North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era. Born in Salzburg, Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg court but grew restless and traveled in search of a better position. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position, he chose to stay in the capital. During his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies and operas, portions of the Requiem, unfinished at the time of his early death at the age of 35; the circumstances of his death have been much mythologized. He composed more than 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, chamber and choral music, he is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers, his influence is profound on subsequent Western art music.
Ludwig van Beethoven composed his own early works in the shadow of Mozart, Joseph Haydn wrote: "posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years". Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on 27 January 1756 to Leopold Mozart and Anna Maria, née Pertl, at 9 Getreidegasse in Salzburg; this was the capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, an ecclesiastic principality in what is now Austria part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was the youngest of seven children, his elder sister was Maria Anna Mozart, nicknamed "Nannerl". Mozart was baptised the day at St. Rupert's Cathedral in Salzburg; the baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form, as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. He called himself "Wolfgang Amadè Mozart" as an adult, but his name had many variants. Leopold Mozart, a native of Augsburg, was a minor composer and an experienced teacher. In 1743, he was appointed as fourth violinist in the musical establishment of Count Leopold Anton von Firmian, the ruling Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg.
Four years he married Anna Maria in Salzburg. Leopold became the orchestra's deputy Kapellmeister in 1763. During the year of his son's birth, Leopold published a violin textbook, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, which achieved success; when Nannerl was 7, she began keyboard lessons with her father, while her three-year-old brother looked on. Years after her brother's death, she reminisced: He spent much time at the clavier, picking out thirds, which he was striking, his pleasure showed that it sounded good.... In the fourth year of his age his father, for a game as it were, began to teach him a few minuets and pieces at the clavier.... He could play it faultlessly and with the greatest delicacy, keeping in time.... At the age of five, he was composing little pieces, which he played to his father who wrote them down; these early pieces, K. 1–5, were recorded in the Nannerl Notenbuch. There is some scholarly debate about whether Mozart was four or five years old when he created his first musical compositions, though there is little doubt that Mozart composed his first three pieces of music within a few weeks of each other: K. 1a, 1b, 1c.
In his early years, Wolfgang's father was his only teacher. Along with music, he taught academic subjects. Solomon notes that, while Leopold was a devoted teacher to his children, there is evidence that Mozart was keen to progress beyond what he was taught, his first ink-spattered composition and his precocious efforts with the violin were of his own initiative, came as a surprise to Leopold, who gave up composing when his son's musical talents became evident. While Wolfgang was young, his family made several European journeys in which he and Nannerl performed as child prodigies; these began with an exhibition in 1762 at the court of Prince-elector Maximilian III of Bavaria in Munich, at the Imperial Courts in Vienna and Prague. A long concert tour followed, spanning three and a half years, taking the family to the courts of Munich, Paris, The Hague, again to Paris, back home via Zurich and Munich. During this trip, Wolfgang met a number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other composers.
A important influence was Johann Christian Bach, whom he visited in London in 1764 and 1765. When he was eight years old, Mozart wrote his first symphony, most of, transcribed by his father; the family trips were difficult, travel conditions were primitive. They had to wait for invitations and reimbursement from the nobility, they endured long, near-fatal illnesses far from home: first Leopold both children; the family again went to Vienna in late 1767 and remained there until December 1768. After one year in Salzburg and Wolfgang set off for Italy, leaving Anna Maria and Nannerl at home; this tour lasted from December 1769 to March 1771. As with earlier journeys, Leopold wanted to display his son's abilities as a performer and a maturing composer. Wolfgang met Josef Mysliveček and Giovanni Battista Martini in Bologna, was accepted as a member of the famous Accademia Filarmonica. In Rome, he heard Gregorio Allegri's Miserere twice in performance, in the Sistine Chapel, wrote it out from memory, thus producing the first unauthorized copy of this guarded property of the Vatican.
In Milan, Mozart wrote the opera Mitridate, re di Ponto, performed with success. This led to further oper
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Bob James (musician)
Robert McElhiney James is an American Grammy Award-winning jazz keyboardist and record producer. He wrote "Angela," the theme song for the TV show Taxi, he is most famous for standards such as "Nautilus", "Westchester Lady", "Heads", "Night Crawler", "Touchdown", "Blue Lick", "Sign Of the Times", "Spunky", "Marco Polo", "Courtship" and "Just One Thing". Music from his first seven albums has been sampled and has contributed to the formation of hip hop. Robert McElhiney James was born on Christmas Day 1939 in Marshall, Missouri to Albert Lamkin James and Alice James, his elder sister's name is Katherine. He started playing the piano at age 4, his first piano teacher, Sister Mary Elizabeth, who taught at Mercy Academy, a local Catholic school, discovered that he had perfect pitch. At age seven, James began to study with a teacher at Missouri Valley College. At age 15, James continued his studies with Franklin Launer, a teacher at Christian College in Columbia, with more music instruction during high school from Harold Lickey, conductor of the Marshall High School Band and Orchestra.
Apart from the piano, James learned to play trumpet and percussion. From 1950–56, he competed at the Missouri State Fair piano competitions and walked away with several blue ribbons, he remembered that "cows were being judged at adjacent buildings." James attended the University of Michigan and began earning his bachelor's and his master's degrees in music. However, during the first semester of his sophomore year, James transferred to Berklee College of Music, in Boston, Massachusetts. During college at Berklee College of Music, James's roommate was Nick Brignola, who has become one of the great baritone saxophone jazz artists, his first professional music job was when he was eight years old, playing for a tap dance class at Mercy Academy. During his adolescence, James music career proliferated. Early jobs included being a member of the Earle Parsons Dance Band which played various engagements around the Marshall area. During this time, he penned his first dance band arrangement. During the summer of 1955, at Lake of the Ozarks in Missouri, James played for dancing and occasional jam sessions with the Bob Falkenhainer Quartet on the Governor McClurg Excursion Boat in the evenings.
He recalls that "during the day we had free time and I became a proficient water skier that summer!" At age 16, a solo engagement followed in the summer when James traveled with good friend Ben Swinger to Colorado and ended up with a job in the piano bar at the Steads Ranch resort in Estes Park. While in college at Michigan, James played free jazz with musicians in Ann Detroit. In 1962, his band entered the Notre Dame Collegiate Jazz Festival, where the judges included Henry Mancini and Quincy Jones. After James's band won the competition, Jones signed James to an album deal with Mercury Records. Mercury released James's first album, Bold Conceptions, a free jazz exploration, produced by Quincy Jones and that differed from the smooth jazz for which he would become known. In New York City, James worked as an arranger and was hired as piano accompanist for jazz singer Sarah Vaughn, he reunited with Quincy Jones. Creed Taylor and founder of CTI Records, was at the sessions and hired James to work for CTI as a producer and studio musician.
In the 1970s, James worked on albums by Gabor Szabo, Milt Jackson, Stanley Turrentine, Grover Washington, Jr. and Maynard Ferguson. Creed Taylor invited James to record a solo album; the result, contained the song "Feel Like Making Love", which Roberta Flack had as a hit. James had been hired to play piano for the song on Roberta Flack's album two weeks before recording a version of his own, using the same band. Radio stations contributed to the commercial success of One; the album was notable for adapting classical music to e.g.. "In The Garden" was based on Pachelbel's Canon in D and "Night On Bald Mountain" was a cover of Modest Mussorgsky's composition of the same name. After three solo albums, James founded Tappan Zee. Thereafter, he cut a disco version of the Theme to Star Trek: The Motion Picture a 45 of, included with the soundtrack LP and recorded the album Touchdown. Among the songs on the album was "Angela", the theme song for the TV show Taxi. James provided all the music for Taxi and collected some of its music, including "Angela", on The Genie: Themes & Variations from the TV Series Taxi.
When he toured in 1979, he was supported by a marketing campaign that included posters of him at the wheel of a New York yellow cab. The performances were documented on the album All Around the Town, with a cover of James at the wheel. James turned from smooth jazz to classical music to record Rameau, his interpretations of Baroque-period composer Jean-Philippe Rameau. In albums, he interpreted the work of two more Baroque composers, J. S. Bach and Domenico Scarlatti. A year after Rameau, he collaborated with David Sanborn on Double Vision; the album won a Grammy Award for Best Jazz Fusion Performance. His collaboration with Earl Klugh, One on One, won a Grammy Award for Best Pop Instrumental Performance in 1980 and has sold over one million copies. Another collaboration with Klugh, was nominated for a Grammy, as was Joined at the Hip with Kirk Whalum, recorded Flesh and Bone in 1995 and another solo album, Joyride. James was looking for a bass player while recording the album Grand Piano Canyon (Wa
Chris Taylor (attorney)
Christopher Normand Taylor is the Global President of Entertainment One Music. Taylor was raised in Windsor and graduated with a communications degree in 1987 and a law degree from Osgoode Hall Law School in 1990. In 1996, Taylor returned to finish law school articles and was called to the Bar in 1997. After graduating from law school, Taylor founded the rock/reggae group One in 1990; the band toured North America, playing over a thousand shows, released four albums, was nominated for a Juno Award. In 1994, the band signed with Virgin Records and released their fourth album, Smokin' The Goats, which included two Canadian Top 40 singles, "Wide Load" and "54–46". In 1997, he began practicing law with the law firm of Sanderson Taylor representing Canadian artists Nelly Furtado, Avril Lavigne, Tom Cochrane, among others. In 1998, via his former manager, Chris Smith, Taylor discovered Nelly Furtado and assisted with introducing her talents to record companies in the United States. Shortly following Furtado's rise, Taylor played a role in introducing Sum 41 to the music industry.
More he has been working for rap artist Drake. In 2003, he founded entertainment company Last Gang Entertainment with music industry promoter and impresario Donald Tarlton and signing alternative/dance artists Metric, Death From Above 1979, MSTRKRFT, Crystal Castles; the label has been nominated as Canadian Independent Record Label of the Year at the Canadian Music Awards eight times, with its latest nomination in 2014. Last Gang Management manages Lights and Arkells and co-manages Ryan Hemsworth, BadBadNotGood, Holy Fuck and chef Matty Matheson, in partnership with management company People's Champ. In 2006, he cofounded his own law firm, Taylor Mitsopulos Klein Oballa, representing additional acts such as Billy Talent, Three Days Grace, Justin Nozuka, Daniel Powter, Gogol Bordello, Lights in addition to producers and songwriters such as Henry "Cirkut" Walter and Gordon Lightfoot; the law firm provides legal advice to YTV's number-one-rated show, The Next Star, Canada's Walk of Fame, charitable organization Free The Children, Slaight Music.
Taylor is the long-time lawyer for Canadian media personalities George Stroumboulopoulos and Matte Babel, among others. In January 2012, the law firm changed its name to Taylor Klein Oballa LLP. In March 2016, Taylor sold Last Gang to Entertainment One and took the position of President of Entertainment One's music division; the management division at Entertainment One added management companies Hardlivings and Nerve, which handle clients including Riton, Jax Jones, The Black Madonna, Daniel Avery. Entertainment One's music division was named the #2 Independent Label in the US in 2016, the artists associated with the company had a total of nine Grammy Award nominations for 2017.eOne publishing entered into joint venture with Grammy winning producer/writers, "Stereotypes" in August 2018. Taylor is an executive producer of the "House of Strombo" concert series along with George Stroumboulopoulos, Michael Sugar, Bob Mackowycz. In April 2017, Apple Music announced its partnership with House of Strombo.
In 2013, Taylor was honored by the Canadian Civil Liberties Association for Excellence in Advocacy alongside former Supreme Court Justice The Honourable Ian Binnie, filmmaker David Cronenberg. In 2017 and 2018 Billboard magazine included Taylor in their "Indie Music Business Power List" and in June 2018 Variety Magazine named Taylor as one of its "International Music Industry Leaders". In 2018, the Canadian Independent Music Association awarded him the Entrepreneur of the Year Award. TKO Lawyers Last Gang Records Last Gang Records YouTube
Joseph Anthony Budden II is an American broadcaster and former rapper. He hosts The Joe Budden Podcast along with Mal Burke and Rory Farrell, released bi-weekly through Spotify, he was one of three hosts of Complex’s Everyday Struggle along with DJ Akademiks and Nadeska Alexis, before leaving the show in January 2018. Budden began rapping in 1999 and his eponymous debut studio album was released in 2003, debuting at number 8 on the Billboard 200, selling 95,000 copies within its first week; the album featured the hit single "Pump It Up", Budden's most commercially successful solo single. He was signed to major record label Def Jam, but left the label in 2007 and signed to Empire Distribution. After separating from Def Jam, he began recording and releasing solo mixtapes and albums on independent labels. In 2013, he released No Love Lost. Budden's final album "Rage & The Machine" was released on October 21, 2016. In addition to his solo work, Budden was a member of the American hip hop supergroup Slaughterhouse, alongside fellow rappers Royce da 5'9", Joell Ortiz, Crooked I.
Budden was raised in Jersey City, New Jersey. Uninterested in school, he began abusing drugs. After an emotional confrontation with his mother, Budden willingly went into rehab on July 3, 1997. Budden began freestyling, first at his high school with acquaintances against whom he claims that he always won battles, he made appearances on several New York mixtapes with the likes of DJ Clue, DJ Kayslay, Cutmaster C. In 2003, Budden released his debut solo Joe Budden, it included Budden's 2003 Grammy-nominated summer hit "Pump It Up", was featured in the soundtrack for the movie 2 Fast 2 Furious and the video games Def Jam Vendetta, Def Jam Fight for NY, Madden NFL 2004. The song "Focus" was featured in the game and Budden was a character, its second single was "Fire" featuring Busta Rhymes, in the movie Mean Girls. The song "Drop Drop" was featured on the soundtrack for the movie Cradle 2 the Grave, the video game NBA Live 2003. Budden has hinted in many songs that he was a recovering drug addict and has reaffirmed his position several times through multiple outlets.
Budden featured on the R. Kelly produced song, "Clubbin" by Marques Houston, peaking at 39 on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 and at 15 on the UK BPI charts. Budden's second release, titled The Growth, was hampered due to the label's problems with Budden, which included his Def Jam seniors not agreeing with the direction of his music; the album was not released, continued disagreements between Budden and Def Jam forced the two sides to part ways. He managed to release the first and second installments of his Mood Muzik mixtape series while on Def Jam, the series has been met with critical acclaim. In December 2007, Budden signed a multi-album deal with Amalgam Digital and released his independent debut Padded Room as well as Mood Muzik 3: The Album, Halfway House, Escape Route. Budden reached out to Crooked I, Royce da 5'9", Joell Ortiz and Nino Bless for a track titled "Slaughterhouse" on one of his Amalgam Digital releases, Halfway House. Based on the reception of the track, they decided to form a group, minus Nino Bless, named it after the first song they made together.
The group released numerous songs throughout early 2009, leading up to their self-titled debut album Slaughterhouse, released through E1 on August 11, 2009. The album features production from, among other bands, The Alchemist, DJ Khalil, Mr. Porter, plus guest appearances from Pharoahe Monch, among others; the group signed with Shady Records on January 12, 2011. Budden released his third album titled "Padded Room" on February 24, 2009, with the album debuting at number 42 on the Billboard 200. In early 2012, Budden and Emanny teamed up with a few producers to form the group SLV. Budden and Emanny are the only two vocalists. On August 24, 2012, Budden announced he would release "A Loose Quarter", via Twitter. Slaughterhouse released a mixtape titled On The House in promotion for their second album; the group released their second studio album Welcome to: Our House under Shady Records on August 28, 2012, debuting on the Billboard 200 at No.2 and No.1 on the Billboard Top Rap Albums, selling 52,000 copies its first week.
The album features many guest appearances, most notably from Eminem, Skylar Grey, Busta Rhymes, Cee Lo Green, Swizz Beats and B.o. B, production by Alex da Kid, No I. D. AraabMuzik, Mr. Porter, among others. On November 9, 2012, DatPiff.com announced that A Loose Quarter would be released at midnight on November 23, 2012, but the album was released three days early. In late 2012, Budden began working on No Love Lost; the first official single was "She Don't Put It Down", featuring fellow rapper Lil Wayne and R&B singer Tank. The song debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 at number 96, marking Budden's first appearance on the chart since his debut single "Pump It Up" back in 2003. Budden released a remix for "She Don't Put It Down" with additional verses from Fabolous, Twista; the second single from the album was "N. B. A." Featuring Wiz Khalifa and French Montana. Budden released music videos for "She Don't Put It Down", "Castles", "N. B. A". No Love Lost would debut at number 15 on the Billboard 200 selling 30,000 copies in its first week.
By March 20, 2013, the album had sold 60,000 copies. Budden co-starred on Seasons 3-4 of the VH1 reality show Love & Hip Hop: New York in 2013-2014. Budden released an EP titled Some Love Lost on November 4, 2014, which received positive reviews from critics; the EP contained songs from a lar
A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, is produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. There are cases where songs are used in tie-in marketing campaigns that allow them to become more than just a song. Tie-ins and merchandising can be used for food or other products. Although the origins of the music video date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they again came into prominence in the 1980s when the channel MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these kinds of videos were described by various terms including "illustrated song", "filmed insert", "promotional film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song video", "song clip" or "film clip". Music videos use a wide range of styles and contemporary video-making techniques, including animation, live action and non-narrative approaches such as abstract film.
Some music videos combine different styles with the music, such as animation and live action. Combining these styles and techniques has become more popular because of the variety for the audience. Many music videos interpret images and scenes from the song's lyrics, while others take a more thematic approach. Other music videos may not have any concept, being a filmed version of the song's live concert performance. In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost Child". Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances; this would become a popular form of entertainment known as the illustrated song, the first step toward music video. In 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced. Vitaphone shorts featured many bands and dancers. Animation artist Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball", similar to a modern karaoke machine.
Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The early animated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts and Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces, were built around music; the Warner Bros. cartoons today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Bros. musical films. Live action musical shorts, featuring such popular performers as Cab Calloway, were distributed to theaters. Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called St. Louis Blues featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period. Soundies and released from 1940 to 1947, were musical films that included short dance sequences, similar to music videos. In the mid-1940s, musician Louis Jordan made short films for his songs, some of which were spliced together into a feature film, Lookout Sister.
These films were, according to music historian Donald Clarke, the "ancestors" of music video. Musical films were another important precursor to music video, several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. One of the best-known examples is Madonna's 1985 video for "Material Girl", modelled on Jack Cole's staging of "Diamonds Are A Girl's Best Friend" from the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Several of Michael Jackson's videos show the unmistakable influence of the dance sequences in classic Hollywood musicals, including the landmark "Thriller" and the Martin Scorsese-directed "Bad", influenced by the stylised dance "fights" in the film version of West Side Story. According to the Internet Accuracy Project, disc jockey–singer J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson was the first to coin the phrase "music video", in 1959. In his autobiography, Tony Bennett claims to have created "...the first music video" when he was filmed walking along the Serpentine in Hyde Park, London in 1956, with the resulting clip being set to his recording of the song "Stranger in Paradise".
The clip was sent to UK and US television stations and aired on shows including Dick Clark's American Bandstand. The oldest example of a promotional music video with similarities to more abstract, modern videos seems to be the Czech "Dáme si do bytu" created in 1958 and directed by Ladislav Rychman. In the late 1950s the Scopitone, a visual jukebox, was invented in France and short films were produced by many French artists, such as Serge Gainsbourg, Françoise Hardy, Jacques Dutronc, the Belgian Jacques Brel to accompany their songs, its use spread to other countries, similar machines such as the Cinebox in Italy and Color-Sonic in the USA were patented. In 1961, for the Canadian show Singalong Jubilee, Manny Pittson began pre-recording the music audio, went on-location and taped various visuals with the musicians lip-synching edited the audio and video together. Most music numbers were taped in-studio on stage, the location shoot "videos" were to add variety. In 1964, Kenneth Anger's experimental short film, Scorpio Rising used popular songs instead of dialog.
In 1964, The Moody Blues producer, Alex Murray, wanted to promote his version of "Go Now". The short film clip he produced and directed to promote the single has a striking visual style that predates Queen's similar "Bohemian Rhapsody" vid