The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mesoamerica following a progressive development in Soconusco. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the present-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco, it has been speculated that the Olmecs derive in part from neighboring Mixe -- Zoque. The Olmecs flourished during Mesoamerica's formative period, dating from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE. Pre-Olmec cultures had flourished in the area since about 2500 BCE, but by 1600–1500 BCE, early Olmec culture had emerged, centered on the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz, they were the first Mesoamerican civilization, laid many of the foundations for the civilizations that followed. Among other "firsts", the Olmec appeared to practice ritual bloodletting and played the Mesoamerican ballgame, hallmarks of nearly all subsequent Mesoamerican societies; the aspect of the Olmecs most familiar now is their artwork the aptly named "colossal heads".
The Olmec civilization was first defined through artifacts which collectors purchased on the pre-Columbian art market in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Olmec artworks are considered among ancient America's most striking; the name'Olmec' comes from the Nahuatl word for the Olmecs: Ōlmēcah. This word is composed of the two words ōlli, meaning "rubber", mēcatl, meaning "people", so the word means "rubber people"; the Olmec heartland is the area in the Gulf lowlands where it expanded after early development in Soconusco, Veracruz. This area is characterized by swampy lowlands punctuated by low hills and volcanoes; the Tuxtlas Mountains rise in the north, along the Gulf of Mexico's Bay of Campeche. Here, the Olmec constructed permanent city-temple complexes at San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, La Venta, Tres Zapotes, Laguna de los Cerros. In this region, the first Mesoamerican civilization emerged and reigned from c. 1400–400 BCE. The beginnings of Olmec civilization have traditionally been placed between 1400 and 1200 BCE.
Past finds of Olmec remains ritually deposited at El Manati shrine moved this back to "at least" 1600–1500 BCE. It seems that the Olmec had their roots in early farming cultures of Tabasco, which began between 5100 BCE and 4600 BCE; these shared the same basic food crops and technologies of the Olmec civilization. What is today called Olmec first appeared within the city of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, where distinctive Olmec features occurred around 1400 BCE; the rise of civilization was assisted by the local ecology of well-watered alluvial soil, as well as by the transportation network provided by the Coatzacoalcos River basin. This environment may be compared to that of other ancient centers of civilization: the Nile and Yellow River valleys, Mesopotamia; this productive environment encouraged a densely concentrated population, which in turn triggered the rise of an elite class. The elite class created the demand for the production of the symbolic and sophisticated luxury artifacts that define Olmec culture.
Many of these luxury artifacts were made from materials such as jade and magnetite, which came from distant locations and suggest that early Olmec elites had access to an extensive trading network in Mesoamerica. The source of the most valued jade was the Motagua River valley in eastern Guatemala, Olmec obsidian has been traced to sources in the Guatemala highlands, such as El Chayal and San Martín Jilotepeque, or in Puebla, distances ranging from 200 to 400 km away, respectively; the state of Guerrero, in particular its early Mezcala culture, seem to have played an important role in the early history of Olmec culture. Olmec-style artifacts tend to appear earlier in some parts of Guerrero than in the Veracruz-Tabasco area. In particular, the relevant objects from the Amuco-Abelino site in Guerrero reveal dates as early as 1530 BCE; the city of Teopantecuanitlan in Guerrero is relevant in this regard. The first Olmec center, San Lorenzo, was all but abandoned around 900 BCE at about the same time that La Venta rose to prominence.
A wholesale destruction of many San Lorenzo monuments occurred circa 950 BCE, which may indicate an internal uprising or, less an invasion. The latest thinking, however, is that environmental changes may have been responsible for this shift in Olmec centers, with certain important rivers changing course. In any case, following the decline of San Lorenzo, La Venta became the most prominent Olmec center, lasting from 900 BCE until its abandonment around 400 BCE. La Venta sustained the Olmec cultural traditions with spectacular displays of power and wealth; the Great Pyramid was the largest Mesoamerican structure of its time. Today, after 2500 years of erosion, it rises 34 m above the flat landscape. Buried deep within La Venta lay opulent, labor-intensive "offerings" – 1000 tons of smooth serpentine blocks, large mosaic pavements, at least 48 separate deposits of polished jade celts, pottery and hematite mirrors. Scholars have yet to determine the cause of the eventual extinction of the Olmec culture.
Between 400 and 350 BCE, the population in the eastern half of the Olmec heartland dropped precipitously, the area was sparsely inhabited until the 19th century. According to archaeologists, this depopulation was the result of "very serious environmental changes that rendered the region unsuited for large groups of farmers", in particular changes to the riverine environment that the Olmec depended upon for agriculture and gathering, transportation; these changes may have been triggered by tectonic upheavals or subsidence, or the silting up of ri
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine is a chemical substance that occurs in many plants and animals and, both a derivative and a structural analog of tryptamine. It can be consumed as a psychedelic drug and has been prepared by various cultures for ritual purposes as an entheogen. Rick Strassman labeled it "the spirit molecule". DMT is illegal in most countries. DMT has a rapid onset, intense effects and a short duration of action. For those reasons, DMT was known as the "businessman's trip" during the 1960s in the United States, as a user could access the full depth of a psychedelic experience in less time than with other substances such as LSD or magic mushrooms. DMT can be inhaled, vaporized or ingested, its effects depend on the dose; when inhaled or injected, the effects last a short period of time: about 5 to 15 minutes. Effects can last 3 hours or more when orally ingested along with an MAOI, such as the ayahuasca brew of many native Amazonian tribes. DMT can produce vivid "projections" of mystical experiences involving euphoria and dynamic hallucinations of geometric forms.
DMT is a functional analog and structural analog of other psychedelic tryptamines such as 4-AcO-DMT, 5-MeO-DMT, 5-HO-DMT, psilocin. The structure of DMT occurs within some important biomolecules like serotonin and melatonin, making them structural analogs of DMT. DMT is produced in many species of plants in conjunction with its close chemical relatives 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine and bufotenin. DMT-containing plants are used in South American shamanic practices, it is one of the main active constituents of the drink ayahuasca. It occurs as the primary psychoactive alkaloid in several plants including Mimosa tenuiflora, Diplopterys cabrerana, Psychotria viridis. DMT is found as a minor alkaloid in snuff made from Virola bark resin in which 5-MeO-DMT is the main active alkaloid. DMT is found as a minor alkaloid in bark and beans of Anadenanthera peregrina and Anadenanthera colubrina used to make Yopo and Vilca snuff in which bufotenin is the main active alkaloid. Psilocin and its precursor psilocybin, an active chemical in many psychedelic mushrooms, are structurally similar to DMT.
The psychotropic effects of DMT were first studied scientifically by the Hungarian chemist and psychologist Dr. Stephen Szára, who performed research with volunteers in the mid-1950s. Szára, who worked for the US National Institutes of Health, had turned his attention to DMT after his order for LSD from the Swiss company Sandoz Laboratories was rejected on the grounds that the powerful psychotropic could be dangerous in the hands of a communist country. DMT is not active orally unless it is combined with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor such as a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A, for example, harmaline. Without an MAOI, the body metabolizes orally administered DMT, it therefore has no hallucinogenic effect unless the dose exceeds monoamine oxidase's metabolic capacity. Other means of ingestion such as vaporizing, injecting, or insufflating the drug can produce powerful hallucinations for a short time, as the DMT reaches the brain before it can be metabolized by the body's natural monoamine oxidase.
Taking a MAOI prior to vaporizing or injecting DMT potentiates the effects. Several scientific experimental studies have tried to measure subjective experiences of altered states of consciousness induced by drugs under controlled and safe conditions. In the 1990s, Rick Strassman and his colleagues conducted a five-year-long DMT study at the University of New Mexico; the results provided insight about the quality of subjective psychedelic experiences. In this study participants received the DMT dosage intravenously via injection and the findings suggested that different psychedelic experiences can occur, depending on the level of dosage. Lower doses produced emotional responses, but not hallucinogenic experiences. In contrast, responses produced by higher doses researchers labeled as "hallucinogenic" that elicited "intensely colored moving display of visual images, abstract or both". Comparing to other sensory modalities the most affected was visual domain. Participants reported visual hallucinations, less auditory hallucinations and specific physical sensation progressing to a sense of bodily dissociation, as well as experiences of euphoria, calm and anxiety.
Strassman stressed the importance of the context where the drug has been taken. He claimed that DMT has no beneficial effects of itself, rather the context when and where people take it plays an important role, it appears. It can induce a state or feeling to a person that he or she is able to "communicate with other intelligent-life forms". High doses of DMT produce a hallucinatory state that involves sense of "another intelligence" that people sometimes describe as "super-intelligent", but "emotionally detached". In 1995 Adolf Dittrich and Daniel Lamparter did a study where they found that DMT-induced altered state of consciousness is influenced by habitual, rather than situative factors. In the study researchers used three dimensions of the APZ questionnaire to describe ASC. First, oceanic boundlessness refers to dissolution of ego boundaries associated with positive emotions. Second, anxious ego-dissolution includes disorder of thoughts, loss of autonomy and self-control
Tassili n'Ajjer is a national park in the Sahara desert, located on a vast plateau in south-east Algeria. Having one of the most important groupings of prehistoric cave art in the world, covering an area of over 72,000 km2, Tassili n'Ajjer was inducted into UNESCO's World Heritage Site list in 1982; the rock formation is an archaeological site, noted for its numerous prehistoric parietal works of rock art, first reported in 1910, that date to the early Neolithic era at the end of the last glacial period during which the Sahara was a habitable savanna rather than the current desert. Although sources vary the earliest pieces of art are assumed to be 12,000 years old; the vast majority date to the 9th and 10th millennia BP or younger, according to OSL dating of associated sediments. Among the 15,000 engravings so far identified depicted are large wild animals including antelopes and crocodiles, cattle herds and humans that engage in activities such as hunting and dancing. According to UNESCO, "The exceptional density of paintings and engravings...have made Tassili world famous."
Tassili n'Ajjer is a vast plateau in south-east Algeria at the borders of Libya and Mali, covering an area of 72,000 km2. It ranges from 26°20′N 5°00′E east-south-east to 24°00′N 10°00′E, its highest point is the Adrar Afao that peaks at 2,158 m, located at 25°10′N 8°11′E. The nearest town is Djanet, situated around 10 km southwest of Tassili n'Ajjer; the archaeological site has been designated a national park, a Biosphere Reserve and was induced into UNESCO's World Heritage Site list as Tassili n'Ajjer National Park. The plateau is of great geological and aesthetic interest, its panorama of geological formations of rock forests, which comprises eroded sandstone, resembles a strange lunar landscape. The range is composed of sandstone; the sandstone is stained by a thin outer layer of deposited metallic oxides which color the rock formations anywhere from near-black to dull red. Erosion in the area has resulted in nearly 300 natural rock arches being formed, along with many other spectacular landforms.
Because of the altitude and the water-holding properties of the sandstone, the vegetation here is somewhat richer than in the surrounding desert. The ecology of the Tassili n'Ajjer is more described in the article West Saharan montane xeric woodlands, the ecoregion to which this area belongs; the literal English translation of Tassili n'Ajjer is'Plateau of the rivers' referring to a time when the climate was far wetter than it is today. Relict populations of the West African crocodile persisted in the Tassili n'Ajjer until the 20th century. Various other fauna still reside on the plateau, including mouflons, the only surviving type of the larger mammals depicted in the area's rock paintings. In 1989, the psychedelics researcher Giorgio Samorini exposed the theory that the fungoid-like paintings in the caves of Tassili are proof of the relationship between humans and psychedelics in the ancient populations of the Sahara, when it was still a wild green land: One at the most important scenes is to be found in the Tin-Tazarift rock art site, at Tassili, in which we find a series of masked figures in line and hieratically dressed or dressed as dancers surrounded by long and lively festoons of geometrical designs of different kinds.
Each dancer holds a mushroom-like object in the right hand and more surprising, two parallel lines come out of this object to reach the central part of the head of the dancer, the area of the roots of the two horns. This double line could signify an indirect association or non-material fluid passing from the object held in the right hand and the mind; this interpretation would coincide with the mushroom interpretation if we bear in mind the universal mental value induced by hallucinogenic mushrooms and vegetals, of a mystical and spiritual nature. It would seem that these lines – in themselves an ideogram which represents something non-material in ancient art – represent the effect that the mushroom has on the human mind. In a shelter in Tin – Abouteka, in Tassili, there is a motif appearing at least twice which associates mushrooms and fish. Two mushrooms are depicted opposite each other, in a perpendicular position with regard to the fish motif and near the tail. Not far from here, above, we find other fish which are similar to the aforementioned but without the side-mushrooms.
This theory was reused by new-age icon Terence McKenna in his 1992 book Food of the Gods, hypothesizing that the Neolithic culture that inhabited the site used psilocybin mushrooms as part of its religious ritual life, citing rock paintings showing persons holding mushroom-like objects in their hands, as well as mushrooms growing from their bodies. For Henri Lohte who discovered the Tassili caves in the late 1950s, these were secret sanctuaries; the painting that best backs the mushroom hypothesis is the Tassili mushroom man Matalem-Amazar where the body of the represented shaman is covered with mushrooms. According to Earl Lee in his book From the Bodies of the Gods: Psychoactive Plants and the Cults of the Dead, this imagery refers to an ancient episode where a "mushroom shaman" was buried with his clothes, when unearthed some time his body was covered with tiny mushrooms growing in his clothes. Earl Lee considered the mushroom paintings at Tassili realistic. According to Brian Akers, writer of the Mushroom j
Westport is a town in Fairfield County, United States, along Long Island Sound within Connecticut's Gold Coast. It is 52 miles northeast of New York City; the town had a population of 26,391 according to the 2010 U. S. Census, is ranked 22nd among America's 100 Richest Places as well as second in Connecticut, with populations between 20,000 and 65,000; the earliest known inhabitants of the Westport area as identified through archaeological finds date back 7,500 years. Records from the first white settlers report the Pequot Indians living in the area which they called Machamux translated by the colonialists as beautiful land. Settlement by colonialists dates back to the five Bankside Farmers; the community had its own ecclesiastical society, supported by independent civil and religious elements, enabling it to be independent from the Town of Fairfield. The settlers arrived in 1693, having followed cattle to the isolated area known to the Pequot as the "beautiful land"; as the settlement expanded its name changed: it was known as "Bankside" in 1693 named Green's Farm in 1732 in honor of Bankside Farmer John Green and in 1835 incorporated as the Town of Westport.
During the revolutionary war—on April 25, 1777, a 1,850 strong British force under the command of the Royal Governor of the Province of New York, Major General William Tryon landed on Compo Beach to destroy the Continental Army’s military supplies in Danbury. Minutemen from Westport and the surrounding areas crouched hiding whilst Tryon's troops passed and launched an offensive from their rear. A statue on Compo beach commemorates this plan of attack with a crouching Minuteman facing away from the beach; the Town of Westport was incorporated on May 28, 1835, with lands from Fairfield and Norwalk. Daniel Nash led 130 people of Westport in the petitioning of the Town of Fairfield for Westport’s incorporation; the driving force behind the petition was to assist their seaport’s economic viability, being undermined by neighboring towns’ seaports. For several decades after that, Westport was a prosperous agricultural community distinguishing itself as the leading onion-growing center in the U. S. Blight caused the collapse of Westport's onion industry leading to the mills and factories replacing agricultural as the town's economic engine.
Agriculture was Westport's first major industry. By the 19th century, Westport had become a shipping center in part to transport onions to market. Starting around 1910 the town experienced a cultural expansion. During this period artists and authors such as F. Scott Fitzgerald moved to Westport to be free from the commuting demands experienced by business people; the roots of Westport's reputation as an arts center can be traced back to this period during which it was known as a "creative heaven."In the 20th century a combination of industrialization, popularity among New Yorkers attracted to fashionable Westport—which had attracted many artists and writers—resulted in farmers selling off their land. Westport changed from a community of farmers to a suburban development. In the 1950s through to the 1970s, New Yorkers relocating from the city to the suburbs discovered Westport's culture of artists and authors; the population grew assisted by the ease of commuting to New York City and back again to rolling hills and the "natural beauty of the town."
By this time Westport had "chic New York-type fashion shopping" and a school system with a good reputation, both factors contributing to the growth. By the 21st century, Westport had developed into a center for insurance. According to a publication by the 2010 Census, Westport has a total area of 33.45 square miles of which 19.96 square miles is land with the remaining area 13.49 square miles is water. Westport is bordered by Norwalk on the west, Weston to the north, Wilton to the northwest, Fairfield to the east and Long Island Sound to the south. Both the train station and a total of 26 percent of town residents live within the 100-year floodplain; the floodplain was breached in 1992 and 1996 resulting in damage to private property, the 1992 flooding of the train station parking lot and the implementation of flood mitigation measures that include town regulations that affect renovations and additions to building within the floodplain zone. Saugatuck – around the Westport railroad station near the southwestern corner of the town – a built-up area with some restaurants and offices.
Saugatuck originates from the Paugussett tribe meaning mouth of the tidal river. Saugatuck Shores – A curved peninsula surrounded by the Long Island Sound, this area was once part of the town of Norwalk. Today several hundred residents live on the peninsula. Saugatuck Island – founded in the 1890s as Greater Marsh Shores, the island was renamed to its current name in 1920 and became a special taxing district on November 5, 1984. Downtown Westport - The area around Post Road and Main Street on and near the Saugatuck River that serves as the center of Westport, with many shops and restaurants. There has been recent growth in the downtown area, including Levitt Pavilion, National Hall, Bedford square, a mixed use development on Church St, Elm St, Main St and Post Rd that will have apartments, public spaces, including a courtyard, underground parking and restaurants, as well as the incorporation of the historic Bedford Mansion. Greens Farms – is Westport's oldest neighborhood starting around Hillsp
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe is the capital of the U. S. state of New Mexico. It is the seat of Santa Fe County; this area was occupied for at least several thousand years by indigenous peoples who built villages several hundred years ago, on the current site of the city. It was known by the Tewa inhabitants as Ogha Po'oge; the city of Santa Fe, founded by Spanish colonists in 1610, is the oldest state capital in the United States. Santa Fe had a population of 69,204 in 2012, it is the principal city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. The city's full name as founded remains La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. Before European colonization of the Americas, the area Santa Fe occupied between 900 CE and the 1500s was known to the Tewa peoples as Oghá P'o'oge and by the Navajo people as Yootó. In 1610, Juan de Oñate established the area as Santa Fe de Nuevo México–a province of New Spain.
Formal Spanish settlements were developed leading the colonial governor Pedro de Peralta to rename the area La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. The phrase "Santa Fe" is translated as "Holy Faith" in Spanish. Although more known as Santa Fe, the city's full, legal name remains to this day as La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís; the standard Spanish variety pronounces it SAHN-tah-FAY as contextualized within the city's full, Spaniard name La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Aśis. However, due to the large amounts of tourism and immigration into Santa Fe, an English pronunciation of SAN-tuh-FAY is commonly used; the area of Santa Fe was occupied by indigenous Tanoan peoples, who lived in numerous Pueblo villages along the Rio Grande. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900 CE. A group of native Tewa built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today's Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west.
The river had a year-round flow until the 1700s. By the 20th century the Santa Fe River was a seasonal waterway; as of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers. Don Juan de Oñate led the first European effort to colonize the region in 1598, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. New Mexico's second Spanish governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, founded a new city at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1607, which he called La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi. In 1610, he designated it as the capital of the province, which it has constantly remained, making it the oldest state capital in the United States. Discontent with the colonization practices led to the Pueblo Revolt, when groups of different Native Pueblo peoples were successful in driving the Spaniards out of the area now known as New Mexico, maintaining their independence from 1680 to 1692, when the territory was reconquered by Don Diego de Vargas.
Santa Fe was Spain's provincial seat at outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. It was considered important to fur traders based in present-day Saint Missouri; when the area was still under Spanish rule, the Chouteau brothers of Saint Louis gained a monopoly on the fur trade, before the United States acquired Missouri under the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The fur trade contributed to the wealth of St. Louis; the city's status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution after Mexico achieved independence from Spain. When the Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836, it attempted to claim Santa Fe and other parts of Nuevo México as part of the western portion of Texas along the Río Grande. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition set out from Austin, intending to take control of the Santa Fe Trail. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was poorly prepared and was captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico.
Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into Santa Fe to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U. S. gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled "Spain 1776" showing both the quality of communication and military support New Mexico received under Mexican rule; some American visitors at first saw little promise in the remote town. One traveller in 1849 wrote: I can hardly imagine how Santa Fe is supported; the country around it is barren. At the North stands a snow-capped mountain while the valley in which the town is situated is drab and sandy; the streets are narrow... A Mexican will walk about town all day to sell a bundle of grass worth about a dime, they are the poorest looking people I saw. They subsist principally on mutton and red pepper. In 1851, Jean Baptiste Lamy arrived, becoming bishop of New Mexico, Utah, C
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e. without breaking chemical bonds. Chemical substances can be chemical compounds, or alloys. Chemical elements may not be included in the definition, depending on expert viewpoint. Chemical substances are called'pure' to set them apart from mixtures. A common example of a chemical substance is pure water. Other chemical substances encountered in pure form are diamond, table salt and refined sugar. However, in practice, no substance is pure, chemical purity is specified according to the intended use of the chemical. Chemical substances exist as solids, gases, or plasma, may change between these phases of matter with changes in temperature or pressure. Chemical substances may be converted to others by means of chemical reactions. Forms of energy, such as light and heat, are not matter, are thus not "substances" in this regard.
A chemical substance may well be defined as "any material with a definite chemical composition" in an introductory general chemistry textbook. According to this definition a chemical substance can either be a pure chemical element or a pure chemical compound. But, there are exceptions to this definition; the chemical substance index published by CAS includes several alloys of uncertain composition. Non-stoichiometric compounds are a special case that violates the law of constant composition, for them, it is sometimes difficult to draw the line between a mixture and a compound, as in the case of palladium hydride. Broader definitions of chemicals or chemical substances can be found, for example: "the term'chemical substance' means any organic or inorganic substance of a particular molecular identity, including – any combination of such substances occurring in whole or in part as a result of a chemical reaction or occurring in nature". In geology, substances of uniform composition are called minerals, while physical mixtures of several minerals are defined as rocks.
Many minerals, mutually dissolve into solid solutions, such that a single rock is a uniform substance despite being a mixture in stoichiometric terms. Feldspars are a common example: anorthoclase is an alkali aluminum silicate, where the alkali metal is interchangeably either sodium or potassium. In law, "chemical substances" may include both pure substances and mixtures with a defined composition or manufacturing process. For example, the EU regulation REACH defines "monoconstituent substances", "multiconstituent substances" and "substances of unknown or variable composition"; the latter two consist of multiple chemical substances. For example, charcoal is an complex polymeric mixture that can be defined by its manufacturing process. Therefore, although the exact chemical identity is unknown, identification can be made to a sufficient accuracy; the CAS index includes mixtures. Polymers always appear as mixtures of molecules of multiple molar masses, each of which could be considered a separate chemical substance.
However, the polymer may be defined by a known precursor or reaction and the molar mass distribution. For example, polyethylene is a mixture of long chains of -CH2- repeating units, is sold in several molar mass distributions, LDPE, MDPE, HDPE and UHMWPE; the concept of a "chemical substance" became established in the late eighteenth century after work by the chemist Joseph Proust on the composition of some pure chemical compounds such as basic copper carbonate. He deduced; this is now known as the law of constant composition. With the advancement of methods for chemical synthesis in the realm of organic chemistry. However, there are some controversies regarding this definition because the large number of chemical substances reported in chemistry literature need to be indexed. Isomerism caused much consternation to early researchers, since isomers have the same composition, but differ in configuration of the atoms. For example, there was much speculation for the chemical identity of benzene, until the correct structure was described by Friedrich August Kekulé.
The idea of stereoisomerism – that atoms have rigid three-dimensional structure and can thus form isomers that differ only in their three-dimensional arrangement – was another crucial step in understanding the concept of distinct chemical substances. For example, tartaric acid has three distinct isomers, a pair of diastereomers with one diastereomer forming two enantiomers. An element is a chemical substance made up of a particular kind of atom and hence cannot be broken down or transformed by a chemical reaction into a different element, though it can be transmuted into another element through a nuclear reaction; this is so, beca