A hairdresser is a person whose occupation is to cut or style hair in order to change or maintain a person's image. This is achieved using a combination of hair coloring and hair texturing techniques. Most hairdressers are professionally licensed as a barber or a cosmetologist. Hairdressing as an occupation dates back thousands of years. Ancient art drawings and paintings have been discovered depicting people working on another person's hair. Greek writers Aristophanes and Homer both mention hairdressing in their writings. In Africa, it was believed in some cultures that a person's spirit occupied his or her hair, giving hairdressers high status within these communities; the status of hairdressing encouraged many to develop their skills, close relationships were built between hairdressers and their clients. Hours would be spent washing, oiling and ornamenting their hair. Men would work on men, women on other women. Before a master hairdresser died, they would give their combs and tools to a chosen successor during a special ceremony.
In ancient Egypt, hairdressers had specially decorated cases to hold their tools, including lotions and styling materials. Barbers worked as hairdressers, wealthy men had personal barbers within their home. With the standard of wig wearing within the culture, wigmakers were trained as hairdressers. In ancient Rome and Greece household slaves and servants took on the role of hairdressers, including dyeing and shaving. Men who did not have their own private hair or shaving services would visit the local barbershop. Women had their hair groomed at their homes. Historical documentation is lacking regarding hairstylists from the 5th century until the 14th century. Hair care service grew in demand after a papal decree in 1092 demanded that all Roman Catholic clergymen remove their facial hair; the first appearance of the word "hairdresser" is in 17th century Europe, hairdressing was considered a profession. Hair fashion of the period suggested that wealthy women wear large and adorned hairstyles, which would be maintained by their personal maids and other people, who would spend hours dressing the woman's hair.
A wealthy man's hair would be maintained by a valet. It was in France where men began styling women's hair for the first time, many of the notable hairdressers of the time were men, a trend that would continue into contemporary times; the first famous male hairdresser was Champagne, born in Southern France. Upon moving to Paris, he opened his own hair salon and dressed the hair of wealthy Parisian women until his death in 1658. Women's hair grew taller in style during the 17th century, popularized by the hairdresser Madame Martin; the hairstyle, "the tower," was the trend with wealthy English and American women, who relied on hairdressers to style their hair as tall as possible. Tall piles of curls were pomaded and decorated with ribbons, lace and jewelry; the profession of hairdressing was launched as a genuine profession when Legros de Rumigny was declared the first official hairdresser of the French court. In 1765 de Rumigny published his book Art de la Coiffure des Dames, which discussed hairdressing and included pictures of hairstyles designed by him.
The book was a best seller amongst Frenchwomen, four years de Rumigny opened a school for hairdressers: Academie de Coiffure. At the school he taught women to cut hair and create his special hair designs. By 1777 1,200 hairdressers were working in Paris. During this time, barbers formed unions, demanded that hairdressers do the same. Wigmakers demanded that hairdressers cease taking away from their trade, hairdressers responded that their roles were not the same, hairdressing was a service, wigmakers made and sold a product. De Rumigny died in 1770 and other hairdressers gained in popularity three Frenchmen: Frederic, Léonard. Leonard and Larseueur were the stylists for Marie Antoinette. Leonard was her favorite, developed many hairstyles that became fashion trends within wealthy Parisian circles, including the loge d'opera, which towered five feet over the wearer's head. During the French Revolution he escaped the country hours before he was to be arrested, alongside the king and other clients.
He emigrated to Russia. Parisian hairdressers continued to develop influential styles during the early 19th century. Wealthy French women would have their favorite hairdressers style their hair from within their own homes, a trend seen in wealthy international communities. Hairdressing was a service affordable only to those wealthy enough to hire professionals or to pay for servants to care for their hair. In the United States, Marie Laveau was one of the most famous hairdressers of the period. Laveau, located in New Orleans, began working as a hairdresser in the early 1820s, maintaining the hair of wealthy women of the city, she was a voodoo practitioner, called the "Voodoo Queen of New Orleans," and she used her connections to wealthy women to support her religious practice. She provided "help" to women who needed it for money and other favors. French hairdresser Marcel Grateau developed the "Marcel wave" in the late part of the century, his wave required the use of a special hot hair iron and needed to be done by an experienced hairdresser.
Fashionable women asked to have their hair "marceled." During this period, hairdressers began opening salons in cities and towns, led by Martha Matilda Harper, who developed one of the first retail chains of hair salons, the Harper Method. Beauty salons became popularized during the 20th century, alongside men's barbersho
A film crew is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. The crew is distinguished from the cast as the cast are understood to be the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film; the crew is separate from the producers as the producers are the ones who own a portion of either the film company or the film's intellectual property rights. A film crew is divided into different departments, each of which specializes in a specific aspect of the production. Film crew positions have evolved over the years, spurred by technological change, but many traditional jobs date from the early 20th century and are common across jurisdictions and film-making cultures. Motion picture projects have three discrete stages: development and distribution. Within the production stage there are three defined sequential phases — pre-production, principal photography and post-production — and many film crew positions are associated with only one or two of the phases.
Distinctions are made between above-the-line personnel who begin their involvement during the project's development stage, the below-the-line "technical" crew involved only with the production stage. A film director is a person; the director most has the highest authority on a film set. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfillment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of film-making. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, film editors or actors.
Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely. Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners; some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. Production is not considered a department as such, but rather as a series of functional groups; these include the film's producers and executive producers and production office staff such as the production manager, the production coordinator, their assistants. Producer A film producer creates the conditions for film-making; the producer initiates, coordinates and controls matters such as fund raising, hiring key personnel, arranging for distributors. The producer is involved throughout all phases of the film making process from development to completion of a project.
There may be several producers on a film who may take a role in a number of areas, such as development, financing or production. Executive producer An executive producer is a producer, not involved in the technical aspects of the film-making process in the original definition, but has played a financial or creative role in ensuring that the project goes into production. Today, the title has become ambiguous in feature films. Since the 1980s, it has become common for the line producer to be given the title of executive producer, while the initiating producer takes the "produced by" credit. On other projects, the reverse happens, with the line producer taking the "produced by" credit. So the two credits have become interchangeable, with no precise definition. Line producer The line producer is the liaison between the studio or producer and the production manager, responsible for managing the production budget; the title is associated with the idea that they are the person, "on the line" on a day-to-day basis, responsible for lining up the resources needed.
Production assistant Production assistants, referred to as PAs, assist in the production office or in various departments with general tasks, such as assisting the first assistant director with set operations. Production manager The production manager supervises the physical aspects of the production including personnel, technology and scheduling, it is the production manager's responsibility to make sure the filming stays on schedule and within its budget. The PM helps manage the day-to-day budget by managing operating costs such as salaries, production costs, everyday equipment rental costs; the PM works under the supervision of a line producer and directly supervises the production coordinator. Assistant production manager The assistant production manager is the assistant to the production manager and carries out various jobs for the PM. Only big budget Hollywood feature films have an assistant PM. Unit manager The unit manager fulfils the same role as the production manager but for secondary "unit" shooting.
In some functional structures, the unit manager subsumes the role of the transport coordinator. Production coordinator The production coordinator is the information nexus of the production, responsible for organizing all the logistics from hiring crew, renting equipment, booking talent; the PC is an int
A movie star is an actor, famous for their starring, or leading, roles in motion pictures. The term is used for actors who are marketable stars and whose names are used to promote movies, for example in trailers and posters. In the early days of silent movies, the names of the actors and actresses appearing in them were not publicized or credited because producers feared this would result in demands for higher salaries. However, audience curiosity soon undermined this policy. By 1909, actresses such as Florence Lawrence and Mary Pickford were widely recognized, although the public remained unaware of their names. Lawrence was referred to as the “Biograph Girl” because she worked for D. W. Griffith's Biograph Studios, while Pickford was "Little Mary." In 1910, Lawrence switched to the Independent Moving Pictures Company, began appearing under her own name, was hailed as "America's foremost moving picture star" in IMP literature. Pickford began appearing under her own name in 1911; the Independent Moving Pictures Company promoted their "picture personalities", including Florence Lawrence and King Baggot, by giving them billing, credits and a marquee.
Promotion in advertising led to the release of stories about these personalities to newspapers and fan magazines as part of a strategy to build brand loyalty for their company's actors and films. By the 1920s, Hollywood film company promoters had developed a "massive industrial enterprise" that "...peddled a new intangible—fame." Early Hollywood studios controlled, a movie star, as only they had the ability to place stars' names above the title. Hollywood "image makers" and promotional agents planted rumors, selectively released real or fictitious biographical information to the press, used other gimmicks to create glamorous personas for actors. Publicists thus "created" the "enduring images" and public perceptions of screen legends such as Judy Garland, Rock Hudson, Marilyn Monroe, Grace Kelly; the development of this "star system" made fame "something that could be fabricated purposely, by the masters of the new'machinery of glory'." However, regardless of how "...strenuously the star and their media handlers and press agents may... try to'monitor' and'shape' it, the media and the public always play a substantial part in the image-making process."
According to Madow, "fame is a'relational' phenomenon, something, conferred by others. A person learned, but he cannot, in this same sense, make himself famous, any more than he can make himself loved." Madow goes on to point out "fame is conferred or withheld, just as love is, for reasons and on grounds other than'merit'." According to Sofia Johansson the "canonical texts on stardom" include articles by Boorstin and Dyer that examined the "representations of stars and on aspects of the Hollywood star system". Johansson writes that "more recent analyses within media and cultural studies have instead dealt with the idea of a pervasive, contemporary,'celebrity culture'." In the analysis of the celebrity culture, "fame and its constituencies are conceived of as a broader social process, connected to widespread economic, political and cultural developments."In the 1980s and 1990s, entertainment companies began using stars for a range of publicity tactics including press releases, movie junkets, community activities.
These promotional efforts are targeted and designed using market research, to increase the predictability of success of their media ventures. In some cases, publicity agents may create “provocative advertisements” or make an outrageous public statement to trigger public controversy and thereby generate "free" news coverage. Movie studios employed performers under long-term contracts, they developed a star system as a means of selling their movies. "Star vehicles" were filmed to display the particular talents and appeal of the most popular movie stars of the studio. Movie stars in other regions too have their own star value. For instance, in Asian film industries, many movies run on the weight of the star's crowd pulling power more than any other intrinsic aspect of film making. A number of Chinese film actors have become some of the most popular movie stars in Eastern Asia, several are well known in the Western world, they include Jackie Chan, Jet Li, Chow Yun-fat, Stephen Chow, Sammo Hung, Gong Li, Ziyi Zhang, Maggie Cheung, the late Bruce Lee.
The Indian film industry, of which one is known as Bollywood, has its own set of rules in this aspect. There are superstars in this region who command premium pay commensurate with their box office appeal; some mainstream Indian movie stars, like the Khans of Bollywood, Raj Kapoor, Mithun Chakraborty, Amitabh Bachchan and Aishwarya Rai gained international fame across Asia and Eastern Europe. For example, Bollywood films were popular in the Soviet Union, more so than Hollywood films and even domestic Soviet films. Indian actors like Raj Kapoor and Mithun Chakroborty were household names in the Soviet Union, with films such as Awaara and Disco Dancer drawing more than 60 million viewers in the country; the Hindi film actors Raj Kapoor and Aamir Khan became popular in China, with films such as Awaara, 3 Idiots, Dangal, one of the top 20 highest-grossing films in China. The film industry of the Malay Archipelago consists of f
A superhero film, superhero movie, or superhero motion picture is a film, focused on the actions of one or more superheroes: individuals who possess superhuman abilities relative to a normal person and are dedicated to protecting the public. These films feature action, fantasy or science fiction elements, with the first film of a particular character including a focus on the origin of their special powers and their first confrontation with their most famous supervillain or archenemy. Most superhero films are based on superhero comics. By contrast, several films such as the RoboCop series, The Meteor Man, Unbreakable film series, The Incredibles and They Call Me Jeeg are original for the screen, while The Green Hornet is based on the original radio series and its 1960s television adaptation, both Underdog and The Powerpuff Girls are based on animated television series, Japanese tokusatsu and anime superhero films are based on manga and television shows. After a long series of flops, since the 2000s the film genre reversed its fortunes and grew to become a dominant mainstream film genre worldwide.
The most notable and successful superhero films since the year 2000 are Fox Studio's X-Men franchise, Sam Raimi's Spider-Man trilogy, Pixar's The Incredibles series, Christopher Nolan's The Dark Knight Trilogy, the films set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe starting with Iron Man and the films set in the DC Extended Universe starting with Man of Steel. This commercial dominance has been accompanied by enthusiastic critical support for many of these films, which includes major Academy Awards. Reflecting the fantasy subgenre's noted narrative flexibility in its original comic book publishing format, the film subgenre has been commercially successful in a wide variety of genres such as action, fantasy, comedy etc. After superheroes rose to prominence in comic books, they were adapted into Saturday film serials aimed at children, starting with Mandrake The Magician. Serials such as Adventures of Captain Marvel, The Phantom, Captain America, Superman followed. In the following decades, the decline of Saturday serials and turmoil in the comic book industry put an end to superhero motion pictures, with the exception of Superman and the Mole Men, starring George Reeves, a trial balloon for the television series Adventures of Superman, compilations of episodes of that same series released theatrically, Batman a big-screen extension of the Batman television series starring Adam West.
In 1957 Japan, Shintoho produced the first film serial featuring the tokusatsu superhero character Super Giant, signaling a shift in Japanese popular culture towards tokusatsu masked superheroes over kaiju giant monsters. Along with Astro Boy, the Super Giant film serials had a profound effect on the Japanese tokusatsu superhero genre. Another early superhero film was Ōgon Bat, a Japanese film starring Sonny Chiba based on the 1930 Kamishibai superhero Ōgon Bat. Original superhero characters emerged in other, more comedy oriented films such as the French political satire film Mr. Freedom and the American B movies Rat Pfink a Boo Boo and The Wild World of Batwoman. Riding a wave of a new interest in fantasy and science fiction films with the success of Star Wars, Richard Donner's Superman, the first major big-budget superhero feature film, proved a critical and commercial success. Other successful entries emerged throughout the 1980s, from Richard Lester's Superman II and Paul Verhoeven's Robocop to Tim Burton's Batman.
Other films were released during the 1980s and 1990s including Flash Gordon, Swamp Thing, Superman III, The Toxic Avenger, Superman IV: The Quest for Peace, Bollywood's Mr. India, The Punisher, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and two sequels, Sgt. Kabukiman N. Y. P. D; the Rocketeer, Batman Returns, the animated Batman: Mask of the Phantasm, The Shadow, Batman Forever, Tank Girl, Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie on Sky Movies and a sequel, The Phantom and Mystery Men. Marvel Comics' Captain America did not have a theatrical release and Roger Corman's The Fantastic Four was released neither theatrically nor on home video. Alex Proyas' The Crow became the first independent comics superhero film that established a franchise; as Joel Schumacher's Batman & Robin was critically panned for being too jokey and tongue-in-cheek, The Crow brought in a new realm of violence absent in previous popular superhero films targeted at younger audiences and bridging a gap to the more modern action film. The success of The Crow catalyzed the release of a film version of Spawn, Image Comics' leading character.
The success of the "darker" Image Comics characters shifted the direction of comic book movies. Marvel soon released their films to become Men in Black and Blade. After Marvel bought Malibu Comics and Columbia Pictures released the Men in Black film and comics in 1997; the film became the first Marvel property to win an Oscar and the highest-grossing comic book adaptation until the release of Sam Raimi’s Spider-Man in 2002. Blade was a mix of a more traditional action film as well as darker superhero film with the title character having vampire powers as well as carrying an arsenal of weaponry; the success of Blade began Marvel's film success and set the stage for further comic book film adaptations. After the comic book boom and the success of several comic book adaptation films (includin
A costume designer is a person who designs costumes for a film, stage production or television. The role of the costume designer is to create the characters' outfits/costumes and balance the scenes with texture and colour, etc; the costume designer works alongside the director, lighting designer, sound designer, other creative personnel. The costume designer may collaborate with hair stylist, wig master, or makeup artist. In European theatre, the role is different, as the theatre designer designs both costume and scenic elements. Designers seek to enhance a character's personality, to create an evolving plot of colour, changing social status, or period through the visual design of garments and accessories, they may enhance the body -- within the boundaries of the director's vision. The designer must ensure; the actor must execute the director's blocking of the production without damaging the garments. Garments must be durable and washable for plays with extended runs or films with near-real time pacing but whose principal photography phase may stretch across several weeks.
The designer must consult not only with the director, but the set and lighting designers to ensure that all elements of the overall production design work together. The designer must possess strong artistic capabilities and a thorough knowledge of pattern development, drafting and fashion history; the designer must understand historical costuming, the movement style and poise that period dress may require. During the late-19th century, company managers in the US selected costumes for a show. Many were pulled from a rental house. Though designers in other theatrical disciplines were recognized, few who specialized in costumes were; the few that were included Caroline Siedle, C. Wilhelm, Percy Anderson, Mrs. John Alexander, they sometimes received credit on the title page of a playbill rather than in the back. In the 20th century, film costume designers like Edith Head and Adrian became well known; those working in television like Nolan Miller, Janie Bryant, Patricia Field became more prominent, some becoming authors and having their own clothing and jewelry lines.
Professional costume designers fall into three types: freelance and academic. Freelance designers are hired for a specific production by a theatre, dance or opera company, may or may not be local to the theatre they design for. A freelancer is traditionally paid in three instalments: Upon hire, on delivery of final renderings, opening night of the production. Freelancers are not obligated to any exclusivity in what projects they work on, may design for several productions concurrently. A residential designer is hired by a specific theatre, dance or opera company for an extended series of productions; this may be for many years. A residential designer's contract may limit the amounts of freelance work they are allowed to accept. Unlike the freelancer, a residential designer is "on location" at the theater—at hand to work with costume studio and other collaborators. Residential designers tend to be more established than strict freelancers, but this is not always the case. An academic designer is one.
The designer is an instructor, but may act as a residential designer to varying degrees. They are free to freelance, as their schedule allows. In the past, professors of costume design were experienced professionals that may or may not have had formal post-graduate education, but it has now become common to require a professor to have at least a Master of Fine Arts in order to teach. Both residential and academic designers are also required to act as Shop Master or Mistress of an onsite costume shop, in addition to designing productions. In a resident theatre, there is always a shop staff of stitchers, drapers and craft artisans. In an academic environment the shop "staff" is students, who are learning about costume design and construction. Most universities require costume design students to work a specified number of hours in the shop as part of their course work. There are two unions that costume designers can belong to: Costume Designers Guild, Local 892 is one union that represents Costume Designers, as well as International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees and United Scenic Artists.
Many costumers belong to the Motion Picture Costumers Union, Local 705 and represent every position within the costume department. Local 705 represents Costume Supervisors, Key Costumers, Tailor/Seamstress, Ager/Dyer, Cutter/Fitters, Costume House Employees and Commercial Costumers. Costume design Filmmaking List of film formats List of motion picture-related topics Costume Designers Guild
A protagonist is the leading character of a story. The protagonist is at the center of the story, makes the key decisions, experiences the consequences of those decisions; the protagonist is the primary agent propelling the story forward, is the character who faces the most significant obstacles. If a story contains a subplot, or is a narrative made up of several stories each subplot may have its own protagonist; the protagonist is the character whose fate is most followed by the reader or audience, and, opposed by the antagonist. The antagonist will provide obstacles and complications and create conflicts that test the protagonist, thus revealing the strengths and weaknesses of the protagonist's character; the earliest known examples of a protagonist are found in Ancient Greece. At first, dramatic performances involved dancing and recitation by the chorus. In Poetics, Aristotle describes how a poet named Thespis introduced the idea of one actor stepping out and engage in a dialogue with the chorus.
This was the invention of tragedy, occurred about 536 B. C; the poet Aeschylus, in his plays, introduced a second actor, inventing the idea of dialogue between two characters. Sophocles wrote plays that included a third actor. A description of the protagonist's origin cited that during the early period of Greek drama, the protagonist served as the author, the director, the actor and that these roles were only separated and allocated to different individuals later. There is a claim that the poet did not assign or create the protagonist as well as other terms for actors such as deuteragonist and tritagonist because he only gave actors their appropriate part. However, these actors were assigned their specific areas at the stage with the protagonist always entering from the middle door or that the dwelling of the deuteragonist should be on the right hand, the tritagonist, the left. In Ancient Greece, the protagonist is distinguished from the term "hero", used to refer to a human who became a semi-divine being in the narrative.
Euripides' play Hippolytus may be considered to have two protagonists. Phaedra is the protagonist of the first half, her stepson, the titular Hippolytus, assumes the dominant role in the second half of the play. In Ibsen’s play The Master Builder, the protagonist is the architect Halvard Solness; the young woman, Hilda Wangel, whose actions lead to the death of Solness, is the antagonist. In Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet, Romeo is the protagonist, he is in pursuit of his relationship with Juliet, the audience is invested in that story. Tybalt, as an antagonist, attempts to thwart the relationship. In Shakespeare’s play Hamlet, Prince Hamlet, who seeks revenge for the murder of his father, is the protagonist; the antagonist would be the character who most opposes Claudius. Sometimes, a work will have a false protagonist, who may seem to be the protagonist, but may disappear unexpectedly; the character Marion in Alfred Hitchcock's film Psycho is an example. A novel that contains a number of narratives may have a number of protagonists.
Alexander Solzhenitsyn's The First Circle, for example, depicts a variety of characters imprisoned and living in a gulag camp. Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace depicts fifteen major characters affected by a war. In some cases, the protagonist is not a human: in Richard Adams' novel Watership Down, a group of anthropomorphised rabbits, led by the protagonist Hazel, escape their warren after seeing a vision of its destruction, starting a perilous journey to find a new home