Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles. At its core, systems engineering utilizes systems thinking principles to organize this body of knowledge; the individual outcome of such efforts, an engineered system, can be defined as a combination of components that work in synergy to collectively perform a useful function. Issues such as requirements engineering, logistics, coordination of different teams and evaluation, maintainability and many other disciplines necessary for successful system development, design and ultimate decommission become more difficult when dealing with large or complex projects. Systems engineering deals with work-processes, optimization methods, risk management tools in such projects, it overlaps technical and human-centered disciplines such as industrial engineering, mechanical engineering, manufacturing engineering, control engineering, software engineering, electrical engineering, organizational studies, civil engineering and project management.
Systems engineering ensures that all aspects of a project or system are considered, integrated into a whole. The systems engineering process is a discovery process, quite unlike a manufacturing process. A manufacturing process is focused on repetitive activities that achieve high quality outputs with minimum cost and time; the systems engineering process must begin by discovering the real problems that need to be resolved, identifying the most probable or highest impact failures that can occur – systems engineering involves finding solutions to these problems. The term systems engineering can be traced back to Bell Telephone Laboratories in the 1940s; the need to identify and manipulate the properties of a system as a whole, which in complex engineering projects may differ from the sum of the parts' properties, motivated various industries those developing systems for the U. S. Military; when it was no longer possible to rely on design evolution to improve upon a system and the existing tools were not sufficient to meet growing demands, new methods began to be developed that addressed the complexity directly.
The continuing evolution of systems engineering comprises the development and identification of new methods and modeling techniques. These methods aid in a better comprehension of the design and developmental control of engineering systems as they grow more complex. Popular tools that are used in the systems engineering context were developed during these times, including USL, UML, QFD, IDEF0. In 1990, a professional society for systems engineering, the National Council on Systems Engineering, was founded by representatives from a number of U. S. corporations and organizations. NCOSE was created to address the need for improvements in systems engineering practices and education; as a result of growing involvement from systems engineers outside of the U. S. the name of the organization was changed to the International Council on Systems Engineering in 1995. Schools in several countries offer graduate programs in systems engineering, continuing education options are available for practicing engineers.
Systems engineering signifies only an approach and, more a discipline in engineering. The aim of education in systems engineering is to formalize various approaches and in doing so, identify new methods and research opportunities similar to that which occurs in other fields of engineering; as an approach, systems engineering is interdisciplinary in flavour. The traditional scope of engineering embraces the conception, development and operation of physical systems. Systems engineering, as conceived, falls within this scope. "Systems engineering", in this sense of the term, refers to the building of engineering concepts. The use of the term "systems engineer" has evolved over time to embrace a wider, more holistic concept of "systems" and of engineering processes; this evolution of the definition has been a subject of ongoing controversy, the term continues to apply to both the narrower and broader scope. Traditional systems engineering was seen as a branch of engineering in the classical sense, that is, as applied only to physical systems, such as spacecraft and aircraft.
More systems engineering has evolved to a take on a broader meaning when humans were seen as an essential component of a system. Checkland, for example, captures the broader meaning of systems engineering by stating that'engineering' "can be read in its general sense. Enterprise Systems Engineering pertains to the view of enterprises, that is, organizations or combinations of organizations, as systems. Service Systems Engineering has to do with the engineering of service systems. Checkland defines a service system as a system, conceived as serving another system. Most civil infrastructure systems are service systems. Systems engineering focuses on analyzing and eliciting customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem, the system lifecycle; this includes understanding all of the stakeholders involved. Oliver et al. claim that the systems engineerin
Systems development life cycle
The systems development life cycle referred to as the application development life-cycle, is a term used in systems engineering, information systems and software engineering to describe a process for planning, creating and deploying an information system. The systems development lifecycle concept applies to a range of hardware and software configurations, as a system can be composed of hardware only, software only, or a combination of both. There are six stages in this cycle: analysis, design and testing, implementation and evaluation. A systems development life cycle is composed of a number of defined and distinct work phases which are used by systems engineers and systems developers to plan for, build and deliver information systems. Like anything, manufactured on an assembly line, an SDLC aims to produce high-quality systems that meet or exceed customer expectations, based on customer requirements, by delivering systems which move through each defined phase, within scheduled time frames and cost estimates.
Computer systems are complex and link multiple traditional systems supplied by different software vendors. To manage this level of complexity, a number of SDLC models or methodologies have been created, such as waterfall, Agile software development, rapid prototyping and synchronize and stabilize. SDLC can be described along a spectrum of agile to iterative to sequential methodologies. Agile methodologies, such as XP and Scrum, focus on lightweight processes which allow for rapid changes along the development cycle. Iterative methodologies, such as Rational Unified Process and dynamic systems development method, focus on limited project scope and expanding or improving products by multiple iterations. Sequential or big-design-up-front models, such as waterfall, focus on complete and correct planning to guide large projects and risks to successful and predictable results. Other models, such as anamorphic development, tend to focus on a form of development, guided by project scope and adaptive iterations of feature development.
In project management a project can be defined both with a project life cycle and an SDLC, during which different activities occur. According to Taylor, "the project life cycle encompasses all the activities of the project, while the systems development life cycle focuses on realizing the product requirements". SDLC is used during the development of an IT project, it describes the different stages involved in the project from the drawing board, through the completion of the project; the SDLC is not a methodology per se, but rather a description of the phases in the life cycle of a software application. These phases are, analysis, build, test and maintenance and support. All software development methodologies follow the SDLC phases but the method of doing that varies vastly between methodologies. In the Scrum methodology, for example, one could say a single user story goes through all the phases of the SDLC within a single two-week sprint. Contrast this to the waterfall methodology, as another example, where every business requirement is translated into feature/functional descriptions which are all built in one go as a collection of solution features over a period of three to nine months, or more.
These methodologies are quite different approaches, yet they both contain the SDLC phases in which a requirement is born travels through the life cycle phases ending in the final phase of maintenance and support, after-which the whole life cycle starts again for a subsequent version of the software application. The product life cycle describes the process for building information systems in a deliberate and methodical way, reiterating each stage of the product's life; the systems development life cycle, according to Elliott & Strachan & Radford, "originated in the 1960s, to develop large scale functional business systems in an age of large scale business conglomerates. Information systems activities revolved around heavy data processing and number crunching routines". Several systems development frameworks have been based on SDLC, such as the structured systems analysis and design method produced for the UK government Office of Government Commerce in the 1980s. Since, according to Elliott, "the traditional life cycle approaches to systems development have been replaced with alternative approaches and frameworks, which attempted to overcome some of the inherent deficiencies of the traditional SDLC".
The system development life cycle framework provides a sequence of activities for system designers and developers to follow. It consists of a set of steps or phases in which each phase of the SDLC uses the results of the previous one; the SDLC adheres to important phases that are essential for developers—such as planning, analysis and implementation—and are explained in the section below. This includes evaluation of the used system, information gathering, feasibility studies, request approval. A number of SDLC models have been created, including waterfall, spiral and fix, rapid prototyping, incremental and stabilize; the oldest of these, the best known, is the waterfall model, a sequence of stages in which the output
Wernher von Braun
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun was a German-American aerospace engineer and space architect. He was the leading figure in the development of rocket technology in Germany and a pioneer of rocket technology and space science in the United States. While in his twenties and early thirties, von Braun worked in Nazi Germany's rocket development program, he helped design and develop the V-2 rocket at Peenemünde during World War II. Following the war, he was secretly moved to the United States, along with about 1,600 other German scientists and technicians, as part of Operation Paperclip, he worked for the United States Army on an intermediate-range ballistic missile program, he developed the rockets that launched the United States' first space satellite Explorer 1. His group was assimilated into NASA, where he served as director of the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center and as the chief architect of the Saturn V super heavy-lift launch vehicle that propelled the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon.
In 1975, von Braun received the National Medal of Science. He advocated a human mission to Mars. Wernher von Braun was born on March 23, 1912, in the small town of Wirsitz, in the Posen Province, in what was the German Empire and is now Poland, he was the second of three sons. He belonged to a noble Lutheran family, from birth he held the title of Freiherr; the German nobility's legal privileges were abolished in 1919, although noble titles could still be used as part of the family name. His father, Magnus Freiherr von Braun, was conservative politician, his mother, Emmy von Quistorp, traced her ancestry through both parents to medieval European royalty and was a descendant of Philip III of France, Valdemar I of Denmark, Robert III of Scotland, Edward III of England. Wernher had an older brother, the West German diplomat Sigismund von Braun, who served as Secretary of State in the Foreign Office in the 1970s, a younger brother named Magnus von Braun, a rocket scientist and a senior executive with Chrysler.
After Wernher's confirmation, his mother gave him a telescope, he developed a passion for astronomy. The family moved to Berlin in 1915. Here in 1924, the 12-year-old Wernher, inspired by speed records established by Max Valier and Fritz von Opel in rocket-propelled cars, caused a major disruption in a crowded street by detonating a toy wagon to which he had attached fireworks, he was taken into custody by the local police. Wernher learned to play both the cello and the piano at an early age and at one time wanted to become a composer, he took lessons from the composer Paul Hindemith. The few pieces of Wernher's youthful compositions that exist are reminiscent of Hindemith's style, he could play piano pieces of Bach from memory. Beginning in 1925, Wernher attended a boarding school at Ettersburg Castle near Weimar, where he did not do well in physics and mathematics. There he acquired a copy of By Rocket into Planetary Space by rocket pioneer Hermann Oberth. In 1928, his parents moved him to the Hermann-Lietz-Internat on the East Frisian North Sea island of Spiekeroog.
Space travel had always fascinated Wernher, from on he applied himself to physics and mathematics to pursue his interest in rocket engineering. In 1930, von Braun attended the Technische Hochschule Berlin, where he joined the Spaceflight Society and assisted Willy Ley in his liquid-fueled rocket motor tests in conjunction with Hermann Oberth. In spring 1932, he graduated from the Technische Hochschule Berlin, with a diploma in mechanical engineering, his early exposure to rocketry convinced him that the exploration of space would require far more than applications of the current engineering technology. Wanting to learn more about physics and astronomy, von Braun entered the Friedrich-Wilhelm University of Berlin for post-graduate studies and graduated with a doctorate in physics in 1934, he studied at ETH Zürich for a term from June to October 1931. Although he worked on military rockets in his years there, space travel remained his primary interest. In 1930, von Braun attended a presentation given by Auguste Piccard.
After the talk, the young student approached the famous pioneer of high-altitude balloon flight, stated to him: "You know, I plan on traveling to the Moon at some time." Piccard is said to have responded with encouraging words. Von Braun was influenced by Oberth, of whom he said: Hermann Oberth was the first, who when thinking about the possibility of spaceships grabbed a slide-rule and presented mathematically analyzed concepts and designs... I, owe to him not only the guiding-star of my life, but my first contact with the theoretical and practical aspects of rocketry and space travel. A place of honor should be reserved in the history of science and technology for his ground-breaking contributions in the field of astronautics. According to historian Norman Davies, von Braun was able to pursue a career as a rocket scientist in Germany due to a "curious oversight" in the Treaty of Versailles which did not include rocketry in its list of weapons forbidden to Germany. Von Braun had an complex relationship with the Nazi regime of the Third Reich.
He applied for official membership of the Nazi Party on November 12, 1937, was issued membership number 5,738,692. Michael J. Neufeld, a published author of aerospace history and chief of
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity and electromagnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, electric power distribution and use. Subsequently and recording media made electronics part of daily life; the invention of the transistor, the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in any household object. Electrical engineering has now divided into a wide range of fields including electronics, digital computers, computer engineering, power engineering, telecommunications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing and microelectronics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics and waves, microwave engineering, electrochemistry, renewable energies, electrical materials science, much more.
See glossary of electrical and electronics engineering. Electrical engineers hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practising engineers may be members of a professional body; such bodies include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Electrical engineers work in a wide range of industries and the skills required are variable; these range from basic circuit theory to the management skills required of a project manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to a top end analyzer to sophisticated design and manufacturing software. Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th century. William Gilbert was a prominent early electrical scientist, was the first to draw a clear distinction between magnetism and static electricity, he is credited with establishing the term "electricity". He designed the versorium: a device that detects the presence of statically charged objects.
In 1762 Swedish professor Johan Carl Wilcke invented a device named electrophorus that produced a static electric charge. By 1800 Alessandro Volta had developed the voltaic pile, a forerunner of the electric battery In the 19th century, research into the subject started to intensify. Notable developments in this century include the work of Hans Christian Ørsted who discovered in 1820 that an electric current produces a magnetic field that will deflect a compass needle, of William Sturgeon who, in 1825 invented the electromagnet, of Joseph Henry and Edward Davy who invented the electrical relay in 1835, of Georg Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric current and potential difference in a conductor, of Michael Faraday, of James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise Electricity and Magnetism. In 1782 Georges-Louis Le Sage developed and presented in Berlin the world's first form of electric telegraphy, using 24 different wires, one for each letter of the alphabet.
This telegraph connected two rooms. It was an electrostatic telegraph. In 1795, Francisco Salva Campillo proposed an electrostatic telegraph system. Between 1803-1804, he worked on electrical telegraphy and in 1804, he presented his report at the Royal Academy of Natural Sciences and Arts of Barcelona. Salva’s electrolyte telegraph system was innovative though it was influenced by and based upon two new discoveries made in Europe in 1800 – Alessandro Volta’s electric battery for generating an electric current and William Nicholson and Anthony Carlyle’s electrolysis of water. Electrical telegraphy may be considered the first example of electrical engineering. Electrical engineering became a profession in the 19th century. Practitioners had created a global electric telegraph network and the first professional electrical engineering institutions were founded in the UK and USA to support the new discipline. Francis Ronalds created an electric telegraph system in 1816 and documented his vision of how the world could be transformed by electricity.
Over 50 years he joined the new Society of Telegraph Engineers where he was regarded by other members as the first of their cohort. By the end of the 19th century, the world had been forever changed by the rapid communication made possible by the engineering development of land-lines, submarine cables, from about 1890, wireless telegraphy. Practical applications and advances in such fields created an increasing need for standardised units of measure, they led to the international standardization of the units volt, coulomb, ohm and henry. This was achieved at an international conference in Chicago in 1893; the publication of these standards formed the basis of future advances in standardisation in various industries, in many countries, the definitions were recognized in relevant legislation. During these years, the study of electricity was considered to be a subfield of physics since the early electrical technology was considered electromechanical in nature; the Technische Universität Darmstadt founded the world's first department of electrical engineering in 1882.
The first electrical engineering degree program was started at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the physics department
James S. Albus
James Sacra Albus was an American engineer, Senior NIST Fellow and founder and former chief of the Intelligent Systems Division of the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Born in Louisville, Albus received the B. S. degree in physics from Wheaton College, Illinois, in 1957 and the M. S. degree in electrical engineering from Ohio State University, Columbus, in 1958. In 1972 he received a Ph. D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Maryland, College Park. From 1957 to 1973 Albus worked at NASA starting in 1957 as Physicist-Engineer on Project Vanguard at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC. From 1958 to 1969 he was Physicist-Engineer at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and from 1963 Acting Head of the Video Techniques Section. From 1969 to March 1973 he was head of the Cybernetics and Subsystems Development Section. In the 1960s he was associated with the early Vanguard satellite program and responsible for the optical aspect sensors on seven Goddard satellites, more than ten sounding rockets, over 15 NASA spacecraft.
From 1973 to 2008 Albus worked at the National Bureau of Standards which changed its name in 1980 to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. March 1973 to June 1980 he was Project Manager for Sensors and Computer Control Technology, NBS where he developed the Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer neural net model. From June 1980 to January 1981 he was leader of the Programmable Automation Group at the NBS and developed the RCS reference model architecture for the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility. From 1981 to 1996 he was chief of the Robot Systems Division at NIST. Here he founded the Robot Systems Division, developed the RoboCrane, many applications of the RCS architecture for DARPA, NASA, ARL, U. S. Bureau of Mines and General Motors. From 1995 to 1998 as Chief, Intelligent Systems Division, NIST he managed a Division of 35 professional scientists and engineers with an $8+ million per year budget, he developed the 4D/RCS architecture for the Army Research Lab Demo III Experimental Unmanned Vehicle program.
From 1998 to 2008 he was a Senior NIST Fellow, National Institute of Standards and Technology Provided technical leadership to the Intelligent Systems Division and served as Principal Investigator for the implementation of intelligent ground vehicle projects funded by the Army and DARPA. From June 2008 to 2009 he was a Senior Fellow of the Krasnow Institute for Advanced Studies at George Mason University, Virginia, where he worked toward advancing the understanding of the computational and representational mechanisms of the human brain. From 2008 to 2011 he worked part-time at Robotic Technology Incorporated and Robotic Research, LLC, he was a member of the editorial board of the Wiley Series on Intelligent Systems served on the editorial boards of six journals related to intelligent systems and robotics" Autonomous Robots and Autonomous Systems, Journal of Robotic Systems, Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing. In 1962 he received the highest NASA cash award granted to that time for the invention of the Digital Solar Aspect Sensor.
In 1984 he was winner of the Joseph F. Engelberger Award for robotics technology, he received several other awards for his work in control theory including the NIST Applied Research Award, the Department of Commerce Gold and Silver Medals, the Industrial Research IR-100 award, the Presidential Rank Meritorious Executive, the Jacob Rabinow Award, the Japan Industrial Robot Association R&D Award. Albus made contributions to cerebellar robotics, developed a two-handed manipulator system known as the Robocrane, proposed an economic concept known as "Peoples' Capitalism". Peoples' Capitalism is similar to the ideas of Louis O. Kelso and discusses the question "how would we live without jobs?". Albus himself described the impact of his economic ideas as "slight". Albus's vision concerns included the following: a world without poverty, a world of prosperity, a world of opportunity, a world without pollution, a world without war, includes a detailed plan for achievement of these goals. In 1971, he published a new theory of cerebellar function that modified and extended a previous theory published by David Marr in 1969.
Based on his cerebellar model, Albus invented a new type of neural net computer, the Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller, for which he received the IR-100 award from Industrial Research Magazine as one of the 100 most important industrial innovations of the year 1976. Albus invented and developed a new generation of robot cranes based on six cables and six winches configured as a Stewart platform. Albus co-invented the Real-Time Control System, a reference model architecture, used over the past 25 years for a number of intelligent systems including the NBS Automated Manufacturing Research Facility, the NASA telerobotic servicer, a DARPA Multiple Autonomous Undersea Vehicle project, a nuclear Submarine Operational Automation System, a Post Office General Mail facility, a Bureau of Mines automated mining system, a commercial open architecture machine tool controller, numerous advanced robotic projects, including the Army Research Lab Demo III Experimental Unmanned Ground vehicle. During the 1980s, the Albus-Barbera reference model architecture provided the fundamental integrating principle of the National Bureau of Standards Automated Manufacturing Research Facility This was an $80 million experimental automated factory-of-the-future.
It was co-funded by the U. S. Navy Manufacturing Technology Program and the National Bureau of Standards; the success
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products. Put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit, it does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors."Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts, the creditors can go after the owner's personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates; the proprietor is taxed on all income from the business. The term is often used colloquially to refer to a company. A company, on the other hand, is a separate legal entity and provides for limited liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up, but offers more protection and benefits for the owner.
Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common entities exist: Sole proprietorship: A sole proprietorship known as a sole trader, is owned by one person and operates for their benefit. The owner may hire employees. A sole proprietor has unlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business, whether from operating costs or judgments against the business. All assets of the business belong to a sole proprietor, for example, a computer infrastructure, any inventory, manufacturing equipment, or retail fixtures, as well as any real property owned by the sole proprietor. Partnership: A partnership is a business owned by two or more people. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business; the three most prevalent types of for-profit partnerships are general partnerships, limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships. Corporation: The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has a separate legal personality from its owners.
Corporations can be either government-owned or owned, they can organize either for profit or as nonprofit organizations. A owned, for-profit corporation is owned by its shareholders, who elect a board of directors to direct the corporation and hire its managerial staff. A owned, for-profit corporation can be either held by a small group of individuals, or publicly held, with publicly traded shares listed on a stock exchange. Cooperative: Often referred to as a "co-op", a cooperative is a limited-liability business that can organize as for-profit or not-for-profit. A cooperative differs from a corporation in that it has members, not shareholders, they share decision-making authority. Cooperatives are classified as either consumer cooperatives or worker cooperatives. Cooperatives are fundamental to the ideology of economic democracy. Limited liability companies, limited liability partnerships, other specific types of business organization protect their owners or shareholders from business failure by doing business under a separate legal entity with certain legal protections.
In contrast, unincorporated businesses or persons working on their own are not as protected. Franchises: A franchise is a system in which entrepreneurs purchase the rights to open and run a business from a larger corporation. Franchising in the United States is widespread and is a major economic powerhouse. One out of twelve retail businesses in the United States are franchised and 8 million people are employed in a franchised business. A company limited by guarantee: Commonly used where companies are formed for non-commercial purposes, such as clubs or charities; the members guarantee the payment of certain amounts if the company goes into insolvent liquidation, but otherwise, they have no economic rights in relation to the company. This type of company is common in England. A company limited by guarantee may be without having share capital. A company limited by shares: The most common form of the company used for business ventures. A limited company is a "company in which the liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount individually invested" with corporations being "the most common example of a limited company."
This type of company is common in many English-speaking countries. A company limited by shares may be a publicly traded company or a held company A company limited by guarantee with a share capital: A hybrid entity used where the company is formed for non-commercial purposes, but the activities of the company are funded by investors who expect a return; this type of company may no longer be formed in the UK, although provisions still exist in law for them to exist. A limited liability company: "A company—statutorily authorized in certain states—that is characterized by limited liability, management by members or managers, limitations on ownership transfer", i.e. L. L. C. LLC structure has been called "hybrid" in that it "combines the characteristics of a corporation and of a partnership or sole proprietorship". Like a corporation, it has limited liability for members of the company, like a partnership, it has "flow-through taxation to the members" and must be "dissolved upon the death or bankruptcy of a member".
An unlimited company with or without a share capital: A hybrid entity, a company where the liability of members or shareholders for the debts of the company are not limited. In this case, the doctrine of a veil of incorporation does not apply. Less common types of companies are: Companies formed by letters patent: Most corpor
Enterprise life cycle
Enterprise life cycle in enterprise architecture is the dynamic, iterative process of changing the enterprise over time by incorporating new business processes, new technology, new capabilities, as well as maintenance and disposal of existing elements of the enterprise. The enterprise life cycle is a key concept in enterprise architecture, enterprise engineering and systems engineering; the Enterprise Architecture process is related to similar processes, as program management cycle or systems development life cycle, has similar properties to those found in the product life cycle. The concept of enterprise life cycle aids in the implementation of an enterprise architecture, the capital planning and investment control process that selects and evaluates investments. Overlying these processes are human capital management and information security management; when these processes work together the enterprise can manage information technology as a strategic resource and business process enabler. When these processes are properly synchronized, systems migrate efficiently from legacy technology environments through evolutionary and incremental developments, the Agency is able to demonstrate its return on investment.
The figure on top illustrates the interaction of the dynamic and interactive cycles as they would occur over time. As a prerequisite to the development of every enterprise architecture, each Agency should establish the need to develop an EA and formulate a strategy that includes the definition of a vision and principles; the figure shows a representation of the EA process. Executive buy-in and support should be established and an architectural team created within the organization; the team defines an process tailored to Agency needs. The architecture team implements the process to build both the target EAs; the architecture team generates a sequencing plan for the transition of systems and associated business practices predicated upon a detailed gap analysis. The architecture is employed in the CPIC and the enterprise engineering and program management processes via prioritized, incremental projects and the insertion of emerging new technologies. Lastly, the architectures are maintained through a continuous modification to reflect the Agency's current baseline and target business practices, organizational goals, visions and infrastructure.
The figure depicts the life of the architecture as it evolves and shows the process that the architecture description supports in the development and evolution of the implemented architecture. In this illustration, the Operational View is used to drive the requirements that are evaluated against the Systems View. Operational deficiencies are derived from the analysis, viable candidates are identified; these candidates can take the form of either materiel or non- materiel solutions and are modeled back into the Operational and Systems Views of the architecture. The architecture is re-analyzed, the process continues until the operational deficiencies are minimized; the final sets of viable candidates are assessed for operational viability. Based on the results of the assessments, design changes are made and submitted for inclusion into the budgeting process; this process of developing and modifying continues throughout the architecture’s life cycle. An enterprise life cycle integrates the management and engineering life cycle processes that span the enterprise to align its business and IT activities.
Enterprise life cycle refers to an organization's approach for managing activities and making decisions during ongoing refreshment of business and technical practices to support its enterprise mission. These activities include investment management, project definition, configuration management and guidance for systems development according to a system development life cycle; the enterprise life cycle applies to enterprise-wide planning activities and decision making. By contrast, a System Development Life Cycle refers to practices for building individual systems. Determining what systems to build is an enterprise-level decision; the figure on the right depicts notional activities of an enterprise life cycle methodology. Within the context of this document, Enterprise Life Cycle does not refer to a specific methodology or a specific bureau's approach; each organization needs to follow a documented Enterprise Life Cycle methodology appropriate to its size, the complexity of its enterprise, the scope of its needs.
The Enterprise Performance Life Cycle encompasses the major business functions executed under the Office of the Chief Information Officer, in particular shows at a high level the relationship among the different business functions and both the general order and the iterative nature of their execution. The placement of enterprise architecture in the center of the EPLC conceptual diagram, shown in the figure, reflects the supporting and enabling role that enterprise architecture serves for the major business functions in the Enterprise Performance Life Cycle; the Enterprise Architecture Program explicitly considers the information needs of the Enterprise Performance Life Cycle processes in developing and enhancing the EA Framework and populating data in the EA Repository, developing views and analytical tools that can be used to facilitate the execution of the EPLC processes. The EPLC conceptual diagram in the figure provides a Departmental perspective of key business functions; the EPLC is relevant from an individual investment or project perspective, as each new investment passes through each phase of the EPLC.
The investment-level perspecti