Western Pennsylvania Conservancy
The Western Pennsylvania Conservancy is a private nonprofit conservation organization founded in 1932 and headquartered in Pittsburgh, PA. WPC has contributed land to 12 state parks and conserved more than a quarter million acres of natural lands; the Conservancy plants and maintains more than 132 gardens in 20 Western Pennsylvania counties, as well as planting thousands of trees through its community forestry program. WPC streams. In 1963, Edgar Kaufmann Jr. entrusted Frank Lloyd Wright's masterwork Fallingwater to the Conservancy. The house was called the most important building of the 20th century by the American Institute of Architects. Charity Navigator awarded the Conservancy its highest rating for the seventh year. Of the thousands of charities the independent evaluator has reviewed, only 2 percent have received as many consecutive four-star ratings. Three years into the Great Depression, ten citizens came together to found a nonprofit conservation organization; the organization’s goal was to alleviate widespread unemployment through public works programs that would create a positive impact on the region’s natural resources.
Known as the Greater Pittsburgh Parks Association, WPC began its work landscaping a park along Pittsburgh's Bigelow Boulevard. By 1945, the Conservancy was acquiring large tracts of land in Lawrence County that became part of McConnells Mill State Park. In 1961, a 300-acre wildflower reserve was acquired in Beaver County and is still considered to be one of the finest stands of native wildflowers in southwestern Pennsylvania; the wildflower reserve is now part of Raccoon Creek State Park. While the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy's main headquarters is in Pittsburgh, PA, the organization has several regional offices in the state. Offices are held in Indiana, Mill Run, Franklin, Ligonier and Harrisburg; the Conservancy has protected more than a quarter million acres of land since 1932. The Conservancy’s work enables protection of important natural resources and creates economic benefits through an area’s tourism and forestry. Most of the land preserved by WPC is now publicly owned, becoming some of Pennsylvania's premier parks, game lands and natural areas, or subject to conservation easements that allow public access.
WPC acquired land for the creation of 12 state parks, including: Ohiopyle State Park, including Ferncliff Peninsula National Natural Landmark Laurel Ridge State Park Oil Creek State Park McConnell's Mill State Park Moraine State Park Erie Bluffs State Park Canoe Creek State Park Cook Forest State Park Shawnee State Park Raccoon Creek State Park Clear Creek State Park Blue Knob State ParkThe Conservancy owns and manages more than 12,000 acres of land throughout Western Pennsylvania. Many of these natural areas offer hiking trails for the public to enjoy, its largest natural area is Bear Run Nature Reserve in Fayette County, located down the road from Fallingwater. Totaling more than 5,000 acres, this nature reserve features 20 miles of hiking trails and several campsites; the Conservancy has protected or restored more than 3,000 miles of waterways. Its watershed conservation work began as a technical assistance program for watershed groups in Western Pennsylvania. In 2011, the program was formalized to include a full suite of watershed restoration services for local communities.
The Western Pennsylvania Conservancy's watershed conservation program offers in-stream monitoring and assessment, stream restoration and habitat improvement, abandoned mine drainage remediation, riparian buffer plantings, agricultural best management practices and other projects and surveys. The watershed conservation program provides schools and students of all ages with hands-on educational presentations that help people understand the importance of clean water and healthy ecosystems in Pennsylvania. WPC's community gardens and greenspace program plants and maintains 132 community gardens every spring in 20 Western Pennsylvania counties, with the help of 12,000 volunteers. For many decades, the Conservancy has worked with PennDOT, municipalities and other local entities to transform vacant land into community flower gardens. WPC is the managing partner of TreeVitalize Pittsburgh, a joint project of Allegheny County, City of Pittsburgh, Tree Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy.
TreeVitalize Pittsburgh has planted more than 29,000 trees since 2008 in an effort to improve the quality of life and the environment in the Pittsburgh region. Through this program, any Allegheny County resident may apply for trees on behalf of their community and all trees are planted on public property. Other community forestry projects led by the Conservancy include the Pittsburgh Redbud Project, Trees for Ligonier, the Pittsburgh Street Tree Inventory. A partnership of WPC, the Grable Foundation and Pittsburgh Public Schools, brought sustainable landscape to 57 Pittsburgh public schools; the project provided outdoor classrooms, natural play spaces and low-care plantings to provide shade, landscape accents and natural points of interest for children. The Western Pennsylvania Conservancy uses science as an essential tool to prioritize the places that it seeks to protect and set long-term conservation goals. Through its conservation science program and the Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, WPC scientists provide scientific information and assistance to support the conservation of Pennsylvania's biological diversity.
The Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program is a partnership of the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, the Pennsylvania Game Commission an
Abstraction is used in the arts as a synonym for abstract art in general. Speaking, it refers to art unconcerned with the literal depiction of things from the visible world—it can, refer to an object or image, distilled from the real world, or indeed, another work of art. Artwork that reshapes the natural world for expressive purposes is called abstract. In the 20th century the trend toward abstraction coincided with advances in science and changes in urban life reflecting an interest in psychoanalytic theory. Still, abstraction was manifest in more purely formal terms, such as color, freedom from objective context, a reduction of form to basic geometric designs and shapes. In music, the term abstraction can be used to describe improvisatory approaches to interpretation, may sometimes indicate abandonment of tonality. Atonal music has no key signature, is characterized by the exploration of internal numeric relationships
Fallingwater is a house designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright in 1935 in rural southwestern Pennsylvania, 43 miles southeast of Pittsburgh. The house was built over a waterfall on Bear Run in the Mill Run section of Stewart Township, Fayette County, located in the Laurel Highlands of the Allegheny Mountains; the house was designed as a weekend home for the family of Liliane Kaufmann and her husband, Edgar J. Kaufmann, Sr. owner of Kaufmann's Department Store. After its completion, Time called Fallingwater Wright's "most beautiful job," and it is listed among Smithsonian's "Life List of 28 places to visit before you die." The house was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966. In 1991, members of the American Institute of Architects named Fallingwater the "best all-time work of American architecture" and in 2007, it was ranked 29th on the list of America's Favorite Architecture according to the AIA. At age 67, Frank Lloyd Wright was given the opportunity to construct three buildings.
With his three works of the late 1930s—Fallingwater. Edgar J. Kaufmann, Sr. was a Pittsburgh president of Kaufmann's Department Store. Edgar and Liliane's only child, Edgar Kaufmann Jr. became the catalyst for his father’s relationship with Frank Lloyd Wright. In the summer of 1934, Edgar Jr. read Frank Lloyd Wright’s An Autobiography, traveled to meet Wright at his home in Wisconsin in late September. Within three weeks, Edgar Jr. began an apprenticeship at the Taliesin Fellowship, a communal architecture program established in 1932 by Wright and his wife, Olgivanna. It was during a visit with Edgar Jr. at Taliesin in November 1934 that Edgar and Liliane Kaufmann first met Frank Lloyd Wright. The Kaufmanns lived in "La Tourelle", a French Norman estate in Fox Chapel designed in 1923 for Edgar J. Kaufmann by Pittsburgh architect Benno Janssen. However, the family owned a remote property outside Pittsburgh — a small cabin near a waterfall —, used as a summer retreat; when these cabins deteriorated, Mr. Kaufmann contacted Wright.
On December 18, 1934, Wright visited Bear Run and asked for a survey of the area around the waterfall. One was prepared by Fayette Engineering Company of Uniontown, including all the site's boulders and topography, forwarded to Wright in March 1935; as reported by Frank Lloyd Wright's apprentices at Taliesin, Edgar Kaufmann Sr. was in Milwaukee on September 22, nine months after their initial meeting, called Wright at home early Sunday morning to surprise him with the news that he would be visiting Wright that day. Kaufmann could not wait to see Wright's plans. Wright had told Kaufmann in earlier communication that he had been working on the plans, but had not drawn anything. After breakfast that morning, amid a group of nervous apprentices, Wright calmly drew the plans in the two hours in which it took Kaufmann to drive to Taliesin. Wright designed the home above the waterfall, rather than below to afford a view of the cascades as Kaufmann had expected, it has been said that Kaufmann was very upset that Wright had designed the house to sit atop the falls.
Kaufmann had wanted the house located on the southern bank of Bear Run. He told Wright; the Kaufmanns planned to entertain large groups of people, so the house needed to be larger than the original plot allowed. Mr. and Mrs. Kaufmann requested separate bedrooms, as well as a bedroom for their adult son, an additional guest room, for a total of four bedrooms. A cantilevered structure was used to address these requests; the structural design for Fallingwater was undertaken by Wright in association with staff engineers Mendel Glickman and William Wesley Peters, responsible for the columns featured in Wright’s revolutionary design for the Johnson Wax Headquarters. Preliminary plans were issued to Kaufmann for approval on October 15, 1935, after which Wright made an additional visit to the site and provided a cost estimate for the job. In December 1935, an old rock quarry was reopened to the west of the site to provide the stones needed for the house’s walls. Wright visited only periodically during construction, assigning his apprentice Robert Mosher as his permanent on-site representative.
The final working drawings were issued by Wright in March 1936, with work beginning on the bridge and main house in April. The construction was plagued by conflicts between Wright and the construction contractor. Uncomfortable with what he saw as Wright's insufficient experience using reinforced concrete, Kaufmann had the architect's daring cantilever design reviewed by a firm of consulting engineers. Upon receiving their report, Wright took offense requesting that Kaufmann return his drawings and indicating that he was withdrawing from the project. Kaufmann relented to Wright's gambit, the engineer’s report was subsequently buried within a stone wall of the house. For the cantilevered floors and his team used upside-down T-shaped beams integrated into a monolithic concrete slab which formed both the ceiling of the space below and provided resistance against compression; the contractor, Walter Hall an engineer, produced independent computations and argued for increasing the reinforcing steel in the first floor’s slab.
Wright refused the suggestion. While some sources state that the contractor doubled the amount of reinforcement, others say that Kaufmann's consulting engineers – at Kaufmann's request – redrew Wright's reinforcing drawings and doubled the amount of steel specified by Wright. In addit
NTS Sessions 1–4
NTS Sessions 1–4 is the thirteenth studio album by British electronic music duo Autechre, released by Warp Records on 26 April 2018. The album was announced on April 9, consists of original music comprising Autechre's April 2018 residency for NTS Radio, announced the week before, on 3 April 2018; the album was subsequently released in both physical formats. Containing eight hours of music, NTS Sessions 1–4 is the longest Autechre release to date; the album was met with critical acclaim. On 3 April 2018, the band announced a four-week residency on the online station NTS Radio, the broadcasts for which would occur on the 5th, 12th, 19th and 26th of that month at 4:00 PM GMT +1, it was not made known that the residency would include new material until after the first session was broadcast, leading many to assume that it would be another of the band's extended DJ mixes. A few days after the first session aired, Warp announced that each of the two-hour sessions would be released as a digital download after broadcast, with 12-LP and 8-CD boxed sets of the entire album, as well as 3-LP pressings of each individual session, to be released in July through Bleep.com's Autechre store.
In an August 2018 interview with Pitchfork and Brown disclosed that they were disinclined to do a residency when approached by NTS, having produced a DJ set for the station in 2016. However, it subsequently occurred to the duo that they had enough material to fill eight hours, they conceived of the project as an extended radio show. Like other Autechre releases of the past decade, the music is a product of what they refer to as "the system": "a labyrinthine compendium of software synthesizers, virtual machines, digital processes." When asked how far back the material goes, Sean Booth explained: I think the oldest thing is from 2011. But, just an archive of the jam that became “bladelores,”, on Exai. There are a couple of things from in between that and elseq 1-5; the rest is weird recent jams using old patches. But it gets difficult, because the system. It’s about eight years old now, it gets a bit hazy in terms of what's a piece of technology. In approaching the project as a radio show, "tracks were put together and edited with that in mind," with "versions and repeats of ideas that have occurred in earlier material."
The duo "spent ages sequencing" the album's component parts with an emphasis on "deep mixing... where you’ve got things you aren’t aware of at first listen." NTS Sessions 1–4 has been met with critical acclaim. Mark Smith of Resident Advisor said that, although "NTS Sessions 1-4 will elicit the same critiques as any Autechre album in the last decade... it's their best record in many years," calling the album a "pinnacle, as if the preceding decades of work were acts of research leading to this point." Andrew Nosnitsky of Pitchfork said. Though it’s created by a computer, it will bring you to another plane of human existence if you let it."Reviewing the album for AllMusic upon its physical release, Paul Simpson concluded that "By nature, the daunting NTS Sessions is Autechre's most challenging work, but for those who are dedicated, it's one of their most rewarding."NTS Sessions 1–4 was ranked the 8th best release of the year in The Wire magazine's annual critics' poll. All versions of the album present the same material, in the same order.
However, due to the limitations of physical media, the album's CD and vinyl versions spread the material across multiple discs, or records: Digitally, all songs segue into the next. In addition, those who bought the digital version through the AE_Store or Bleep receive a bonus track, "sinistrail sentinel." This track is available to stream on the Adult Swim Singles website. On CD, each Session is split between two discs, with eight total discs averaging an hour in length each. "wetgelis casual interval", "shimripl casual" and "all end" are longer to accommodate for the disc breaks present, with "shimripl casual" gaining nearly a full minute of runtime. On vinyl, each Session is split into three LPs, with 12 total records averaging 20 minutes per side of vinyl. Many songs feature light extensions in running time to accommodate. Furthermore, "shimripl casual" is divided between two sides of vinyl, with the first few minutes on NTS Session 4's second side and the rest on the third side. NTS Sessions on Autechre Store
Quaristice is the ninth studio album by British electronic music duo Autechre released on 29 January 2008 by Warp Records. It was made available for download via bleep.com in FLAC and MP3 format on 29 January 2008 and received a physical release on 3 March 2008. Autechre members Rob Brown and Sean Booth changed their approach for Quaristice, moving from a more deliberate studio process to a more spontaneous and "jam session" style of songwriting doubling the usual number of tracks per album to twenty. Booth said in a March 2008 interview, "a lot of the album tracks are edited-down jams. We’d have a fifteen-minute jam, a ten- or a seven-minute and end up with a three- or four-minute track, we just kept them all." The album is accompanied with track-by-track artwork from The Designers Republic. The last thirty seconds of "The Plc" contain a brief repeated sample of Run–D. M. C.'s 1985 track "Here We Go". In an interview, Booth said "the actual product is the FLAC file – but I don't object to those who want to own something that they can hold."
The album was released as a 2-CD set with alternate versions of 11 tracks on a second 68-minute CD. The casing is a photo-etched, steel case and the release was limited to 1000 copies; the limited edition sold out within 12 hours of being announced. Quaristice received somewhat positive reviews overall. Andy Kellman of AllMusic said that despite the large amount and short running time of the tracks, that "the ideas arrive formed, never appearing to be dashed off or loosely sketched, "and that "not since LP5 has being impressed been so secondary to enjoyment." Mark Richardson of Pitchfork said that while the album was "in some ways the most listenable album created in a decade," he warned that it was "ultimately no easier to parse, can be rough going indeed if you're not in the mood for their peculiar world." However, Andy Gill of The Independent gave a negative review, saying that the album found "the Autechre duo of Rob Brown and Sean Booth still searching vainly for structure and meaning among a impenetrable undergrowth of synthesized ticks and tones."
All tracks written by Rob Brown. A second disc, entitled Quaristice, was included in the limited edition. Listen to Quaristice at Bleep.com Quaristice at metacritic
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Scratching, sometimes referred to as scrubbing, is a DJ and turntablist technique of moving a vinyl record back and forth on a turntable to produce percussive or rhythmic sounds. A crossfader on a DJ mixer may be used to fade between two records simultaneously. While scratching is most associated with hip hop music, where it emerged in the mid-1970s, from the 1990s it has been used in some styles of rap rock, rap metal and nu metal. Within hip hop culture, scratching is one of the measures of a DJ's skills. DJs compete in scratching competitions at the DMC World DJ Championship and IDA, vinyl scratching as an element of hip hop pioneered the idea of making the sound an integral and rhythmic part of music instead of an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is related to "scrubbing" when the reels of an open reel-to