have caused major top soil loss; the Chaco was occupied by nomadic peoples, notably the various groups making up the Guaycuru who resisted Spanish control with success, of the Chaco from the 16th until the early 20th century. Prior to national independence of the nations that compose the Chaco, the entire area was a separate colonial region named by the Spaniards as Chiquitos.
The Gran Chaco had been a disputed territory since 1810. It was supposed to be part of Argentina and Paraguay, although a bigger land portion west of the Paraguay River had belonged to Paraguay since its independence. Argentina claimed territories south of the Bermejo River until Paraguay's defeat in the War of the Triple Alliance in 1870 established its current border with Argentina. Over the next few decades, Bolivia began to push the natives out and settle in the Gran Chaco, while Paraguay ignored it. Bolivia sought the Paraguay River for shipping oil out into the sea, Paraguay claimed ownership of the land; this became the backdrop to The Gran Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia over supposed oil in the Chaco Boreal. Argentine Foreign Minister Carlos Saavedra Lamas mediated a cease fire and subsequent treaty signed in 1938, which gave Paraguay three quarters of the Chaco Boreal and gave Bolivia a corridor to the Paraguay River with the ability to use the Puerto Casado and the right to construct their own port.
In the end, no oil was found in the region. Mennonites immigrated into the Paraguayan part of the region from Canada in the 1920s; these immigrants created some of the largest and most prosperous municipalities in the deep Gran Chaco. The region is home to over nine million people, divided about evenly among Argentina, Bolivia and including around 100,000 in Paraguay; the area remains underdeveloped, In the 1960s, the Paraguayan authorities constructed the Trans-Chaco Highway and the Argentine National Highway Directorate, National Routes 16 and 81, in an effort to encourage