France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy to educate Congregational ministers, it moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Its faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools.
While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven and forest and nature preserves throughout New England; the university's assets include an endowment valued at $29.4 billion as of October 2018, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in the world. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. All members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.
As of October 2018, 61 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists and 3 Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents, 19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U. S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the university. Its wealth and influence have led to Yale being reported as amoungst the most prestigious universities in the United States. Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School", passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701, while meeting in New Haven; the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregational ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, Rev. James Noyes II, James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb, Timothy Woodbridge, all alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell in Branford, Connecticut, to pool their books to form the school's library.
The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as "The Founders". Known as the "Collegiate School", the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, today considered the first president of Yale. Pierson lived in Killingworth; the school moved to Saybrook and Wethersfield. In 1716, it moved to Connecticut. Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather, the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as liberal, ecclesiastically lax, overly broad in Church polity; the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony's Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted the successful Boston born businessman Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Elihu "Eli" Yale, who had made a fortune through trade while living in Madras as a representative of the East India Company, donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum at the time.
Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to "Yale College".. Meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale; the 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, science and theology. It had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke's works and developed his original theology known as the "new divinity". In 1722 the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians and joined the Church of England, they were returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in 1745 and struggled to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, but he did not close the library. Other students found Deist books in the library. Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the peri
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Environmental Performance Index
The Environmental Performance Index is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies. This index was developed from the Pilot Environmental Performance Index, first published in 2002, designed to supplement the environmental targets set forth in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals; the EPI was preceded by the Environmental Sustainability Index, published between 1999 and 2005. Both indices were developed by Yale University and Columbia University in collaboration with the World Economic Forum and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission; the ESI was developed to evaluate environmental sustainability relative to the paths of other countries. Due to a shift in focus by the teams developing the ESI, the EPI uses outcome-oriented indicators working as a benchmark index that can be more used by policy makers, environmental scientists and the general public. Other leading indices like the Global Green Economy Index provide an integrated measure of the environmental and economic dynamics of national economies.
The GGEI utilizes EPI data for the environmental dimension of the index while providing a performance assessment of efficiency sectors, green innovation and national leadership around climate change. In January 2012 four EPI reports have been released — the Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index, the 2008, 2010, 2012 Environmental Performance Index. For the 2012 report, a new "Pilot Trend EPI" was developed to rank countries based on the environmental performance changes occurred during the last decade, allowing to establish which countries are improving and which are declining. In the 2014 EPI ranking, the top five countries were Switzerland, Australia and the Czech Republic; the bottom five countries in 2014 were Somalia, Haiti and Afghanistan. The United Kingdom was ranked in 12th place, Japan 26th place, the United States 33rd, Brazil 77th, China 118th, India came in 155th; the top five countries based on their 2012 Pilot Trend EPI were Estonia, Kuwait, El Salvador and Congo. EPI calculation variables change as can be seen below.
This should be taken into account when observing country performance through several reports, as it can lead to score and ranking changes founded just on methodology modification. Are similar to those from 2016, but have changed in details and some weights. Notably environmental Health is now weighted at 40% and Ecosystem Vitality at 60%. EPI 2018 full list is available online. On 23 January 2016, the 2016 Environmental Performance Index was released at the World Economic Forum, with 180 countries being ranked. Top 30 countries and score On 25 January 2014 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2014 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 178 countries. Top 30 countries and score On 25 January 2012 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2012 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 132 countries. Top 30 countries and score On 28 January 2010 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2010 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 163 countries.
The top performer for 2010 is Iceland due to its high scores on environmental public health, gets all of its power from renewable sources, its control of greenhouse gas emissions. The United States fell to the 61st position, as compared to 39th in the 2008 EPI, Brazil ranks 62nd, Russia 69th, China 121st, India ranks 123rd. Top 30 countries and score On 23 January 2008 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2008 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 149 countries; the environmental experts at both universities concluded that "analysis of the drivers underlying the 2008 rankings suggests that wealth is a major determinant of environmental success". Top 30 countries and score On 26 January 2006 Yale and Columbia University released the Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 133 countries, it was done in collaboration with the World Economic Forum and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. Top 30 countries and score Environmental Sustainability Index Environmental Vulnerability Index Green Stickered Energy Consumption Indexes Yale University – EPI – A collaboration between Yale and Columbia Universities Yale University – YCELP – Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 Environmental Performance Index
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring meaning in this case not artificial. The term is most applied to the Earth or some parts of Earth; this environment encompasses the interaction of all living species, climate and natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity. The concept of the natural environment can be distinguished as components: Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive civilized human intervention, including all vegetation, soil, rocks and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries and their nature. Universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air and climate, as well as energy, electric charge, magnetism, not originating from civilized human actions. In contrast to the natural environment is the built environment. In such areas where man has fundamentally transformed landscapes such as urban settings and agricultural land conversion, the natural environment is modified into a simplified human environment.
Acts which seem less extreme, such as building a mud hut or a photovoltaic system in the desert, the modified environment becomes an artificial one. Though many animals build things to provide a better environment for themselves, they are not human, hence beaver dams, the works of Mound-building termites, are thought of as natural. People find natural environments on Earth, naturalness varies in a continuum, from 100% natural in one extreme to 0% natural in the other. More we can consider the different aspects or components of an environment, see that their degree of naturalness is not uniform. If, for instance, in an agricultural field, the mineralogic composition and the structure of its soil are similar to those of an undisturbed forest soil, but the structure is quite different. Natural environment is used as a synonym for habitat. For instance, when we say that the natural environment of giraffes is the savanna. Earth science recognizes 4 spheres, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, the biosphere as correspondent to rocks, water and life respectively.
Some scientists include, as part of the spheres of the Earth, the cryosphere as a distinct portion of the hydrosphere, as well as the pedosphere as an active and intermixed sphere. Earth science, is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. There are four major disciplines in earth sciences, namely geography, geology and geodesy; these major disciplines use physics, biology and mathematics to build a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of Earth. The Earth's crust, or lithosphere, is the outermost solid surface of the planet and is chemically and mechanically different from underlying mantle, it has been generated by igneous processes in which magma cools and solidifies to form solid rock. Beneath the lithosphere lies the mantle, heated by the decay of radioactive elements; the mantle though solid is in a state of rheic convection. This convection process causes the lithospheric plates to move, albeit slowly; the resulting process is known as plate tectonics.
Volcanoes result from the melting of subducted crust material or of rising mantle at mid-ocean ridges and mantle plumes. Most water is found in another natural kind of body of water. An ocean is a major body of saline water, a component of the hydrosphere. 71% of the Earth's surface is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water, customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is over 3,000 meters deep. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand, nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. Though recognized as several'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean; the deep seabeds are more than half the Earth's surface, are among the least-modified natural environments. The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, other criteria: these divisions are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean.
A river is a natural watercourse freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. A few rivers flow into the ground and dry up before reaching another body of water; the water in a river is in a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is a wider floodplain shaped by waters over-topping the channel. Flood plains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel. Rivers are a part of the hydrological cycle. Water within a river is collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge and the release of water stored in glaciers and snowpacks. Small rivers may be termed by several other names, including stream and brook, their current is confined within a stream banks. Streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity; the study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology. A lake is a terrain feature, a body of water, localized to the bottom of basin.
A body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, is not part
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, includes the factors that have an influence in their survival and evolution. A biophysical environment can vary in scale from microscopic to global in extent, it can be subdivided according to its attributes. Examples include the marine environment, the atmospheric environment and the terrestrial environment; the number of biophysical environments is countless, given that each living organism has its own environment. The term environment can refer to a singular global environment in relation to humanity, or a local biophysical environment, e.g. the UK's Environment Agency. All life that has survived must have adapted to conditions of its environment. Temperature, humidity, soil nutrients, etc. all influence any species, within any environment. However life in turn modifies, in various forms, its conditions; some long term modifications along the history of our planet have been significant, such as the incorporation of oxygen to the atmosphere.
This process consisted in the breakdown of carbon dioxide by anaerobic microorganisms that used the carbon in their metabolism and released the oxygen to the atmosphere. This led to the existence of the great oxygenation event. Other interactions are more immediate and simple, such as the smoothing effect that forests have on the temperature cycle, compared to neighboring unforested areas. Environmental science is the study of the interactions within the biophysical environment. Part of this scientific discipline is the investigation of the effect of human activity on the environment. Ecology, a sub-discipline of biology and a part of environmental sciences, is mistaken as a study of human induced effects on the environment. Environmental studies is a broader academic discipline, the systematic study of interaction of humans with their environment, it is a broad field of study that includes the natural environment, built environments and social environments. Environmentalism is a broad social and philosophical movement that, in a large part, seeks to minimise and compensate the negative effect of human activity on the biophysical environment.
The issues of concern for environmentalists relate to the natural environment with the more important ones being climate change, species extinction and old growth forest loss. One of the studies related include employing Geographic Information Science to study the biophysical environment. Biophysics subject to the context List of conservation topics List of environmental issues Lists of environmental topics Miller, G. Tyler. Environmental science. California: Wadsworth. ISBN 0-534-21588-2. McCallum, Malcolm L.. "Google search patterns suggest declining interest in the environment". Biodiversity and Conservation. Doi:10.1007/s10531-013-0476-6. Media related to Environment at Wikimedia Commons
Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs
The Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs is the ministry in the government of France that handles France's foreign relations. Since 1855, its headquarters has been located on the Quai d'Orsay, 37. "Quai d'Orsay" is used as a metonym for the ministry. Its cabinet minister, the Minister of Europe and Foreign Affairs is responsible for the foreign relations of France; the current minister, Jean-Yves Le Drian, was appointed in May 2017. In 1547, secretaries to the King became specialized, writing correspondence to foreign governments, negotiating peace treaties; the four French secretaries of state where foreign relations were divided by region, in 1589, became centralized with one becoming first secretary responsible for international relations. The Ancien Régime position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs became Foreign Minister around 1723, was renamed "Minister of Foreign Affairs" in 1791 after the French Revolution. All ministerial positions were abolished in 1794 by the National Convention and re-established with the Directory.
For a brief period in the 1980s, the office was retitled Minister for External Relations. As of 17 May 2017, the ministry is designated the Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs and led by Jean-Yves Le Drian. There are multiple services under its authority, along with that of some other ministers. Under the authority of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development, that of Cooperation and European Affairs, that of Foreign and European Affairs, there are numerous services directly related to the ministers. Here is a list of those services; the ministers' cabinet The office of cabinets, which gathers a personnel in charge of the administrative and logistics aspects of the three ministers' cabinets The budget control service General inspection of foreign affairs The prospective office The Protocole, upon which the President's protocole cell relies on The Crisis management Department 140 Ministries of Foreign Affairs on the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs website. Official site of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Official treaty database of France Dictionnaire historique des institutions, mœurs et coutumes de la France, Adolphe Chéruel, L. Hachette et cie, 1855 "Ministries 1700–1870", Rulers.org