Indirect land use change impacts of biofuels
The indirect land use change impacts of biofuels known as ILUC, relates to the unintended consequence of releasing more carbon emissions due to land-use changes around the world induced by the expansion of croplands for ethanol or biodiesel production in response to the increased global demand for biofuels. As farmers worldwide respond to higher crop prices in order to maintain the global food supply-and-demand balance, pristine lands are cleared to replace the food crops that were diverted elsewhere to biofuels' production; because natural lands, such as rainforests and grasslands, store carbon in their soil and biomass as plants grow each year, clearance of wilderness for new farms translates to a net increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Due to this change in the carbon stock of the soil and the biomass, indirect land use change has consequences in the greenhouse gas balance of a biofuel. Other authors have argued that indirect land use changes produce other significant social and environmental impacts, affecting biodiversity, water quality, food prices and supply, land tenure, worker migration, community and cultural stability.
The estimates of carbon intensity for a given biofuel depend on the assumptions regarding several variables. As of 2008, multiple full life cycle studies had found that corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol and Brazilian sugarcane ethanol produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline. None of these studies, considered the effects of indirect land-use changes, though land use impacts were acknowledged, estimation was considered too complex and difficult to model. A controversial paper published in February 2008 in Sciencexpress by a team led by Searchinger from Princeton University concluded that such effects offset the direct effects of both corn and cellulosic ethanol and that Brazilian sugarcane performed better, but still resulted in a small carbon debt. After the Searchinger team paper, estimation of carbon emissions from ILUC, together with the food vs. fuel debate, became one of the most contentious issues relating to biofuels, debated in the popular media, scientific journals, op-eds and public letters from the scientific community, the ethanol industry, both American and Brazilian.
This controversy intensified in April 2009 when the California Air Resources Board set rules that included ILUC impacts to establish the California Low-Carbon Fuel Standard that entered into force in 2011. In May 2009 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency released a notice of proposed rulemaking for implementation of the 2007 modification of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA's proposed regulations included ILUC, causing additional controversy among ethanol producers. EPA's February 3, 2010 final rule incorporated ILUC based on modelling, improved over the initial estimates; the UK Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation program requires the Renewable Fuels Agency to report potential indirect impacts of biofuel production, including indirect land use change or changes to food and other commodity prices. A July 2008 RFA study, known as the Gallager Review, found several risks and uncertainties, that the "quantification of GHG emissions from indirect land-use change requires subjective assumptions and contains considerable uncertainty", required further examination to properly incorporate indirect effects into calculation methodologies.
A cautious approach was followed by the European Union. In December 2008 the European Parliament adopted more stringent sustainability criteria for biofuels and directed the European Commission to develop a methodology to factor in GHG emissions from indirect land use change. Before 2008, several full life cycle studies had found that corn ethanol reduced transport-related greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007 a University of California, Berkeley team led by Farrel evaluated six previous studies, concluding that corn ethanol reduced GHG emissions by only 13 percent. However, 20 to 30 percent reduction for corn ethanol, 85 to 85 percent for cellulosic ethanol, both figures estimated by Wang from Argonne National Laboratory, are more cited. Wang reviewed 22 studies conducted between 1979 and 2005, ran simulations with Argonne's GREET model; these studies accounted for direct land use changes. Several studies of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol showed that sugarcane as feedstock reduces GHG by 86 to 90 percent given no significant land use change.
Estimates of carbon intensity depend on crop productivity, agricultural practices, power sources for ethanol distilleries and the energy efficiency of the distillery. None of these studies considered ILUC, due to estimation difficulties. Preliminary estimates by Delucchi from the University of California, suggested that carbon released by new lands converted to agricultural use was a large percentage of life-cycle emissions. In 2008 Timothy Searchinger, a lawyer from Environmental Defense Fund, concluded that ILUC affects the life cycle assessment and that instead of saving, both corn and cellulosic ethanol increased carbon emissions as compared to gasoline by 93 and 50 percent respectively. Ethanol from Brazilian sugarcane performed better, recovering initial carbon emissions in 4 years, while U. S. corn ethanol required cellulosic ethanol required a 52 years payback period. The study limited the analysis a 30-year period, assuming that land conversion emits 25 percent of the carbon stored in soils and all carbon in plants cleared for cultivation.
Brazil and India were considered among the overseas locations where land use change would occur as a result of diverting U. S. corn cropland, it was assumed that new cropland in each of these regions correspond to different types of forest, savanna or grassland based on the historical p
Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields and managed woods. It has been defined as "the total of arrangements and inputs that people undertake in a certain land cover type." Land use practices vary across the world. The United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization Water Development Division explains that "Land use concerns the products and/or benefits obtained from use of the land as well as the land management actions carried out by humans to produce those products and benefits." As of the early 1990s, about 13% of the Earth was considered arable land, with 26% in pasture, 32% forests and woodland, 1.5% urban areas. Land change modeling can be used to assess future shifts in land use; as Albert Guttenberg wrote many years ago, "'Land use' is a key term in the language of city planning." Political jurisdictions will undertake land-use planning and regulate the use of land in an attempt to avoid land-use conflicts.
Land use plans are implemented through land division and use ordinances and regulations, such as zoning regulations. Management consulting firms and non-governmental organizations will seek to influence these regulations before they are codified. In colonial America, few regulations existed to control the use of land, due to the endless amounts of it; as society shifted from rural to urban, public land regulation became important to city governments trying to control industry and housing within their boundaries. The first zoning ordinance was passed in New York City in 1916, and, by the 1930s, most states had adopted zoning laws. In the 1970s, concerns about the environment and historic preservation led to further regulation. Today, federal and local governments regulate growth and development through statutory law; the majority of controls on land, stem from the actions of private developers and individuals. Three typical situations bringing such private entities into the court system are: suits brought by one neighbor against another.
In these situations, judicial decisions and enforcement of private land-use arrangements can reinforce public regulation, achieve forms and levels of control that regulatory zoning cannot. Two major federal laws have been passed in the last half century that limit the use of land significantly; these are the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The US Department of Agriculture has identified six major types of land use in the US. Acreage statistics for each type of land use in the contiguous 48 states in 2017 were as follows: Pasture/range: 654 M Forest: 538.6 M Cropland: 391.5 M Special use: 168.8 M Miscellaneous: 68.9 M Urban: 69.4 M Land use and land management practices have a major impact on natural resources including water, nutrients and animals. Land use information can be used to develop solutions for natural resource management issues such as salinity and water quality. For instance, water bodies in a region, deforested or having erosion will have different water quality than those in areas that are forested.
Forest gardening, a plant-based food production system, is believed to be the oldest form of land use in the world. The major effect of land use on land cover since 1750 has been deforestation of temperate regions. More recent significant effects of land use include urban sprawl, soil erosion, soil degradation and desertification. Land-use change, together with use of fossil fuels, are the major anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide, a dominant greenhouse gas. According to a report by the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization, land degradation has been exacerbated where there has been an absence of any land use planning, or of its orderly execution, or the existence of financial or legal incentives that have led to the wrong land use decisions, or one-sided central planning leading to over-utilization of the land resources - for instance for immediate production at all costs; as a consequence the result has been misery for large segments of the local population and destruction of valuable ecosystems.
Such narrow approaches should be replaced by a technique for the planning and management of land resources, integrated and holistic and where land users are central. This will ensure the long-term quality of the land for human use, the prevention or resolution of social conflicts related to land use, the conservation of ecosystems of high biodiversity value; the urban growth boundary is one form of land-use regulation. For example, Oregon is required to have an urban growth boundary which contains at least 20,000 acres of vacant land. Additionally, Oregon restricts the development of farmland; the regulations are controversial, but an economic analysis concluded that farmland appreciated to the other land. Land-use and land-cover change defined at Encyclopedia of Earth Land Use Law News Alert Land Use Law by Prof. Daniel R. Mandelker The Relationship Between Land Use Decisions and the Impacts on Our Water and Natural Resources Land Use Accountability Project The Center for Public Integrity Schindler's Land Use Page Land Policy Institute at Michigan State University Land Use, Cornell University Law School
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d
A primer or undercoat is a preparatory coating put on materials before painting. Priming ensures better adhesion of paint to the surface, increases paint durability, provides additional protection for the material being painted. A primer consists of 60 % -80 % solvent and 2 % -5 % additive agent; some primer contains polyethylene, for better durability. Primer is a paint product that allows finishing paint to adhere much better than if it were used alone. For this purpose, primer is designed to adhere to surfaces and to form a binding layer, better prepared to receive the paint; because primers do not need to be engineered to form a durable finished surface, they can instead be engineered to have improved filling and binding properties with the material underneath. Sometimes this is achieved by chemistry, as in the case of aluminium primer, but more this is achieved through controlling the primer's physical properties, such as porosity and hygroscopy. In practice primer is used when painting many kinds of porous materials, such as concrete and wood.
Priming is mandatory if the material will be exposed to the elements. Priming gypsum board is standard practice with new construction because it seals the wall and aids in preventing mold. Primers can be used for dirty surfaces which cannot be cleaned, or before painting light colours over existing dark colours. Primers can be tinted to a close match with the colour of the finishing paint. If the finishing paint is a deep colour, tinting the primer can reduce the number of layers of finishing paint that are necessary for good uniformity across the painted surface. Primers are used to hide joints and seams to give a finished look. There may be a maximum time-frame within which a topcoat should be applied over the primer after the primer dries, in order to achieve maximum performance. Depending on the primer, the next coat of paint should be applied as as 24 hours or as long as two weeks. Painting after the suggested time-frame may cause performance issues depending on the specific situation. Painters apply the finish coat of paint before the primer cures in order to increase adhesion of the topcoat to the primer.
Recoat time-frame is most a more critical factor in exterior application because of the more extreme climatic exposure. Using a primer on wood before painting is important for several reasons. First, wood is porous and will absorb the solvent from paint, drying the paint prematurely; because most paints undergo chemical reactions during the process of curing, they depend on water or solvent being evaporated rather than being absorbed by the underlying material. A layer of primer will help the paint to undergo its complete curing cycle. Second, without a primer, several layers of paint can be necessary to obscure the wood grain and ensure colour, and lastly, if wood is exposed to moisture, a thin layer of paint will still be water permeable. The end result will be warped parts and dry rot. Primer adds to the waterproofing effect of the paint. Quality primers are comparable in price to finish paints, their cost influenced by the quality of binders that they use; some specialty primers are in fact quite costly.
Primers are not used for a wood stain treatment, designed to show the wood grain. On soft woods, a wood conditioner allows for more colouring of stain. Sealers are designed to promote uniform finishes, they are designed with qualities that promote quick drying and they have high isocynate content and can not be sanded. Some metals, such as untreated aluminium, require a primer. A primer designed for metal is still recommended if a part is to be exposed to moisture. Once water seeps through to the bare metal, oxidation will begin. Metal primers might contain additional materials to protect against corrosion, such as sacrificial zinc. Metal hydroxides/oxides do not provide a solid surface for the paint to adhere to, paint will come off in large flakes. Using a primer will provide extra insurance against such a scenario. An additional reason for using a primer on metal could be the poor condition of the surface. A steel part can be rusty, for example. Although the metal can be cleaned by blasting, when this is not possible special kinds of primer can be used that chemically convert rust to the solid metal salts.
Though such a surface is still lacking in comparison to new metal, it is much better than weak, porous rust. Painting and gluing aluminium is important in the aircraft industry, which uses toxic zinc chromate primers and chromating to add the necessary adhesion properties. Using a primer on surfaces made of plastic is only necessary when making a drastic change of colour, because most household plastics are not porous and are not damaged by moisture. A primer will reduce the number of layers of paint necessary to cover the previous colour, will help the paint make a thorough bond with the surface being painted; because most paints and primers designed to be used for painting plastics are not water based, an important point for choosing a primer for plastic is making sure the primer's propellant or solvent will not dissolve or warp the plastic part itself For this reason, most manufacturers recommend that both the primer and paint should be tested on a less visible loca
Organotin compounds or stannanes are chemical compounds based on tin with hydrocarbon substituents. Organotin chemistry is part of the wider field of organometallic chemistry; the first organotin compound was diethyltin diiodide, discovered by Edward Frankland in 1849. The area grew in the 1900s after the discovery of the Grignard reagents, which are useful for producing Sn-C bonds; the area remains rich with many applications in industry and continuing activity in the research laboratory. Organotin compounds are classified according to their oxidation states. Tin compounds are more useful; the tetraorgano derivatives are invariably tetrahedral. Compounds of the type SnRR'RR' have been resolved into individual enantiomers. Organotin chlorides have the formula R4−nSnCln for values of n up to 3. Bromides and fluorides are known but less important; these compounds are known for many R groups. They are always tetrahedral; the tri- and dihalides form adducts with good Lewis bases such as pyridine. The fluorides tend to associate such that dimethyltin difluoride forms sheet-like polymers.
Di- and triorganotin halides, e.g. tributyltin chloride, exhibit toxicities approaching that of hydrogen cyanide. Organotin hydrides have the formula R4−nSnHn for values of n up to 4; the parent member of this series, stannane, is an unstable colourless gas. Stability is correlated with the number of organic substituents. Tributyltin hydride is used as a source of hydride radical in some organic reactions. Organotin oxides and hydroxides are common products from the hydrolysis of organotin halides. Unlike the corresponding derivatives of silicon and germanium, tin oxides and hydroxides adopt structures with penta- and hexacoordinated tin centres for the diorgano- and monoorgano derivatives; the group Sn-O-Sn is called a stannoxane. Structurally simplest of the oxides and hydroxides are the triorganotin derivatives. A commercially important triorganotin hydroxides is the acaricide Cyhexatin, 3SnOH; such triorganotin hydroxides exist in equilibrium with the distannoxanes: 2 R3SnOH ⇌ R3SnOSnR3 + H2OWith only two organic substituents on each Sn centre, the diorganotin oxides and hydroxides are structurally more complex than the triorgano derivatives.
The simple geminal diols and monomeric stannanones are unknown. Diorganotin oxides are polymers except when the organic substituents are bulky, in which case cyclic trimers or, in the case of R = CH2 dimers, with Sn3O3 and Sn2O2 rings; the distannoxanes exist as dimers of dimers with the formula 2O2 wherein the X groups can be terminal or bridging. The hydrolysis of the monoorganotin trihalides has the potential to generate stannanoic acids, RSnO2H; as for the diorganotin oxides/hydroxides, the monoorganotin species form structurally complex because of the occurrence of dehydration/hydration, aggregation. Illustrative is the hydrolysis of butyltin trichloride to give 2+. Unlike carbon analogues but somewhat like silicon compounds, tin can be coordinated to five and six atoms instead of the regular four; these hypercoordinated compounds have electronegative substituents. Numerous examples of hypervalency are provided by the organotin oxides and associated carboxylates and related pseudohalide derivatives.
The organotin halides for adducts, e.g. Me2SnCl2; the all-organic penta- and hexaorganostannates have been characterized, while in the subsequent year a six-coordinated tetraorganotin compound was reported. A crystal structure of room-temperature stable all-carbon pentaorganostannane was reported as the lithium salt with this structure: In this distorted trigonal bipyramidal structure the carbon to tin bond lengths are larger than regular C-Sn bonds reflecting its hypervalent nature; some reactions of triorganotin halides implicate a role for R3Sn+ intermediates. Such cations are analogous to carbocations, they have been characterized crystallographically when the organic substituents are large, such as 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl. Tin radicals, with the formula R3Sn, are called stannyl radicals, they are invoked as intermediates in certain atom-transfer reactions. For example, tributyltin hydride serves as a useful source of "hydrogen atoms" because of the stability of the tributytin radical. Organotin compounds are somewhat rare.
Compounds with the empirical formula SnR2 are somewhat fragile and exist as rings or polymers when R is not bulky. The polymers, called polystannanes, have the formula n. In principle divalent tin compounds might be expected to form analogues of alkenes with a formal double bond. Indeed, compounds with the formula Sn2R4, called distannenes, are known for certain organic substituents; the Sn centres tend to be pyramidal. Monomeric compounds with the formula SnR2, analogues of carbenes are known in a few cases. One example is Sn2, where R is the bulky CH2; such species reversibly dimerize to the distannylene upon crystallization: 2 R2Sn ⇌ 2Stannenes, compounds with tin–carbon double bonds, are exemplified by derivatives of stannabenzene. Stannoles, structural analogs of cyclopentadiene, exhibit little C-Sn double bond character. Compounds of Sn are rare and only observed with bulky ligands. One prominent family of cages is accessed by pyrolysis of the 2,6-diethylphenyl-substituted tristannylene 3, which affords the cubane-type cluster and a prismane.
These cages contain Sn and have the formula n where n = 8, 10. A stanny
Acrylic paint is a fast-drying paint made of pigment suspended in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted with water, or modified with acrylic gels, mediums, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor, a gouache or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media. Otto Röhm invented acrylic resin, transformed into acrylic paint; as early as 1934, the first usable acrylic resin dispersion was developed by German chemical company BASF, patented by Rohm and Haas. The synthetic paint was first used in the 1940s, combining some of the properties of oil and watercolor. Between 1946 and 1949, Leonard Bocour and Sam Golden invented a solution acrylic paint under the brand Magna paint; these were mineral spirit-based paints. Acrylics were made commercially available in the 1950s. Following that development, Golden came up with a waterborne acrylic paint called "Aquatec".
In 1953, Jose L. Gutierrez produced Politec Acrylic Artists' Colors in Mexico, Henry Levinson of Cincinnati-based Permanent Pigments Co. produced Liquitex colors. These two product lines were the first acrylic emulsion artists' paints. Water-based acrylic paints were subsequently sold as latex house paints, as latex is the technical term for a suspension of polymer microparticles in water. Interior latex house paints tend to be a combination of binder, filler and water. Exterior latex house paints may be a co-polymer blend, but the best exterior water-based paints are 100% acrylic, due to elasticity and other factors. Vinyl, costs half of what 100% acrylic resins cost, polyvinyl acetate is cheaper, so paint companies make many different combinations of them to match the market. Soon after the water-based acrylic binders were introduced as house paints and companies alike began to explore the potential of the new binders. Water-soluble artists' acrylic paints were sold commercially by Liquitex beginning in the 1950s, with modern high-viscosity paints becoming available in the early'60s.
In 1963, Rowney was the first manufacturer to introduce artist's acrylic paints in Europe, under the brand name "Cryla". Before the 19th century, artists mixed their own paints, which allowed them to achieve the desired color and thickness, to control the use of fillers, if any. While suitable media and raw pigments are available for the individual production of acrylic paint, hand mixing may not be practical because of the fast drying time and other technical issues, such as the necessity to combine several polymers, as well as surfactants, dispersants and stabilisers in the correct amounts and order. Acrylic painters can modify the appearance, flexibility and other characteristics of the paint surface by using acrylic mediums or by adding water. Watercolor and oil painters use various mediums, but the range of acrylic mediums is much greater. Acrylics have the ability to bond to many different surfaces, mediums can be used to modify their binding characteristics. Acrylics can be used on paper, canvas and a range of other materials, however their use on engineered woods such as medium-density fiberboard can be problematic because of the porous nature of those surfaces.
In these cases it is recommended. Acrylics can be applied in thin layers or washes to create effects that resemble watercolors and other water-based mediums, they can be used to build thick layers of paint—gel and molding paste are sometimes used to create paintings with relief features. Acrylic paints are used in hobbies such as train, car and human models. People who make such models use acrylic paint to build facial features on dolls, or raised details on other types of models. Wet acrylic paint is removed from paint brushes and skin with water, whereas oil paints require the use of a hydrocarbon. Acrylic paints are the most common paints used in grattage, a surrealist technique that became popular with the advent of acrylic paint. Acrylics are used for this purpose because they scrape or peel from a surface. Acrylic artists' paints may be thinned with water and used as washes in the manner of watercolor paints, but unlike watercolor the washes are not rehydratable once dry. For this reason, acrylics do not lend themselves to the color lifting techniques of gum arabic-based watercolor paints.
Acrylic paints with gloss or matte finishes are common. Some brands exhibit a range of finishes; as with oils, pigment amounts and particle size or shape can affect the paint sheen. Matting agents can be added during manufacture to dull the finish. If desired, the artist can mix different media with their paints and use topcoats or varnishes to alter or unify sheen; when dry, acrylic paint is non-removable from a solid surface if it adheres to the surface. Water or mild solvents do not re-solubilize it, although isopropyl alcohol can lift some fresh paint films off. Toluene and acetone can remove paint films, but they do not lift paint stains well and are not selective; the use of a solvent to remove paint may result in removal of all of the paint layers. Oils and warm, soapy water can remove acrylic paint from skin. An acrylic sizing should be used to prime canvas in preparation for painting with acrylic paints, to prevent Support Induced Discoloration. Acrylic paint contains surfactants that can pull
Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment. Companies use these ambiguous terms to promote goods and services, sometimes with additional, more specific certifications, such as ecolabels, their overuse can be referred to as greenwashing. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO 14020 and ISO 14024 to establish principles and procedures for environmental labels and declarations that certifiers and eco-labellers should follow. In particular, these standards relate to the avoidance of financial conflicts of interest, the use of sound scientific methods and accepted test procedures, openness and transparency in the setting of standards. Products located in members of the European Union can use the EU's Eco-label pending the EU's approval. EMAS is another EU label that signifies whether an organization management is green as opposed to the product.
Germany uses the Blue Angel, based on Germany's standard. In the United States, environmental marketing claims require caution. Ambiguous titles such as environmentally friendly can be confusing without a specific definition; the United States Environmental Protection Agency has deemed some ecolabels misleading in determining whether a product is "green". In Canada, one label is that of the Environmental Choice Program. Created in 1988, only products approved by the program are allowed to display the label; the Energy Rating Label is a Type III label that provides information on "energy service per unit of energy consumption". It was first created in 1986, but negotiations led to a redesign in 2000; the environmentally friendly trends are marketed with a different color association, using the color blue for clean air and clean water, as opposed to green in western cultures. Japanese and Korean built hybrid vehicles use the color blue instead of green all throughout the vehicle, use the word "blue" indiscriminately.
Energy Star is a program with a primary goal of increasing energy efficiency and indirectly decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. Energy Star has different sections for different nations or areas, including the United States, the European Union and Australia; the program, founded in the United States exists in Canada, New Zealand, Taiwan