During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States of America as a working, viable republic; the Union Army was made up of the permanent regular army of the United States, but further fortified and strengthened by the many temporary units of dedicated volunteers as well as including those who were drafted in to service as conscripts. To this end, the Union Army fought and triumphed over the efforts of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. Over the course of the war, 2,128,948 men enlisted in the Union Army, including 178,895 colored troops. Of these soldiers, 596,670 were wounded or went missing; the initial call-up was for just three months, after which many of these men chose to reenlist for an additional three years. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,367 men in the U.
S. Army, including 1,108 commissioned officers. 20% of these officers, most of them Southerners, choosing to tie their lives and fortunes to the Army of the Confederacy. In addition 200 West Point graduates who had left the Army, including Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, Braxton Bragg, would return to service at the outbreak of the war; this group's loyalties were far more divided, with 92 donning Confederate gray and 102 putting on the blue of the Union Army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, three of mounted infantry; the regiments were scattered widely. Of the 197 companies in the army, 179 occupied 79 isolated posts in the West, the remaining 18 manned garrisons east of the Mississippi River along the Canada–United States border and on the Atlantic coast. With the Southern slave states declaring secession from the Union, with this drastic shortage of men in the army, President Abraham Lincoln called on the states to raise a force of 75,000 men for three months to put down this subversive insurrection.
Lincoln's call forced the border states to choose sides, four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. It turned out that the war itself proved to be much longer and far more extensive in scope and scale than anyone on either side, Union North or Confederate South, expected or imagined at the outset on the date of July 22, 1861; that was the day that Congress approved and authorized subsidy to allow and support a volunteer army of up to 500,000 men to the cause. The call for volunteers was met by patriotic Northerners and immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals. Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania responded to Lincoln's call, the French were quick to volunteer; as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Between April 1861 and April 1865, at least 2,128,948 men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers, it is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the large percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army.
At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S. Military Academy on the active list. Of the 900 West Point graduates who were civilians, 400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283; the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers. Though officers were able to resign, enlisted soldiers did not have this right. While the total number of those is unknown, only 26 enlisted men and non-commissioned officers of the regular army are known to have left the army to join the Confederate army when the war began; the Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were organized geographically. Military division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the more modern term Theater. Department An organization that covered a defined region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein and for the field armies within their borders.
Those named for states referred to Southern states, occupied. It was more common to name departments for regions. District A subdivision of a Department
United States Statutes at Large
The United States Statutes at Large referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat. are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is published as a slip law, classified as either public law or private law, designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications; the session law publication for U. S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U. S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, codification. Large portions of public laws are enacted as amendments to the United States Code. Once enacted into law, an Act will be published in the Statutes at Large and will add to, modify, or delete some part of the United States Code.
Provisions of a public law that contain only enacting clauses, effective dates, similar matters are not codified. Private laws are not codified; some portions of the United States Code have been enacted as positive law and other portions have not been so enacted. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. Publication of the United States Statutes at Large began in 1845 by the private firm of Little and Company under authority of a joint resolution of Congress. During Little and Company's time as publisher, Richard Peters, George Minot, George P. Sanger served as editors. In 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office under the direction of the Secretary of State. Pub. L. 80–278, 61 Stat. 633, was enacted July 30, 1947 and directed the Secretary of State to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large.
Pub. L. 81–821, 64 Stat. 980, was enacted September 23, 1950 and directed the Administrator of General Services to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large. Since 1985 the Statutes at Large have been prepared and published by the Office of the Federal Register of the National Archives and Records Administration; until 1948, all treaties and international agreements approved by the United States Senate were published in the set, but these now appear in a publication titled United States Treaties and Other International Agreements, abbreviated U. S. T. In addition, the Statutes at Large includes the text of the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, amendments to the Constitution, treaties with Indians and foreign nations, presidential proclamations. Sometimes large or long Acts of Congress are published as their own "appendix" volume of the Statutes at Large. For example, the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 was published as volume 68A of the Statutes at Large.
Revised Statutes of the United States Procedures of the United States Congress Enrolled Bill Federal Register United States Reports California Statutes Laws of Florida Laws of Illinois Laws of New York Laws of Pennsylvania This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the U. S. Government Publishing Office. How Our Laws Are Made, by the Parliamentarian of the House of Representatives. Volumes 1 to 18 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Library of Congress Volumes 1 to 64 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Congressional Data Coalition via LEGISWORKS.org Volumes 65 to 125 of the Statutes at Large made available by the GPO and the Library of Congress via FDsys Sortable by Bills Enacted into Laws, Concurrent Resolutions, Popular Names, Presidential Proclamations, or Public Laws. Volumes 1–124 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Constitution Society Public and private laws from 104th Congress to present from the Government Printing Office, in slip law format with Statutes at Large page references Early United States Statutes includes Volumes 1 to 44 of the Statutes at Large in DjVu and PDF format, along with rudimentary OCR of the text.
United States Statutes and the United States Code: Historical Outlines, Lists and Sources from the Law Librarians' Society of Washington, DC Second Edition of the Revised Statutes of the United States
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission and is done with the intention of not returning. In contrast, unauthorized absence or absence without leave refers to a temporary absence. In the United States Army, United States Air Force, British Armed Forces, Australian Defence Force, New Zealand Defence Force, Canadian Armed Forces, military personnel will become "AWOL" or "AWL" if absent from their post without a valid pass, liberty or leave; the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Coast Guard refer to this as "unauthorized absence" or "UA". Personnel are dropped from their unit rolls after thirty days and listed as deserters. S. military law, desertion is not measured by time away from the unit, but rather: by leaving or remaining absent from their unit, organization, or place of duty, where there has been a determined intent to not return. People who are away for more than thirty days but return voluntarily or indicate a credible intent to return may still be considered AWOL.
Those who are away for fewer than thirty days but can credibly be shown to have no intent to return may be tried for desertion. On rare occasions, they may be tried for treason. Missing movement is another term used to describe when members of the armed forces fail to arrive at the appointed time to deploy with their assigned unit, ship, or aircraft. In the United States Armed Forces, this is a violation of the Article 87 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice; the offense may draw more severe punishment. Failure to repair consists of missing a formation or failing to appear at an assigned place and time when so ordered, it is a lesser offense within article 86 of the UCMJ. During World War I, the Australian Government refused to allow members of the First Australian Imperial Force to be executed for desertion, despite pressure from the British Government and military to do so; the AIF had the highest rate of soldiers going absent without leave of any of the national contingents in the British Expeditionary Force, the proportion of soldiers who deserted was higher than that of other forces on the Western Front in France.
In 2011, Vienna decided to honour Austrian Wehrmacht deserters. In 2014, on October, 24th a Memorial for the Victims of Nazi Military Justice was inaugurated on Vienna's Ballhausplatz by Austria's President Heinz Fischer; the monument was created by German artist Olaf Nicolai and is located opposite the President's office and the Austrian Chancellery. The inscription on top of the three step sculpture features a poem by Scottish poet Ian Hamilton Finlay with just two words: all alone. During WWI 600 French soldiers were executed for desertion. During the First World War, only 18 Germans who deserted were executed. In contrast of the Germans who deserted the Wehrmacht, 15,000 men were executed. In June 1988 the Initiative for the Creation of a Memorial to Deserters came to life in Ulm. A central idea was, "Desertion is not reprehensible, war is". During WWI a total of 28 New Zealand soldiers were sentenced to death for desertion; these soldiers were posthumously pardoned in 2000 through the Pardon for Soldiers of the Great War Act.
Those who deserted before reaching the front were imprisoned in what were claimed to be harsh conditions. Order No. 270, dated August 16, 1941, was issued by Joseph Stalin. The order required superiors to shoot deserters on the spot, their family members were subjected to arrest. Order No. 227, dated July 28, 1942, directed that each Army must create "blocking detachments" which would shoot "cowards" and fleeing panicked troops at the rear. Many Soviet soldier deserters of the Soviet War in Afghanistan explain their reasons for desertion as political and in response to internal disorganization and disillusionment regarding their position in the war. Analyses of desertion rates argue that motivations were far less ideological than individual accounts claim. Desertion rates increased prior to announcements of upcoming operations, were highest during the summer and winter. Seasonal desertions were a response to the harsh weather conditions of the winter and immense field work required in the summer.
A significant jump in desertion in 1989 when the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan may suggest a higher concern regarding returning home, rather than an overall opposition towards the war itself. In the beginning of the Soviet invasion, the majority of Soviet forces were soldiers of Central Asian republics; the Soviets believed that shared ideologies between Muslim Central Asians and Afghan soldiers would build trust and morale within the army. However, Central Asians' longstanding historical frustrations with Moscow degraded soldiers' willingness to fight for the Red Army; as Afghan desertion grew and Soviet opposition was strengthened within Afghanistan, the Soviet plan overtly backfired. The personal histories of Central Asian ethnic groups – between Pashtuns and Tajiks, caused tension within the Soviet military. Non-Russian ethnic groups related the situation in Afghanistan to Communist takeover of their own states' forced induction into the USSR
New York City in the American Civil War
New York City during the American Civil War was a bustling American city that provided a major source of troops, supplies and financing for the Union Army. Powerful New York politicians and newspaper editors helped shape public opinion toward the war effort and the policies of President Abraham Lincoln; the port of New York, a major entry point for immigrants, served as recruiting grounds for the Army. Irish and Germans participated in the war at a high rate; the city's strong commercial ties to the South, its growing immigrant population, anger about conscription led to divided sympathies, with some business men favoring the Confederacy and other opinion in favor of the Union. The Draft Riots of 1863, provoked by fears of labor competition and resentment of wealthy men being able to buy their way out of the draft, was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history and featured widespread ethnic Irish violence against blacks in the city; the neighboring and more populous city of Brooklyn in contrast was more pro-war.
New York City had long been the largest, in many ways, most influential city in the United States. By 1860, its population was a wide variety of diverse cultures, views and politics; as Southern states began seceding with the election of Lincoln, New Yorkers in general supported the war effort, but there were several notable early exceptions. The city and the state had strong economic ties to the South. Mayor Fernando Wood won reelection to a second term, serving from 1860 to 1862, he was one of many New York Democrats who were sympathetic to the Confederacy, called'Copperheads' by staunch Unionists. In January 1861, Wood suggested to the City Council that New York City secede as the "Free City of Tri-Insula," to continue its profitable cotton trade with the Confederacy. Wood's Democratic machine was concerned to maintain the revenues and jobs in the city, which supported the patronage system. Politically, the city was dominated by Democrats, many of whom were under the control of a political machine known as Tammany Hall.
Led by William "Boss" Tweed, the Democrats were elected to numerous offices in New York City, to the state legislature and judges' seats through illegal means. From 1860 to 1870, Tweed controlled most Democratic nominations in the city, while Republicans tended to dominate upstate New York. Lincoln supporters formed the Union League to support the president's policies. A series of U. S. Army forts, most constructed prior to the war, housed garrisons of Union troops to protect New York Harbor and the city from possible Confederate attack, but none occurred. Fort Lafayette, Fort Schuyler, several others were used to hold hundreds of Confederate prisoners of war; the Army established or expanded several large military hospitals, including MacDougall Hospital and De Camp General Hospital, to serve the growing numbers of wounded and ill soldiers. Among the military innovations coming from New York City was the "Wig-Wag Signaling" system, tested in New York Harbor by Major Albert J. Myer. Riker's Island was used as a military training ground for both white and United States Colored Troops during the Civil War.
New soldiers were trained at "Camp Astor", named for the millionaire John Jacob Astor III, who provided funding for the army. Among the early regiments trained at Camp Astor were the Anderson Zouaves, commanded by Col. John Lafayette Riker, a descendant of the family who had owned the island; the New York Navy Yard, established in 1801 in Brooklyn, was a major facility for the construction and repair of Union Navy ships. By the second year of the Civil War, the Yard had expanded to employ about 6000 men. In addition to government factories, hundreds of small private businesses throughout the New York area—such as the National Arms Company— provided military accoutrements, supplies and items of use and comfort to the soldiers. Despite pockets of objections to Lincoln's call for volunteers to serve in the Union army shortly after the bombardment of Fort Sumter, New Yorkers in general rushed to join the army or to raise financial and other support for the new troops. In one three-month period in early 1861, the city raised $150,000,000 for the war effort.
By the end of May 1861, New York had raised 30,000 men for the volunteer army, including the "New York Fire Zouaves" under a personal friend of Lincoln, Elmer Ellsworth. Troops shouts as they left for the war. Over the course of the war, the city would send off over 100,000 troops collected from around the state. Beside the Fire Zouaves, other regiments raised in New York City became prominent in the Union army, including the 1st U. S. Sharpshooters, the 9th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment, the 10th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment. In 1862, George Opdyke was elected as mayor of New York City. A staunch supporter of Lincoln since before the war, Opdyke worked hard to raise and equip more state troops, to prevent commercial panics on Wall Street as the Union's war successes waxed and waned. Under his leadership, recruiting efforts were renewed targeted at the vast supply of immigrants. President Lincoln and much of the Republican element of the U. S. Congress, concern
James Barnet Fry
James Barnet Fry was an American soldier and prolific author of historical books. Fry was born in Illinois, he entered United States Military Academy at West Point on July 1, 1843 and graduated on July 1, 1847. He served as an assistant instructor of artillery at West Point after graduation. In the fall of 1847 he went to Mexico as a 2nd lieutenant in the 1st Artillery to serve under General Scott in the Mexican–American War as part of the garrison of Mexico City. In 1848 he was posted to Fort Columbus in New York Harbor and transferred to Fort Vancouver in Washington in 1849, he was transferred to Astoria, Oregon in 1850. He was promoted to 1st lieutenant on February 22, 1851. Fry had several postings on the Gulf coast from 1851 to 1853, he served as an assistant instructor of artillery from December 15, 1853 until he became adjutant of the Academy on August 1, 1854 where he served until August 31, 1859. Fry was in garrison at Fort Monroe, Virginia at the Artillery School for Practice from 1859 to 1860.
He served on the Harper's Ferry Expedition, to suppress John Brown's Raid in October 1859. He served as Recorder of the Board to "Revise the Programme of Instruction at the Military Academy," from January 12 to April 24, 1860, he served in garrison at Baton Rouge, Louisiana in 1860 and on frontier duty at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas from 1860 to 1861. He was in garrison, commanding a battery of light artillery, at Washington, D. C. in early 1861. In July 1861 he served as chief of staff to Brigadier General Irvin McDowell at the First Battle of Bull Run, he was promoted as an assistant adjutant general with the rank of captain on August 3, 1861. On November 15, 1861 he was assigned as chief of staff to under Major General Don Carlos Buell. General Buell successively commanded the Army of the Ohio. In this assignment, Fry participated in the Battle of Shiloh and the Siege of Corinth in April and May 1862. Fry was promoted to the rank of major on April 22, 1862 and to lieutenant colonel on December 31 of the same year.
On October 8, 1862 Fry participated in the Battle of Kentucky. Fry served as assistant in charge of the appointment branch of the Adjutant-General's Office, at Washington, D. C. from November 12, 1862 until he was appointed provost marshal general of the United States Army. In this capacity he was responsible for tracking deserters, enforcing military laws and overseeing the Invalid Corps, he was appointed to the position, with the rank of colonel, on March 17, 1863 and was promoted to brigadier general on April 21, 1864. Fry served as provost marshal general until the office was abolished on August 27, 1866. Effective on March 15, 1865, but awarded Fry was brevetted to the ranks of colonel, brigadier general, major general in the Regular Army in recognition of his service at the First Battle of Bull Run, the Battle of Shiloh and for "faithful and distinguished service as Provost Marshal General during the war." With the abolishment of the position of Provost Marshal General, Fry reverted to his permanent rank of lieutenant colonel and served as the adjutant general of the Division of the Pacific from December 3, 1866 to May 17, 1869 and of the Division of the South from June 19, 1869 to July 14, 1871.
He served as adjutant general of the Division of the Missouri from July 24, 1871 to November 26, 1873 and of the Division of the Atlantic from Nov. 28, 1873 to July 1, 1881. On March 3, 1875 Fry was promoted to the rank of colonel, he served as adjutant general of the Department of the East from January 1, 1878 until his retirement from the Army on July 1, 1881. After retiring, Fry devoted his time to writing military histories. In 1885 he wrote Killed by a Brother Soldier, detailing the murder of Major General William "Bull" Nelson by Brigadier General Jefferson C. Davis in September 1862. Davis was arrested shortly after the murder. In 1883 Fry became a member of the Aztec Club of 1847. In 1890 he was elected as a Veteran Companion of the New York Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. General Fry died in Newport, Rhode Island and was buried at the Church of St. James the Less in Philadelphia. Final Report of the Operations of the Bureau of the Provost-Marshal-General in 1863-1866 This was issued as a congressional document.
A Sketch of the Adjutant-General's Department, United States Army, from 1775 to 1875 History and Legal Effects of Brevets in the Armies of Great Britain and the United States, from their Origin in 1692 to the Present Time Army Sacrifices Operations of the Army under Buell McDowell and Tyler in the Campaign of Bull Run New York and Conscription Military Miscellanies The Conkling and Blaine-Fry Controversy List of American Civil War generals This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. "Fry, James Barnet". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. "James Barnet Fry". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-01-02