A banquet is a formal large meal or feast involving main courses and desserts. The meal tends to serve a purpose such as a charitable gathering, a ceremony, or a celebration involved either preceding or following speeches in honor of the topic or guest of honour. Despite the controversy surrounding the origins of feasting, numerous theories have been suggested. According to archaeologist Brian Hayden, feasts were an important social event either facilitated by or featuring the surplus of food, resulting in the experience gaining social and political ties and a competitive element to display one's own wealth. Whilst Bendall suggests the importance of luxury foods, Hayden argues the likelihood that animal meat and rice were part of these luxury goods. Banqueting, as a notion, has manifested itself in a variety of forms throughout history. In Ancient Greece, symposia, an early kind of banquet, formed a routine part of life involving the celebratory drinking of wine and performances of poetry and music.
Banquets persisted in popularity over the years including Belshazzar's Feast, Last Supper, Manchu Han Imperial Feast, Mead halls. By the Middle Ages, the event had become more structured, with comprehensive ritualised elements were involved in the traditional three-course menu, which could have up to 25 dishes in each course; the structure was altered to two courses, with the pre-existing third course changed to the serving of fruit and nuts. Banqueting rooms varied with location, but tended to be on an intimate scale, either in a garden room, banquet hall or inside such as the small banqueting turrets in Longleat House. A contemporary banquet may serve many purposes to formal business dinners. Business banquets are a popular way to strengthen bonds between their partners, it is common. A luau is one variety of banquet used in Hawaii; the Nei Mongol provincial government in China levies a tax on banquets. Banquet hall Beefsteak List of dining events Party Albala, Ken; the banquet: Dining in the Great Courts of late Renaissance Europe.
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Breakfast is the first meal of a day. The word in English refers to breaking the fasting period of the prior night. There is a strong tendency for one or more "typical", or "traditional", breakfast menus to exist in most places, but the composition of this varies from place to place, has varied over time, so that globally a wide range of preparations and ingredients are now associated with breakfast; the Old English word for dinner, means to break a fast, was the first meal eaten in the day until its meaning shifted in the mid-13th century. It was not until the 15th century that “breakfast” came into use in written English to describe a morning meal, which means to break the fasting period of the prior night. While breakfast is referred to as "the most important meal of the day", some epidemiological research indicates that having breakfast high in available carbohydrates increases the risk of metabolic syndrome. Present professional opinion is in favor of eating breakfast, but some contest the positive implications of its "most important" status.
The influence of breakfast on managing body weight is unclear. Breakfast in Africa varies from region to region. Most Egyptians begin the day with a light breakfast. Ful medames, one of Egypt's several national dishes, is typical, it is seasoned with salt and cumin, garnished with vegetable oil and optionally with tahini, chopped parsley, chopped tomato, onion, lemon juice, chili pepper and served topped with a boiled egg. It is scooped up and eaten with the staple whole wheat pita bread called Eish Masri or Eish Baladi and accompanied by taʿamiya, the local variant of falafel made with fava beans, fresh cut homemade French fries and various fresh or pickled vegetables. Several kinds of cheeses are popular, including gebna bēḍa or Domyati cheese, gebna rūmi, similar to Pecorino Romano or Manchego, Istanbuli cheese. Fried eggs with pastirma is common breakfast foods in Egypt. For breakfast, many Moroccans eat bread, harsha, or msemen with olive oil and different kinds of Moroccan crepes. Nigeria has over 250 different ethnic groups, with a corresponding variety of cuisines.
For the Hausa of northern Nigeria, a typical breakfast consists of funkaso. Both of these cakes can be served with sugar known as koko. For the south western Yoruba people one of the most common breakfasts is Ògì— a porridge made from corn served with evaporated milk. Ògì is eaten with Moi moi. Both are made from ground bean paste. Ògì can be steamed in leaves to harden it and eaten with akara or moi moi for breakfast. English tea or malta is served as a breakfast drink. Another popular option in southwest Nigeria is Gari, eaten like a cereal. Gari, known in Brazil as farofa, is made from the root of cassava. For breakfast, it is sweetened with sugar. Breakfast consists of café Touba, spiced coffee with abundant sugar sometimes consumed with dried milk, or kinkeliba tea. Small beignets and fresh fruit, including mangoes and bananas, are part of a simple breakfast, are accompanied by baguette with various spreads: Chocoleca, a Nutella equivalent made from peanuts. Breakfast is an important meal for Somalis, who start the day with some style of tea.
The main dish is a pancake-like bread. It might be eaten with a stew or soup. Lahoh is a pancake-like bread originating in Somalia and Yemen, it is eaten along with honey and ghee or beef jerky, washed down with a cup of tea. During lunch, lahoh is sometimes consumed with stew. Lablabi is a popular breakfast stew. In Uganda, most tribes have different cuisines but the most popular breakfast dishes are Porridge and Katogo. Porridge is made by mixing maize flour or millet flour with water and bringing the mixture to a boil. While Katogo is made from matoke and cooked in the same pot with a sauce, Katogo is served with tea or juice. Both dishes are popular in all regions of Uganda. Breakfasts vary throughout Asia. In Arab countries, breakfast is a quick meal, consisting of bread and dairy products, with tea and sometimes jam. Flat bread with olive oil and za'tar is popular; as mainland China is made up of many distinct provinces, each with their own unique cuisine, breakfast in China can vary from province to province.
In general, basic choices include sweet or salty pancakes, deep-fried bread sticks or doughnuts, buns and fried or soup-based noodles. These options are accompanied by tea or sweetened soybean milk. However, condiments for porridge and the soup base tend to vary between regions; the types of teas that are served and spices that are used can differ between the provinces. Due to its near two centuries history as a British colony and proximity to China's Canton region, both English and traditional Cantonese style breakfasts are of somewhat equal popularity in Hong Kong, as well as the hybrid form of breakfast offered in Cha chaan teng. Cha Chaan Te
A snack is a small service of food and eaten between meals. Snacks come in a variety of forms including packaged snack foods and other processed foods, as well as items made from fresh ingredients at home. Traditionally, snacks are prepared from ingredients available at home without a great deal of preparation. Biscuits, cold cuts, leftovers, popcorn and sweets are used as snacks; the Dagwood sandwich was the humorous result of a cartoon character's desire for large snacks. With the spread of convenience stores, packaged snack foods became a significant business. Snack foods are designed to be portable and satisfying. Processed snack foods, as one form of convenience food, are designed to be less perishable, more durable, more portable than prepared foods, they contain substantial amounts of sweeteners and appealing ingredients such as chocolate and specially-designed flavors. Beverages, such as coffee and tea, are not considered snacks although they may be consumed along with or in lieu of snack foods.
A snack eaten shortly before going to bed or during the night may be called a "bedtime snack", "late night snack", or "night snack". In the United States, a popular snack food is the peanut. Peanuts first arrived from South America via slave ships and became incorporated into African-inspired cooking on southern plantations. After the Civil War, the taste for peanuts spread north, where they were incorporated into the culture of baseball games and vaudeville theaters. Along with popcorn, snacks bore the stigma of being sold by unhygienic street vendors; the middle-class etiquette of the Victorian era categorized any food that did not require proper usage of utensils as lower-class. Pretzels were introduced to North America via New Amsterdam in the 17th century. In the 1860s, the snack was still associated with immigrants, unhygienic street vendors, saloons. Due to loss of business during the Prohibition era, pretzels underwent rebranding to make them more appealing to the public; as packaging revolutionized snack foods, allowing sellers to reduce contamination risk, while making it easy to advertise brands with a logo, pretzels boomed in popularity, bringing many other types of snack foods with it.
By the 1950s, snacking had become an all-American pastime, becoming an internationally recognized emblem of middle American life. Healthy snacks include those that have significant vitamins, are low in saturated fat, added sugars, sodium. Examples of healthy snacks include: Eggs, such as hard-boiled eggs and vegetables Lean cheese Lean meats, Low-fat dairy products Nuts and seeds Foods that have whole grains Government bodies, such as Health Canada, recommend that people make a conscious effort to eat more healthy, natural snacks - such as fruit, vegetables and cereal grains – while avoiding high-calorie, low-nutrient junk food. A 2010 study showed that children in the United States snacked on average six times per day twice as as American children in the 1970s; this represents consumption of 570 calories more per day than U. S. children consumed in the 1970s. A Tufts University Department of Psychology empirical study titled "Effect of an afternoon confectionery snack on cognitive processes critical to learning" found that a consumption of a confectionery snack in the afternoon improved spatial memory in the study's sample group, but in the area of attention performance it had a mixed effect.
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A boodle fight, in the context of Filipino culture, is the military practice of eating a meal. Sources indicate that the term "boodle" is American military slang for contraband sweets such as cake and ice cream. A "boodle fight" is a party; the term may have been derived from "kit and caboodle". A boodle fight is a meal. Diners instead practice kamayan, Filipino for "eating with the hands"; the food is placed on top of a long banana leaf-lined trestle table and in the true military practice, diners do not sit in chairs but instead stand shoulder to shoulder in a line on both sides of the table. A senior officer or enlisted personnel utters the traditional command for the boodle fight to begin: Military tradition
Supper is the main evening meal. The term is derived from the French souper, used for this meal in Canadian French, Swiss French, sometimes in Belgian French, it is related to soup. It is related to the Scandinavian words for soup, soppa or suppe and the German word for soup, Suppe; the Oxford English Dictionary, suggests that the root, remains obscure in origin. "Supper" may refer to, on class-based distinctions, either a late-evening snack or else to make a distinction between "supper" as an informal family meal as opposed to "dinner", a grander affair, which would be eaten in the best dining room, could well have guests from outside the household, for which there might be a dress code. The distinction between dinner and supper was common in United States farming communities into the twentieth century in the Mid-West and the American South, though today, most Americans consider the two synonyms and prefer the term dinner for the evening meal. During World War II, rations in the U. S. military were still divided into breakfast and supper, using the traditional designations for meals.
In most parts of the United States and Canada today, "supper" and "dinner" are considered synonyms. In Saskatchewan, much of Atlantic Canada, "supper" means the main meal of the day served in the late afternoon, while "dinner" is served around noon. "Dinner" is used in some areas, such as Newfoundland and Labrador, to describe the noon meal as well as special meals, such as "Thanksgiving dinner", "flipper dinner" or "Christmas dinner", the evening meal being "supper". The word "supper" is regionally reserved for harvest meals put on by churches and other community organizations: "fowl suppers" or "fall suppers" are common in Canada. Dinner Supper club Wikibooks Cookbook
Lunch, the abbreviation for luncheon, is a meal eaten around midday. During the 20th century, the meaning narrowed to a small or mid-sized meal eaten midday. Lunch is the second meal of the day, after breakfast; the meal varies in size depending on the culture, significant variations exist in different areas of the world. The abbreviation lunch is taken from the more formal Northern English word luncheon, derived from the Anglo-Saxon word nuncheon or nunchin meaning'noon drink'; the term has been in common use since 1823. The Oxford English Dictionary reports usage of the words beginning in 1580 to describe a meal, eaten between more substantial meals, it may mean a piece of cheese or bread. In medieval Germany, there are references to similariar, a sir lunchentach according to the OED, a noon draught – of ale, with bread – an extra meal between midday dinner and supper during the long hours of hard labour during haying or early harvesting. Meals have become ingrained in each society as being logical.
What one society eats may seem extraordinary to another. The same is true of what was eaten long ago in history as food tastes, menu items and meal periods have changed over time. For example, the word supper means soup. In general, during the Middle Ages the main meal for everyone took place late in the morning, after several hours of work, when there was no need for artificial lighting. During the 17th and 18th centuries, this meal, called dinner, was pushed back into the evening, creating a greater time gap between breakfast and dinner. A meal called. A formal evening meal, artificially lit by candles, sometimes with entertainment, was a supper party as late as the Regency era. Up until the early 19th century, luncheon was reserved for the ladies, who would have lunch with one another when their husbands were out; as late as 1945, Emily Post wrote in the magazine Etiquette that luncheon is "generally given by and for women, but it is not unusual in summer places or in town on Saturday or Sunday, to include an equal number of men" – hence the mildly disparaging phrase, "the ladies who lunch".
Lunch was a ladies' light meal. Beginning in the 1840s, afternoon tea supplemented this luncheon at four o'clock. Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management – a guide to all aspects of running a household in Victorian Britain, edited by Isabella Beeton – had much less to explain about luncheon than about dinners or ball suppers: The remains of cold joints, nicely garnished, a few sweets, or a little hashed meat, poultry or game, are the usual articles placed on the table for luncheon, with bread and cheese, butter, etc. If a substantial meal is desired, rump-steaks or mutton chops may be served, as veal cutlets, kidneys... In families where there is a nursery, the mistress of the house partakes of the meal with the children, makes it her luncheon. In the summer, a few dishes of fresh fruit should be added to the luncheon, or, instead of this, a compote of fruit or fruit tart, or pudding. With the onset of industrialisation in the 19th century, male workers began to work long shifts at the factory disrupting the age-old eating habits of rural life.
Workers were sent home for a brief dinner provided by their wives, but as the workplace was moved farther from the home, working men took to providing themselves with something portable to eat during a break in the middle of the day. The lunch meal became institutionalised in England when workers with long and fixed hour jobs at the factory were given an hour off work to eat lunch and thus gain strength for the afternoon shift. Stalls and chop houses near the factories began to provide mass-produced food for the working class, the meal soon became an established part of the daily routine, remaining so to this day. In many countries and regions lunch is main meal. Prescribed lunchtimes allow workers to return to their homes to eat with their families. Where lunch is the customary main meal of the day, businesses close during lunchtime. Lunch becomes dinner on special days, such as holidays or special events, for example, Christmas dinner and harvest dinners such as Thanksgiving. Among Christians, the main meal on Sunday, whether at a restaurant or at home, is called "Sunday dinner", is served after morning church services.
A traditional Bengali lunch is a seven-course meal. Bengali cuisine is a culinary style originating in Bengal, a region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, now divided between Bangladesh and Indian states of West Bengal, Assam's Barak Valley; the first course is shukto, a mix of vegetables cooked with few spices and topped with a coconut sauce. The second course consists of rice, a vegetable curry; the third course consists of fish curry. The fourth course is that of meat curry; the fifth course contains sweet preparations like rasgulla, rajbhog, etc. The sixth course consists of mishti doi; the seventh course is that of paan. In China today, lunch is not nearly as complicated. Rice and other mixed hot foods are eaten, either at a restaurant or brought in a container. Western cuisine is not uncommon, it is called 午饭 in most areas. Lunch in Denmark, referred to as frokost, is a light
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It