Environment (1917 film)
Environment is a 1917 silent film directed by James Kirkwood. Liz Simpkins is the daughter of town drunk John. While keeping the household, she falls in love with minister Henry Pennfield. Meanwhile, Mildred Holcombe, the daughter of the wealthy David, falls in love with artist Arnold Brice. One night, she is secretly at his place. Liz stops by to warn Mildred her brother Arthur is coming over. Mildred is able to sneak out just in time; this incident causes a big scandal. Because her father has died of alcoholism, it is decided Liz will be sent to an institution; the selfish Mildred begs Liz not to tell the truth, because her father will never forgive her if he finds out the truth. However, Henry announces he will marry Liz. Mary Miles Minter - Liz Simpkins George Fisher - Henry Pennfield Harvey Clark - John Simppkins George Periolat - David Holcombe Emma Kluge - Mrs. Holcombe Margaret Shelby - Mildred Holcombe Arthur Howard - Arthur Holcombe Gayne Whitman - Arnold Brice Lucille Ward - Mrs. Bloom Environment on IMDb
Environments is the first part in a series of planned releases by The Future Sound of London over 2007/2008 via digital download and CD. Planned for release in 1994 under the Amorphous Androgynous alias, it was scrapped, despite being given a catalogue number for its US release and being announced in the liner notes of Lifeforms; some of the material featured on live shows, the ISDN album, the From The Archives series. In 2007, Brian Dougans reconstructed the album from archived material. Contained within the record are samples and elements from released tracks such as "Tired", "Wookii", "Cascade Part 1", "Life Form Ends" and "Ill Flower". Further Environments records - volumes II & III - are planned for digital release in 2008. A CD version of the album was released on Jumpin' & Pumpin' records on 21 July 2008, giving fans a chance to own an actual copy of the album fourteen years after its initial planned release. A further 180g vinyl reissue release of the album occurred 18 September 2015, this included a limited number of signed copies.
Environments Part 1 Environments Part 2 Written and produced by Brian Dougans and Garry Cobain Engineered by Yage Artwork by Buggy G. Riphead, EBV
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, includes the factors that have an influence in their survival and evolution. A biophysical environment can vary in scale from microscopic to global in extent, it can be subdivided according to its attributes. Examples include the marine environment, the atmospheric environment and the terrestrial environment; the number of biophysical environments is countless, given that each living organism has its own environment. The term environment can refer to a singular global environment in relation to humanity, or a local biophysical environment, e.g. the UK's Environment Agency. All life that has survived must have adapted to conditions of its environment. Temperature, humidity, soil nutrients, etc. all influence any species, within any environment. However life in turn modifies, in various forms, its conditions; some long term modifications along the history of our planet have been significant, such as the incorporation of oxygen to the atmosphere.
This process consisted in the breakdown of carbon dioxide by anaerobic microorganisms that used the carbon in their metabolism and released the oxygen to the atmosphere. This led to the existence of the great oxygenation event. Other interactions are more immediate and simple, such as the smoothing effect that forests have on the temperature cycle, compared to neighboring unforested areas. Environmental science is the study of the interactions within the biophysical environment. Part of this scientific discipline is the investigation of the effect of human activity on the environment. Ecology, a sub-discipline of biology and a part of environmental sciences, is mistaken as a study of human induced effects on the environment. Environmental studies is a broader academic discipline, the systematic study of interaction of humans with their environment, it is a broad field of study that includes the natural environment, built environments and social environments. Environmentalism is a broad social and philosophical movement that, in a large part, seeks to minimise and compensate the negative effect of human activity on the biophysical environment.
The issues of concern for environmentalists relate to the natural environment with the more important ones being climate change, species extinction and old growth forest loss. One of the studies related include employing Geographic Information Science to study the biophysical environment. Biophysics subject to the context List of conservation topics List of environmental issues Lists of environmental topics Miller, G. Tyler. Environmental science. California: Wadsworth. ISBN 0-534-21588-2. McCallum, Malcolm L.. "Google search patterns suggest declining interest in the environment". Biodiversity and Conservation. Doi:10.1007/s10531-013-0476-6. Media related to Environment at Wikimedia Commons
Ecology is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms that include biotic and abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. Ecosystems are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem processes, such as primary production, nutrient cycling, niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment; these processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits. Biodiversity means the varieties of species and ecosystems, enhances certain ecosystem services. Ecology is not synonymous with natural history, or environmental science, it overlaps with the related sciences of evolutionary biology and ethology. An important focus for ecologists is to improve the understanding of how biodiversity affects ecological function.
Ecologists seek to explain: Life processes and adaptations The movement of materials and energy through living communities The successional development of ecosystems The abundance and distribution of organisms and biodiversity in the context of the environment. Ecology has practical applications in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management, city planning, community health, economics and applied science, human social interaction. For example, the Circles of Sustainability approach treats ecology as more than the environment'out there', it is not treated as separate from humans. Organisms and resources compose ecosystems which, in turn, maintain biophysical feedback mechanisms that moderate processes acting on living and non-living components of the planet. Ecosystems sustain life-supporting functions and produce natural capital like biomass production, the regulation of climate, global biogeochemical cycles, water filtration, soil formation, erosion control, flood protection, many other natural features of scientific, economic, or intrinsic value.
The word "ecology" was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel. Ecological thought is derivative of established currents in philosophy from ethics and politics. Ancient Greek philosophers such as Hippocrates and Aristotle laid the foundations of ecology in their studies on natural history. Modern ecology became a much more rigorous science in the late 19th century. Evolutionary concepts relating to adaptation and natural selection became the cornerstones of modern ecological theory; the scope of ecology contains a wide array of interacting levels of organization spanning micro-level to a planetary scale phenomena. Ecosystems, for example, contain interacting life forms. Ecosystems are dynamic, they do not always follow a linear successional path, but they are always changing and sometimes so that it can take thousands of years for ecological processes to bring about certain successional stages of a forest. An ecosystem's area can vary from tiny to vast. A single tree is of little consequence to the classification of a forest ecosystem, but critically relevant to organisms living in and on it.
Several generations of an aphid population can exist over the lifespan of a single leaf. Each of those aphids, in turn, support diverse bacterial communities; the nature of connections in ecological communities cannot be explained by knowing the details of each species in isolation, because the emergent pattern is neither revealed nor predicted until the ecosystem is studied as an integrated whole. Some ecological principles, however, do exhibit collective properties where the sum of the components explain the properties of the whole, such as birth rates of a population being equal to the sum of individual births over a designated time frame; the main subdisciplines of ecology, population ecology and ecosystem ecology, exhibit a difference not only of scale, but of two contrasting paradigms in the field. The former focus on organisms distribution and abundance, while the focus on materials and energy fluxes; the scale of ecological dynamics can operate like a closed system, such as aphids migrating on a single tree, while at the same time remain open with regard to broader scale influences, such as atmosphere or climate.
Hence, ecologists classify ecosystems hierarchically by analyzing data collected from finer scale units, such as vegetation associations and soil types, integrate this information to identify emergent patterns of uniform organization and processes that operate on local to regional and chronological scales. To structure the study of ecology into a conceptually manageable framework, the biological world is organized into a nested hierarchy, ranging in scale from genes, to cells, to tissues, to organs, to organisms, to species, to populations, to communities, to ecosystems, to biomes, up to the level of the biosphere; this framework exhibits non-linear behaviors.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals and non-living matter. While environmentalism focuses more on the environmental and nature-related aspects of green ideology and politics, ecology combines the ideology of social ecology and environmentalism. Ecology is more used in continental European languages while ‘environmentalism’ is more used in English but the words have different connotations. Environmentalism advocates the preservation, restoration and/or improvement of the natural environment and critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate, may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity. For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethics, biodiversity and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly.
At its crux, environmentalism is an attempt to balance relations between humans and the various natural systems on which they depend in such a way that all the components are accorded a proper degree of sustainability. The exact measures and outcomes of this balance is controversial and there are many different ways for environmental concerns to be expressed in practice. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are represented by the colour green, but this association has been appropriated by the marketing industries for the tactic known as greenwashing. Environmentalism is opposed by anti-environmentalism, which says that the Earth is less fragile than some environmentalists maintain, portrays environmentalism as overreacting to the human contribution to climate change or opposing human advancement. Environmentalism denotes a social movement that seeks to influence the political process by lobbying and education in order to protect natural resources and ecosystems. An environmentalist is a person who may speak out about our natural environment and the sustainable management of its resources through changes in public policy or individual behaviour.
This may include supporting practices such as informed consumption, conservation initiatives, investment in renewable resources, improved efficiencies in the materials economy, transitioning to new accounting paradigms such as Ecological economics and revitalizing our connections with non-human life or opting to have one less child to reduce consumption and pressure on resources. In various ways, environmentalists and environmental organisations seek to give the natural world a stronger voice in human affairs. In general terms, environmentalists advocate the sustainable management of resources, the protection of the natural environment through changes in public policy and individual behaviour. In its recognition of humanity as a participant in ecosystems, the movement is centered around ecology and human rights. A concern for environmental protection has recurred in diverse forms, in different parts of the world, throughout history; the earliest ideas of environment protectionism can be traced in Jainism, revived by Mahavira in 6th century BC in ancient India.
Jainism offers a view that may seem compatible with core values associated with environmental activism, i.e. protection of life by nonviolence. In Europe, King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke had become a problem; the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow. Earlier in the Middle East, the Caliph Abu Bakr in the 630s commanded his army to "Bring no harm to the trees, nor burn them with fire," and "Slay not any of the enemy's flock, save for your food." Arabic medical treatises during the 9th to 13th centuries dealing with environmentalism and environmental science, including pollution, were written by Al-Kindi, Qusta ibn Luqa, Al-Razi, Ibn Al-Jazzar, al-Tamimi, al-Masihi, Ali ibn Ridwan, Ibn Jumay, Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, Abd-el-latif, Ibn al-Quff, Ibn al-Nafis. Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution, such as air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, municipal solid waste mishandling, environmental impact assessments of certain localities.
At the advent of steam and electricity the muse of history shuts her eyes. The origins of the environmental movement lay in the response to increasing levels of smoke pollution in the atmosphere during the Industrial Revolution; the emergence of great factories and the concomitant immense growth in coal consumption gave rise to an unprecedented level of air pollution in industrial centers. The first large-scale, modern environmental laws came in the form of Britain's Alkali Acts, passed in 1863, to regulate the deleterious air pollution given off by the Leblanc process, used to produce soda ash. An Alkali inspector and four sub-inspectors were appointed to curb this pollution; the responsibilities of the inspectorate were expanded, culminating in the Alkali Order 1958 which placed all major heavy industries that emitted smoke, grit and fumes under supervision. In industrial cities local experts and reformers after 1890, took the lead in identifying enviro
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical and information sciences to the study of the environment, the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science emerged from the fields of natural history and medicine during the Enlightenment. Today it provides an integrated and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. Related areas of study include environmental engineering. Environmental studies incorporates more of the social sciences for understanding human relationships and policies towards the environment. Environmental engineering focuses on design and technology for improving environmental quality in every aspect. Environmental scientists work on subjects like the understanding of earth processes, evaluating alternative energy systems, pollution control and mitigation, natural resource management, the effects of global climate change. Environmental issues always include an interaction of physical and biological processes.
Environmental scientists bring a systems approach to the analysis of environmental problems. Key elements of an effective environmental scientist include the ability to relate space, time relationships as well as quantitative analysis. Environmental science came alive as a substantive, active field of scientific investigation in the 1960s and 1970s driven by the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to analyze complex environmental problems, the arrival of substantive environmental laws requiring specific environmental protocols of investigation and the growing public awareness of a need for action in addressing environmental problems. Events that spurred this development included the publication of Rachel Carson's landmark environmental book Silent Spring along with major environmental issues becoming public, such as the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill, the Cuyahoga River of Cleveland, Ohio, "catching fire", helped increase the visibility of environmental issues and create this new field of study.
In common usage, "environmental science" and "ecology" are used interchangeably, but technically, ecology refers only to the study of organisms and their interactions with each other and their environment. Ecology could be considered a subset of environmental science, which could involve purely chemical or public health issues ecologists would be unlikely to study. In practice, there is considerable overlap between the work of ecologists and other environmental scientists; the National Center for Education Statistics in the United States defines an academic program in environmental science as follows: A program that focuses on the application of biological and physical principles to the study of the physical environment and the solution of environmental problems, including subjects such as abating or controlling environmental pollution and degradation. Includes instruction in biology, physics, climatology and mathematical modeling. Atmospheric sciences focus on the Earth's atmosphere, with an emphasis upon its interrelation to other systems.
Atmospheric sciences can include studies of meteorology, greenhouse gas phenomena, atmospheric dispersion modeling of airborne contaminants, sound propagation phenomena related to noise pollution, light pollution. Taking the example of the global warming phenomena, physicists create computer models of atmospheric circulation and infra-red radiation transmission, chemists examine the inventory of atmospheric chemicals and their reactions, biologists analyze the plant and animal contributions to carbon dioxide fluxes, specialists such as meteorologists and oceanographers add additional breadth in understanding the atmospheric dynamics. Ecology is the study of the interactions between their environment. Ecologists might investigate the relationship between a population of organisms and some physical characteristic of their environment, such as concentration of a chemical. For example, an interdisciplinary analysis of an ecological system, being impacted by one or more stressors might include several related environmental science fields.
In an estuarine setting where a proposed industrial development could impact certain species by water and air pollution, biologists would describe the flora and fauna, chemists would analyze the transport of water pollutants to the marsh, physicists would calculate air pollution emissions and geologists would assist in understanding the marsh soils and bay muds. Environmental chemistry is the study of chemical alterations in the environment. Principal areas of study include water pollution; the topics of analysis include chemical degradation in the environment, multi-phase transport of chemicals, chemical effects upon biota. As an example study, consider the case of a leaking solvent tank which has entered the habitat soil of an endangered species of amphibian; as a method to resolve or understand the extent of soil contamination and subsurface transport of solvent, a computer model would be implemented. Chemists would characterize the molecular bonding of the solvent to the specific soil type, biologists would study the impacts upon soil arthr