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Enterprise resource planning

Enterprise resource planning is the integrated management of main business processes in real time and mediated by software and technology. ERP is referred to as a category of business management software — a suite of integrated applications—that an organization can use to collect, store and interpret data from many business activities. ERP provides an integrated and continuously updated view of core business processes using common databases maintained by a database management system. ERP systems track business resources—cash, raw materials, production capacity—and the status of business commitments: orders, purchase orders, payroll; the applications that make up the system share data across various departments that provide the data. ERP facilitates information flow between all business functions and manages connections to outside stakeholders. Enterprise system software is a multibillion-dollar industry that produces components supporting a variety of business functions. IT investments have become the largest category of capital expenditure in United States-based businesses over the past decade.

Though early ERP systems focused on large enterprises, smaller enterprises use ERP systems. The ERP system integrates varied organizational systems and facilitates error-free transactions and production, thereby enhancing the organization's efficiency. However, developing an ERP system differs from traditional system development. ERP systems run on a variety of computer hardware and network configurations using a database as an information repository; the Gartner Group first used the acronym ERP in the 1990s to include the capabilities of material requirements planning, the manufacturing resource planning, as well as computer-integrated manufacturing. Without replacing these terms, ERP came to represent a larger whole that reflected the evolution of application integration beyond manufacturing. Not all ERP packages are developed from a manufacturing core. By the mid-1990s ERP systems addressed all core enterprise functions. Governments and non–profit organizations began to use ERP systems. ERP systems experienced rapid growth in the 1980s.

Because of the year 2000 problem and the introduction of the euro that disrupted legacy systems, many companies took the opportunity to replace their old systems with ERP. ERP systems focused on automating back office functions that did not directly affect customers and the public. Front office functions, such as customer relationship management, dealt directly with customers, or e-business systems such as e-commerce, e-government, e-telecom, e-finance—or supplier relationship management became integrated when the internet simplified communicating with external parties."ERP II" was coined in 2000 in an article by Gartner Publications entitled ERP Is Dead—Long Live ERP II. It describes web–based software that provides real–time access to ERP systems to employees and partners; the ERP II role expands transaction processing. Rather than just manage buying, etc.—ERP II leverages information in the resources under its management to help the enterprise collaborate with other enterprises. ERP II is more flexible than the first generation ERP.

Rather than confine ERP system capabilities within the organization, it goes beyond the corporate walls to interact with other systems. Enterprise application suite is an alternate name for such systems. ERP II systems are used to enable collaborative initiatives such as supply chain management, customer relationship management, business intelligence among business partner organizations through the use of various e-business technologies. Developers now make more effort to integrate mobile devices with the ERP system. ERP vendors are extending ERP to these devices, along with other business applications. Technical stakes of modern ERP concern integration—hardware, networking, supply chains. ERP now covers more functions and roles—including decision making, stakeholders' relationships, transparency, etc. ERP systems include the following characteristics: An integrated system Operates in real time A common database that supports all the applications A consistent look and feel across modules Installation of the system with elaborate application/data integration by the Information Technology department, provided the implementation is not done in small steps Deployment options include: on-premises, cloud hosted, or SaaS An ERP system covers the following common functional areas.

In many ERP systems, these are called and grouped together as ERP modules: Financial accounting: general ledger, fixed assets, payables including vouchering and payment, receivables and collections, cash management, financial consolidation Management accounting: budgeting, cost management, activity based costing Human resources: recruiting, rostering, benefits and pension plans, diversity management, separation Manufacturing: engineering, bill of materials, work orders, capacity, workflow management, quality control, manufacturing process, manufacturing projects, manufacturing flow, product life cycle management Order processing: order to cash, order entry, credit checking, available to promise, shipping, sales analysis and reporting, sales commissioning Supply chain management: supply chain planning, supplier scheduling, product configurator, order to cash, inventory, cl

Danseys Pass

Danseys Pass is a mountain pass located in the Kakanui Mountains, between Central Otago and North Otago, in the South Island of New Zealand. It lies between the northern foothills of the Kakanui Mountains. Much of the road going over Danseys Pass is unsealed and is ocationaly cut directly from the Haast Schist bedrock; the road was built for the owners of the brothers Allan McLean and John McLean. Though not a major arterial road, the pass is a well-used link between the towns of Naseby and Ranfurly in the south and Duntroon in the Mackenzie Basin of inland Canterbury. If State Highway 1 between Hampden and Moeraki is closed, it is the closest detour, despite adding over 100 km to the journey; the locality of Danseys Pass is located halfway between the pass and Duntroon on the eastern side. Confusingly, the historic Danseys Pass Coach Inn / Danseys Pass Hotel is located on the western side, at the locality known as Kyeburn Diggings or Upper Kyeburn, north of Kyeburn. Maniototo Promotions information on Danseys Pass Danseys Pass Coach Inn

Doggy Style Records

Doggy Style Records is an American record label founded by rapper Snoop Dogg in 1995. It is named after Doggystyle. On July 6, 1995, Doggy Style Records, Inc. was registered with the California Secretary of State as business entity number C1923139. After Snoop Dogg was acquitted of murder charges on February 20, 1996, he and the mother of his son and their kennel of 20 pit bulls moved into a 5,000-square-foot home in the hills of Claremont, California and by August 1996 Doggy Style Records, a subsidiary of Death Row Records, signed The Gap Band's Charlie Wilson as one of the record label's first artists. In 2016, the single "Letters" was released, featuring Iliana Eve. Doggy Style Records

Elizabeth Hoffman (professor)

Celia Elizabeth Hoffman was Executive Vice President and Provost of Iowa State University from 2007-2012, where she remains as professor of economics. From 2000 to 2005, she was President of the University of Colorado System, where she is President Emerita, she is a Senior Distinguished Fellow at the Searle Center on Law and Economic Growth at Northwestern University School of Law, serves on numerous for-profit and non-profit Boards. She served on the National Science Board from 2002-2008, her published research is in the areas of Experimental economics and Behavioral Economics. Hoffman was born in Pennsylvania, her maternal grandfather, Andre Kalpaschnikoff, had escaped the Russian Revolution. Her mother and aunt married brothers, she spent her early years living in a large house in Wayne, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia, with her grandmother, father, uncle and their three double-cousins, before moving to suburban Berwyn, Pennsylvania, she is married to economist Brian R. Binger. Hoffman graduated from Conestoga High School in 1964.

She received a B. A. is a member of its Board of Trustees. She received an M. A. in history from the University of Pennsylvania in 1969, a Ph. D. in history from the University of Pennsylvania in 1972, a Ph. D. in social science from the California Institute of Technology in 1979. While finishing her Ph. D. at Penn, she taught history and economics at St. Olaf College, Carleton College, Macalester College, her first academic position after completing her Ph. D. in history was as assistant professor of history at the University of Florida. She was recruited for the first class of economics PhD students at the California Institute of Technology, became assistant professor of economics at Northwestern University and associate professor of economics at Purdue University, professor of economics at the University of Wyoming and professor of economics and law at the University of Arizona, she was a founding trustee of the Cliometric Society, which focuses on quantitative studies in history. Her academic papers have more than 7000 total citations.

E Hoffman, K McCabe, K Shachat, V Smith. "Preferences, property rights, anonymity in bargaining games". Games and Economic Behavior. 7: 346–380. Doi:10.1006/game.1994.1056. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter E Hoffman, K McCabe, VL Smith. "Social distance and other-regarding behavior in dictator games". The American Economic Review. 86: 653–660. JSTOR 2118218. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter E Hoffman, ML Spitzer. "Entitlements and fairness: An experimental examination of subjects' concepts of distributive justice". The Journal of Legal Studies. 14: 259–297. Doi:10.1086/467773. JSTOR 724430. In 1993, Hoffman became dean of the College of liberal arts and sciences at Iowa State University, where she was professor of economics and psychology. In 1997, she became provost and vice chancellor for academic affairs at the University of Illinois at Chicago. On September 1, 2000, Hoffman became the 20th president of the four-campus University of Colorado system, she served in that role until 2005, when she resigned citing the distraction of multiple ongoing controversies.

These included the university's alleged use of sex and alcohol to recruit football players, an alcohol-related student death at the Boulder campus, the Ward Churchill essay controversy. When she received a demand from Governor Bill Owens to fire Ward Churchill, she refused on grounds of academic freedom, her refusal drew her into the Churchill controversy, she resigned soon afterward. She has since identified the dispute over Churchill as her reason for resigning

L&YR Class 3

The L&YR Class 3 was a class of 4-4-0 steam locomotives of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway introduced in 1891 with forty being built. George Hughes rebuilt six locomotives with superheaters between 1908 and 1909, they were designated L&YR Class 4. All passed to the London and Scottish Railway at the grouping in 1923 but were withdrawn by 1930; the design originated with a William Barton Wright's 4-4-0 of 1880 with driving wheels of 6 feet 0 inches and boiler pressure of 140 psi. Aspinall produced a modified version with 6ft wheels, the basis for the class 3. John Aspinall succeeded Barton Wright in 1886, he order more locomotives of Barton's Wright's 4-4-0 design. But determined a driving wheels of 7 feet 3 inches and boiler pressure increased to 160 psi should give increased speed for the same tractive effort. Six locomotives were rebuilt with superheaters by George Hughes between 1908 and 1909, they became L&YR Class 4 in the Hughes classification scheme introduced in 1919. All six passed to the London and Scottish Railway at the grouping in 1923.

There were two different versions of the rebuild. One had 19" bore Joy valve gear; the other had 20" bore Walschaerts valve gear. The L&YR numbered them 1093-1229 and randomly, using numbers between 318 and 498; the LMS numbered its 34 Class 3 locomotives 10150-10183. The six, rebuilt to Class 4 were numbered in a separate series, LMS 10190-10195. Withdrawals began in 1925 and the Class 4 superheated locomotives were all withdrawn by 1926; the last members of the type were withdrawn in 1930. None have been preserved. Bulleid, H. A. V.. The Aspinall Era. Ian Allan Ltd. Casserley, H. C.. W.. Locomotives at the Grouping, no.3, LMS. Ian Allan. Marshall, John; the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway, volume 3. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-5320-9

The Sacrifice

The Sacrifice is a 1986 drama film written and directed by Andrei Tarkovsky. Starring Erland Josephson, it centers on a middle-aged intellectual who attempts to bargain with God to stop an impending nuclear holocaust; the Sacrifice was Tarkovsky's third film as a Soviet expatriate, after Nostalghia and the documentary Voyage in Time, was his last, as he died shortly after its completion. Like 1972's Solaris, it won the Grand Prix at the Cannes Film Festival; the film opens on the birthday of Alexander, an actor who gave up the stage to work as a journalist and lecturer on aesthetics. He lives in a beautiful house with his actress wife Adelaide, stepdaughter Marta, young son, "Little Man", temporarily mute due to a throat operation. Alexander and Little Man plant a tree by the seaside, when Alexander's friend Otto, a part-time postman, delivers a birthday card to him; when Otto asks, Alexander mentions that his relationship with God is "nonexistent". After Otto leaves and Victor, a medical doctor and a close family friend who performed Little Man's operation, arrive at the scene and offer to take Alexander and Little Man home in Victor's car.

However, Alexander prefers to talk to his son. In his monologue, Alexander first recounts how he and Adelaide found this lovely house near the sea by accident, how they fell in love with the house and surroundings, but enters a bitter tirade against the state of modern man; as Tarkovsky wrote, Alexander is weary of "the pressures of change, the discord in his family, his instinctive sense of the threat posed by the relentless march of technology". The family, as well as Victor and Otto, gather at Alexander's house for the celebration, their maid Maria leaves. People comment on Maria's odd appearances and behavior; the guests chat inside the house, where Otto reveals that he is a student of paranormal phenomena, a collector of "inexplicable but true incidences." Just when the dinner is ready, the rumbling noise of low-flying jet fighters interrupts them, soon after, as Alexander enters, a news program announces the beginning of what appears to be all-out war, nuclear holocaust. In despair, he vows to God to sacrifice all he loves Little Man, if this may be undone.

Otto advises him to slip away and lie with Maria, who Otto convinces him is a witch, "in the best possible sense". Alexander takes his gun, leaves a note in his room, escapes the house, rides his bike to where she is staying, she is bewildered when he makes his advances, but when he puts his gun to his temple, at which point the jet-fighters' rumblings return, she soothes him and they consummate while floating above her bed, though Alexander's reaction is ambiguous. When he awakes the next morning, in his own bed, everything seems normal. Alexander sets forth to give up all he loves and possesses, he tricks the family members and friends into going for a walk, sets fire to their house when they are away. As the group rushes back, alarmed by the fire, Alexander confesses that he set the fire himself, furiously runs around. Maria, who until was not seen that morning, appears in the fire scene. Without explanation, an ambulance appears in the area, two paramedics chase Alexander, who appears to have lost control of himself, drive off with him.

Maria begins to bicycle away, but stops halfway to observe Little Man watering the tree he and Alexander planted the day before. As Maria leaves the scene, the "mute" Little Man, lying at the foot of the tree, speaks his only line, which quotes the opening Gospel of John: "In the beginning was the Word. Why is that, Papa?" Erland Josephson as Alexander Susan Fleetwood as Adelaide Allan Edwall as Otto Guðrún Gísladóttir as Maria Sven Wollter as Victor Valérie Mairesse as Julia Filippa Franzén as Marta Tommy Kjellqvist as Gossen Per Källman, Tommy Nordahl as ambulance drivers The Sacrifice originated as a screenplay entitled The Witch, which preserved the element of a middle-aged protagonist spending the night with a reputed witch. However, in this story, his cancer was miraculously cured, he ran away with the woman. In March 1982, Tarkovsky wrote in his journal that he considered this ending "weak", as the happy ending was unchallenged, he wanted personal favorite and frequent collaborator Anatoly Solonitsyn to star in this picture, as was his intention for Nostalghia, but when Solonitsyn died from cancer in 1982, the director rewrote the screenplay into what would become The Sacrifice and filmed Nostalghia with Oleg Yankovsky as the lead.

Tarkovsky considered The Sacrifice different from his earlier films because, while he commented that his recent films had been "impressionistic in structure", in this case he not only "aimed...to develop episodes in the light of my own experience and of the rules of dramatic structure", but to " the picture into a poetic whole in which all the episodes were harmoniously linked", that because of this, it "took on the form of a poetic parable". At the 1984 Cannes Film Festival, Tarkovsky was invited to film in Sweden, as he was a long-time friend of Anna-Lena Wibom of the Swedish Film Institute, he decided to film The Sacrifice with Erland Josephson, best known for his work with Ingmar Bergman, whom Tarkovsky had directed in Nostalghia. Cinematographer Sven Nykvist, a friend of Josephson and frequent collaborator with Ingmar Bergman, was asked to join the production. Despite a contemporaneous offer to shoot Sydney Pollack's Out of Africa, Nykvist later