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Enteritis is inflammation of the small intestine. It is most caused by food or drink contaminated with pathogenic microbes, such as serratia, but may have other causes such as NSAIDs, radiation therapy as well as autoimmune conditions like Crohn's disease and coeliac disease. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. Related diseases of the gastrointestinal system include inflammation of the stomach and large intestine. Duodenitis and ileitis are subtypes of enteritis which are only localised to a specific part of the small intestine. Inflammation of both the stomach and small intestine is referred to as gastroenteritis. Signs and symptoms of enteritis are variable and vary based on the specific cause and other factors such as individual variance and stage of disease. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, fever, nausea and weight loss. Crohn's disease – known as regional enteritis, it can occur along any surface of the gastrointestinal tract. In 40% of cases it is limited to the small intestine.

Coeliac disease – caused by an autoimmune reaction to gluten by genetically predisposed individuals. Eosinophilic enteropathy – a condition where eosinophils build up in the gastrointestinal tract and blood vessels, leading to polyp formation, necrosis and ulcers, it is most seen in patients with a history of atopy, however is overall uncommon. In Germany, 90% of cases of infectious enteritis are caused by four pathogens, Rotavirus and Salmonella. Other common causes of infectious enteritis include bacteria such as Shigella and E. coli, as well as viruses such as adenovirus and calicivirus. Other less common pathogens include Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile and Staphylococcus aureus. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common sources of infectious enteritis, the most common bacterial pathogen found in 2 year old and smaller children with diarrhoea, it has been linked to consumption of contaminated water and food, most poultry and milk. The disease tends to be less severe in developing countries, due to the constant exposure which people have with the antigen in the environment, leading to early development of antibodies.

Rotavirus is responsible for infecting 140 million people and causing 1 million deaths each year in children younger than 5 years. This makes it the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhoea and diarrhea-related deaths in the world, it selectively targets mature enterocytes in the small intestine, causing malabsorption, as well as inducing secretion of water. It has been observed to cause villus ischemia, increase intestinal motility; the net result of these changes is induced diarrhoea. Enteritis necroticans is an fatal illness, caused by β-toxin of Clostridium perfringens; this causes inflammation and segments of necrosis throughout the gastrointestinal tract. It is most common in developing countries, however has been documented in post-World War II Germany. Risk factors for enteritis necroticans include decreased trypsin activity, which prevent intestinal degradation of the toxin, reduced intestinal motility, which increases likelihood of toxin accumulation. Ischemic enteritis is uncommon compared to ischemic colitis due to the vascularised nature of the small intestine, allowing for sufficient blood flow in most situations.

It develops due to circulatory shock of mesenteric vessels in the absence of major vessel occlusion associated with an underlying condition such as hypertension, arrhythmia or diabetes. Thus it has been considered to be associated with atherosclerosis. Surgical treatment is required due to the likelihood of stenosis or complete occlusion of the small intestine. Ischemic damage can range from mucosal infarction, limited only to the mucosa. Mucosal and mural infarcts in and of themselves may not be fatal, however may progress further to a transmural infarct; this has the potential for perforation of the wall, leading to peritonitis. Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract is common after treatment with radiation therapy to the abdomen or pelvis, it is classified as early if it manifests within the first 3 months, delayed if it manifests 3 months after treatment. Early radiation enteritis is caused by cell death of the crypt epithelium and subsequent mucosal inflammation, however subsides after the course of radiation therapy is completed.

Delayed radiation enteritis is a chronic disease which has a complex pathogenesis involving changes in the majority of the intestinal wall. Diagnosis may be simple in cases where the patient's signs and symptoms are idiopathic to a specific cause; however this is not the case, considering that many pathogens which cause enteritis may exhibit the similar symptoms early in the disease. In particular, shigella and many other bacteria induce acute self-limited colitis, an inflammation of the lining of the colon which appears similar under the microscope. A medical history, physical examination and tests such as blood counts, stool cultures, CT scans, MRIs, PCRs, colonoscopies and upper endoscopies may be used in order to perform a differential diagnosis. A biopsy may be required to obtain a sample for histopathology. Mild cases do not require treatment and will go away after a few days in healthy people. In cases where symptoms persist or when it is more severe, specific treatments based on the initial cause may be required.

In cases where diarrhea is present, replenishing fluids lost is recommended, in cases with prolong

Ubaidur Rahman

Ubaidur Rahman. In addition, he helped expand the commercial activities of Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation. First in 1961, a major Pakistani industrialist Syed Wajid Ali initiated a television project in Pakistan by signing a joint venture agreement with Nippon Electric Company of Japan. Ubaidur Rahman, an electrical engineer, was appointed by Syed Wajid Ali to head and develop this television project. Many pilot transmission tests were conducted; the control of this project was given to President Ayub Khan's government in 1962. The project people began their work in a small studio within a tent in the Radio Pakistan compound in Lahore, Pakistan. Here a transmission tower was constructed. On 26 Nov 1964, the first TV transmission from Lahore took place. In 2012, former Managing Director of PTV Agha Nasir wrote a book on the history of PTV titled:'PTV: Another Day, Another World' which gives details of his experiences while he worked there for over 50 years


Shpritsz is the second studio album by Dutch rock and roll and blues group Herman Brood & His Wild Romance. The album produced two singles; the first, "Rock & Roll Junkie," did not chart. The second, "Saturday Night," charted in Europe and the United States. On the Dutch album chart, the album reached #8 on 3 June 1978, stayed on the chart for 28 weeks, it was certified gold in 1978, platinum in 1980. Shpritsz was re-released on CD in 2000 by RCA/Ariola. In a 2008 poll by Muziekkrant OOR, the leading Dutch music magazine, Shpritsz was voted the fourth-best Dutch album of all time. "Rock & Roll Junkie" was released, but never charted. "Saturday Night" was released as a single. In the United States, "Saturday Night" was released as a single in 1979, rose to #35 in the Billboard Hot 100. Herman Brood – piano, vocals Monica Tjen Akwoei – vocals Bertus Borgerssaxophone Freddy Cavalli – bass Josee van Iersel – vocals Danny Lademacherguitar Cees'Ani' Meerman – drums Robert Jan Stipskeyboards Floor van Zutphen – vocals Robin Freeman – sound engineer

Karl Klindworth

Karl Klindworth was a German composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor and music publisher. He was one of Franz Liszt's pupils and one of his closest disciples and friends, being on friendly terms with composer Richard Wagner, of whom he was an admirer, he was praised by fellow musicians, including Wagner himself and Edward Dannreuther. Among his pupils were Hans von Bülow, Georgy Catoire, Ethelbert Nevin. Klindworth was born in Hanover in 1830 as the son of Carl August Klindworth and Dorothea Wilhelmine, née Lamminger, daughter of court printer Johann Thomas Lamminger, he was the nephew of politician and State Council Georg Klindworth and clockmaker Karl Friedrich Felix Klindworth. As a child, the young Klindworth taught himself to play the piano; as he was not accepted as violin pupil of Louis Spohr, he joined a traveling theater company as a successful violinist and conductor when he was only 17. In 1850 he took over the leadership of the Neue Liedertafel in Hanover. In the summer of 1852 Klindworth went to Weimar where he took piano lessons with Franz Liszt and was soon one of his closest disciples and friends.

He became on friendly terms with Richard Wagner. In 1854 Klindworth went to London, where he remained for fourteen years, studying and appearing in public. From London Klindworth went to Moscow in 1868, following Nikolai Rubinstein's invitation to take up the position of professor of pianoforte at the Moscow Conservatory, where he first met Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky as professor of harmony. While in Russia he completed his pianoforte arrangements for Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen, which he had commenced during Wagner's visit to England in 1855, Beethoven's sonatas and his critical edition of Frédéric Chopin's works, he became conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic in 1882, in association with Joseph Joachim and Franz Wüllner, being the conductor of the Berlin Wagner Society. At this time, he established the Klindworths Musikschule, which became the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory. Klindworth remained in Berlin until 1893, he earned his great reputation as an editor of musical works, having re-orchestrated Chopin's second piano concerto and raised Winifred Williams to be a perfect "Wagnerite" and made the orchestration of the first movement of Alkan's solo piano concerto, the eighth of the composer's etudes in all the minor keys, though others have since orchestrated all three movements.

He died in 1916 in Stolpe, near Oranienburg, aged 85. Concert-Polonaise Polonaise-Fantaisie, dedicated to "mes amis de Londres" Hector Berlioz: Ballet of the Sylphs and Hungarian March from The Damnation of Faust Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky: Roméo et Juliette for two pianos, Francesca da Rimini, for piano for 4 hands and Andante cantabile from String Quartet No. 1, Op. 11 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Requiem, K626 for piano for solo piano. Franz Schubert's Great C major Symphony for two pianos Richard Wagner: Rienzi, The Flying Dutchman, Prelude to act 3 of Lohengrin and Isolde, The Mastersingers of Nuremberg, Ring of the Nibelungen, Prellude of Parsifal Charles-Valentin Alkan: Concerto for Piano and Orchestra, Op.39 from Douze Études dans Tous les Tons Mineurs, Op.39 no.8 1st movement from: Concerto for Solo Piano Frédéric Chopin: Oeuvres completes, 6 volumes. Moscow Ludwig van Beethoven: Sonatas for piano, 3 vols. Berlin Johann Sebastian Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier, Mainz Felix Mendelssohn: Songs Without Words, London The skill in playing the piano, 24 pieces of exercise in all major and minor keys.

Mainz Novello's School of Pianoforte. London Elementary Piano School'. London, Mainz 24 pieces of exercise in all major and minor keys for the training of skill in playing the piano, latest magazine for Bertini's piano school, and now in England. Bayreuth Memory and thoughts of Karl Klindworth, letters to Wahnfried. Bayreuth Unpublished Karl Klindworth's letters to Tchaikovsky. Berlin Klindworth Agnes Street-Klindworth AttributionThis article incorporates text from a publication that prior to 1923, is in the public domain: The Etude, Philadelphia: Theodore Presser Company This article is based on the translation of the corresponding article of the German Wikipedia. A list of contributors can be found there at the History section. Works by or about Karl Klindworth at Internet Archive Media related to Karl Klindworth at Wikimedia Commons Free scores by Karl Klindworth at the International Music Score Library Project

Rugby union in Norway

Rugby union in Norway is a minor but growing sport. For a number of years, Norway was the most northerly country playing the sport, boasted the world's most northerly rugby club, Oslo RFC, founded in 1964; the Norwegian Union was founded in 1982, joined the IRFB in 1993. Norway was the last of the three Scandinavian countries to take up rugby. However, amongst the Nordic Countries, it is by no means the weakest, as it is a more recent introduction to Finland, has no presence in the other three nations. A major problem though, is the climate, which means that many pitches may be under snow for large parts of the year. Serious interest in the game began in the 1960s. For many years, Oslo RFC was the most northerly rugby club in the world.. Stavanger Rugby Club was formed in 1978 and played Oslo in the Autumn of that year, presenting Oslo with a trophy, a rockbit, in 1979, a return match was played in Stavanger. During the mid-1980s, Oslo RFC's nearest opposition in Norway was Stavanger, a round trip of 685 miles.

Their nearest club was Karlstad RFC in Sweden a round trip of 310 miles. Rugby has a much longer standing in neighbouring Sweden and Denmark, which have a combined figure of around 10,000 registered players, it has been introduced there. Rugby union is played in neighbouring Shetland, visitors from there have toured Norway, including people from the British military bases and ships there. Norway played its first international against Latvia who beat them 44-6. At the time, the Welsh fly-half Huw Howells was the driving force in trying to promote the game. Erik Lund, Leeds Carnegie and captain of Norway Magnus Lund, brother of Erik, Sale Sharks, Biarritz Olympique Pays Basque, England Anton Smith-Petersen, Harlequin F. C. Norway national rugby union team Archives du Rugby: Norvege Cotton, Fran The Book of Rugby Disasters & Bizarre Records. Compiled by Chris Rhys. London. Century Publishing. ISBN 0-7126-0911-3 Richards, Huw A Game for Hooligans: The History of Rugby Union "Rugby" on Store norske leksikon

CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model

The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model provides an extensible ontology for concepts and information in cultural heritage and museum documentation. It is the international standard for the controlled exchange of cultural heritage information. Galleries, archives and other cultural institutions are encouraged to use the CIDOC CRM to enhance accessibility to museum-related information and knowledge; the CIDOC CRM emerged from the CIDOC Documentation Standards Group in the International Committee for Documentation of the International Council of Museums. Until 1994, the work focused on developing an entity-relationship model for museum information, however, in 1996, the approach shifted to object-oriented modeling methodologies, resulting in the first "CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model" in 1999; the process of standardizing the CIDOC CRM began in 2000 and was completed in 2006 with its acceptance as the ISO 21127 standard. The overall aim of the CIDOC CRM is to provide a reference model and information standard that museums, other cultural heritage institutions, can use to describe their collections, related business entities, to improve information sharing.

The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model provides definitions and a formal structure for describing the implicit and explicit concepts and relationships used in cultural heritage promote a shared understanding of cultural heritage information by providing a common and extensible semantic framework that any cultural heritage information can be mapped to. It is intended to be a common language for domain experts and implementers to formulate requirements for information systems and to serve as a guide for good practice of conceptual modelling. In this way, it can provide the "semantic glue" needed to mediate between different sources of cultural heritage information, such as that published by museums and archives. By adopting formal semantics for the CIDOC CRM, the pre-conditions for machine-to-machine interoperability and integration have been established. Thus, CIDOC CRM is well placed to become an important information standard and reference model for Semantic Web initiatives, serves as a guide for data, or database, modeling more generally.

Technically speaking, CIDOC CRM lends itself to software applications that extensively use XML and RDF. Many cultural heritage institutions are investigating or building applications that use CIDOC CRM. Following the successful standardization of the CIDOC CRM, a new initiative, FRBRoo, was begun in 2006 to harmonize it with the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records; the aim of this initiative is to "provide a formal ontology intended to capture and represent the underlying semantics of bibliographic information and to facilitate the integration and interchange of bibliographic and museum information." The "CIDOC object-oriented Conceptual Reference Model" is a domain ontology, but includes its own version of an upper ontology. The core classes cover: Space-Time includes title/identifier, era/period, time-span, relationship to persistent items Events includes title/identifier, beginning/ending of existence, creation/modification of things, relationship to persistent items Material Things includes title/identifier, the information object the material thing carries, part-of relationships, relationship to persistent items Immaterial Things includes title/identifier, information objects, conceptional things, part-of relationshipsExamples of definitions: Persistent Item a physical or conceptional item that has a persistent identity recognized within the duration of its existence by its identification rather than by its continuity or by observation.

A Persistent Item is comparable to an endurant. Temporal Entity includes events, eras/periods, condition states which happen over a limited extent in time, is disjoint with Persistent Item. A Temporal Entity is comparable to a perdurant. Propositional Object a set of statements about real or imaginary things. Symbolic Object a sign/symbol or an aggregation of signs/symbols. Doerr M. "The CIDOC CRM – An Ontological Approach to Semantic Interoperability of Metadata", AI Magazine, Volume.24, Number 3 pp. 75-92 Martin Doerr, Dolores Iorizzo, The Dream of a Global Knowledge Network – A New Approach, ACM Journal for Computing and Cultural Heritage, Vol. 1, No. 1, Article 5, Publication date: June 2008 Nick Crofts, Martin Doerr, Tony Gill, Stephen Stead, Matthew Stiff, Definition of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model, October 2006. Version 4.2.1 Martin Doerr, Nicholas Crofts: Electronic Communication on Diverse Data. The Role of the oo CIDOC Reference Model doi:10.1145/1367080.1367085 T. Gill: Making sense of cultural infodiversity: The CIDOC-CRM.

2002 Regine Stein, Jürgen Gottschewski u.a.: Das CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model: Eine Hilfe für den Datenaustausch? Berlin, 2005 The CIDOC CRM Website