Philosophy of healthcare
The philosophy of healthcare is the study of the ethics and people which constitute the maintenance of health for human beings. For the most part, the philosophy of healthcare is best approached as a component of human social structures. This perennial concern is especially prominent in modern liberalism, wherein health has been understood as the foundational good necessary for public life. The philosophy of healthcare is primarily concerned with the following elemental questions, is healthcare a fundamental right of all people. What should be the basis for calculating the cost of treatments, hospital stays, how can healthcare best be administered to the greatest number of people. What are the parameters for clinical trials and quality assurance. Who, if anybody, can decide when a patient is in need of comfort measures, the most important question of all is what is health. Unless this question is addressed any debate about healthcare will be vague, for example, what exactly is a health care intervention.
What differentiates healthcare from engineering or teaching, for example, is health care about creating autonomy or acting in peoples best interests. A philosophy of anything requires baseline philosophical questions, as asked, for example, the purpose and meaning of healthcare philosophy is to consolidate the abundance of information regarding the ever-changing fields of biotechnology and nursing. The ethical and/or moral premises of healthcare are complex and intricate, to consolidate such a large segment of moral philosophy, it becomes important to focus on what separates healthcare ethics from other forms of morality. And on the whole, it can be said that healthcare itself is an institution within society. With that said, healthcare ought to be treated differently from other goods in a society. It is an institution of which we are all a part whether we like it or not, at some point in every persons life, a decision has to be made regarding ones healthcare. Where should he/she go to get it, and it is this last question which poses the biggest dilemma facing a person.
After weighing all of the costs and benefits of her healthcare situation, more than basic economic issues are at stake in this conundrum. In fact, a person must decide whether or not his/her life is ending or if it is worth salvaging, of course, in instances where the patient is unable to decide due to medical complications, like a coma, the decision must come from elsewhere. And defining that elsewhere has proven to be a difficult endeavor in healthcare philosophy
It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Environmental degradation is one of the ten threats officially cautioned by the High-level Panel on Threats, environmental degradation is of many types. When natural habitats are destroyed or natural resources are depleted, the environment is degraded, efforts to counteract this problem include environmental protection and environmental resources management. One major component of environmental degradation is the depletion of the resource of water on Earth. Approximately only 2. 5% of all of the water on Earth is fresh water, 69% of the fresh water is frozen in ice caps located on Antarctica and Greenland, so only 30% of the 2. 5% of fresh water is available for consumption. Fresh water is an important resource, since life on Earth is ultimately dependent on it. Water scarcity is a problem due to many foreseen issues in the future, including population growth, increased urbanization, higher standards of living.
Climate change affects the Earths water supply in a number of ways. Transpiration from plants can be affected by a rise in atmospheric CO2, which can decrease their use of water, warmer winter temperatures cause a decrease in snowpack, which can result in diminished water resources during summer. Sea-level rise may consequently be caused by a depletion of groundwater, a rise in air temperature results in a rise in water temperature, which is very significant in water degradation, as the water would become more susceptible to bacterial growth. It is generally expected that, on average, global precipitation will increase, with some areas receiving increases, the distribution of precipitation across the planet is very uneven, causing constant variations in water availability in respective locations. Changes in precipitation affect the timing and magnitude of floods and droughts, shift runoff processes, vegetation patterns and growth rates will be directly affected by shifts in precipitation amount and distribution, which will in turn affect agriculture as well as natural ecosystems.
Groundwater reserves will be depleted, and the water has a greater chance of being of poor quality from saline or contaminants on the land surface. The human population on Earth is expanding rapidly which goes hand in hand with the degradation of the environment at large measures, humanitys appetite for needs is disarranging the environments natural equilibrium. Production industries are venting smoke and discharging chemicals that are polluting water resources, the smoke that is emitted into the atmosphere holds detrimental gases such as carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide. The high levels of pollution in the atmosphere form layers that are absorbed into the atmosphere. Organic compounds such as chlorofluorocarbons have generated an unwanted opening in the ozone layer, the available fresh water being affected by the climate is being stretched across an ever-increasing global population. Even though some areas may see an increase in supply from an uneven distribution of precipitation increase
Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgements of sentiment. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as critical reflection on art, in modern English, the term aesthetic can refer to a set of principles underlying the works of a particular art movement or theory, one speaks, for example, of the Cubist aesthetic. The word aesthetic is derived from the Greek αἰσθητικός, which in turn was derived from αἰσθάνομαι, for some, aesthetics is considered a synonym for the philosophy of art since Hegel, while others insist that there is a significant distinction between these closely related fields. In practice, aesthetic judgement refers to the sensory contemplation or appreciation of an object, philosophical aesthetics has not only to speak about art and to produce judgments about art works, but has to give a definition of what art is.
Art is an entity for philosophy, because art deals with the senses. Hence, there are two different conceptions of art in aesthetics, art as knowledge or art as action, any aesthetic doctrines that guided the production and interpretation of prehistoric art are mostly unknown. Western aesthetics usually refers to Greek philosophers as the earliest source of aesthetic considerations. Plato believed in beauty as a form in which beautiful objects partake and he felt that beautiful objects incorporated proportion and unity among their parts. Similarly, in the Metaphysics, Aristotle found that the elements of beauty were order, symmetry. From the late 17th to the early 20th century Western aesthetics underwent a revolution into what is often called modernism. German and British thinkers emphasized beauty as the key component of art and of the aesthetic experience, and saw art as necessarily aiming at absolute beauty. For Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten aesthetics is the science of the experiences, a younger sister of logic.
For Immanuel Kant the aesthetic experience of beauty is a judgment of a subjective but similar human truth, beauty cannot be reduced to any more basic set of features. For Friedrich Schiller aesthetic appreciation of beauty is the most perfect reconciliation of the sensual and rational parts of human nature, for Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, the philosophy of art is the organon of philosophy concerning the relation between man and nature. So aesthetics began now to be the name for the philosophy of art, Friedrich von Schlegel, August Wilhelm Schlegel, Friedrich Schleiermacher and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel gave lectures on aesthetics as philosophy of art after 1800. For Hegel, all culture is a matter of absolute spirit coming to be manifest to itself, stage by stage, Art is the first stage in which the absolute spirit is manifest immediately to sense-perception, and is thus an objective rather than subjective revelation of beauty. It is thus for Schopenhauer one way to fight the suffering, the British were largely divided into intuitionist and analytic camps
Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence or reality as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Although ontology as an enterprise is highly hypothetical, it has practical application in information science and technology. Some philosophers, notably of the Platonic school, contend that all refer to existent entities. Other philosophers contend that nouns do not always name entities, between these poles of realism and nominalism, stand a variety of other positions. An ontology may give an account of which refer to entities, which do not, why. Principal questions of ontology include, What can be said to exist, into what categories, if any, can we sort existing things. What are the meanings of being, what are the various modes of being of entities. Various philosophers have provided different answers to these questions, one common approach involves dividing the extant subjects and predicates into groups called categories. Such an understanding of ontological categories, however, is merely taxonomic, what does it mean for a being to be.
Is existence a genus or general class that is divided up by specific differences. Which entities, if any, are fundamental, how do the properties of an object relate to the object itself. What features are the essential, as opposed to merely accidental attributes of a given object, how many levels of existence or ontological levels are there. Can one give an account of what it means to say that an object exists. Can one give an account of what it means to say that an entity exists. What constitutes the identity of an object, when does an object go out of existence, as opposed to merely changing. Do beings exist other than in the modes of objectivity and subjectivity, i. e. is the subject/object split of modern philosophy inevitable. e. Being, that which is, which is the present participle of the verb εἰμί, eimí, i. e. to be, I am, and -λογία, -logia, i. e. logical discourse. The first occurrence in English of ontology as recorded by the OED came in a work by Gideon Harvey, Archelogia philosophica nova, or, New principles of Philosophy
Sandworm is a site-specific art installation and a fusion of environmental art and architecture by Finnish architect Marco Casagrande situated on the dunes of Wenduine beach in Belgium. The curvaceous structure is entirely from willow. The fifty-metre long organic structure stretches out between the dunes like a wooden worm. It is part of the Beaufort Triennial of Contemporary art, the installation is an organic shell built from willow branches woven through arches of various heights placed at a length of 45 meters and a height and width of 10 meters. It falls within a long tradition of willow weaving normally more modest in scale. Sandworm has been created in an undulating shape upon the beaches of Wenduine town. From a distance, the mounds of tree remnants suggest the form of a massive creature, up close, visitors can investigate the textured surface of the structure, and they are invited to interact with the sculpture by walking through the interior. The space is used for picnics, relaxation and “post industrial meditation”, building on Monet’s beliefs that it is only the surrounding atmosphere that gives subjects their true value, Casagrande works in harmony with the air and light in this architectural piece.
Casagrande describes the work as “weak architecture” – a human-made structure that wishes to part of nature through flexibility. The visitors are describing the Sandworm as a willow cathedral finely tuned to celebrate the site specific conditions of the Wenduine tidal beaches. The building must grow out of the location, it must react to its environment, it must be a reflection of life and be itself, to be part of this, man must be weak
Philosophy and literature
Philosophy and literature involves the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes, and the philosophical treatment of issues raised by literature. Strictly speaking, the philosophy of literature is a branch of aesthetics, much of aesthetic philosophy has traditionally focused on the plastic arts or music, however, at the expense of the verbal arts. In fact, much discussion of aesthetic philosophy seeks to establish criteria of artistic quality that are indifferent to the subject matter being depicted. Since all literary works, almost by definition, contain notional content, the very existence of narrative raises philosophical issues. In narrative, a creator can embody, and readers be led to imagine, fictional characters, the ability of the human mind to imagine, and even to experience empathy with, these fictional characters is itself revealing about the nature of the human mind. Some fiction can be thought of as a sort of an experiment in ethics, it describes fictional characters, their motives, their actions.
It is in light that some philosophers have chosen various narrative forms to teach their philosophy. Plato, for instance, believed that culture and even the lyrics of popular music had a strong impact on the ethical outlook of its consumers. In The Republic, Plato displays a strong hostility to the contents of the culture of his period. More recently, philosophers of various stripes have taken different, in more recent years, these epistemological issues have turned instead to an extended discussion of words and meaning, can language in fact bridge the barrier between minds. This cluster of issues concerning the meaning of language and of writings sometimes goes by the name of the linguistic turn, as such and tools developed for literary criticism and literary theory rose to greater prominence in Western philosophy of the late twentieth century. Philosophers of various stripes paid more attention to literature than their predecessors did, some sought to examine the question of whether it was in fact truly possible to communicate using words, whether it was possible for an authors intended meaning to be communicated to a reader.
Others sought to use literary works as examples of contemporary culture, Literary works pose issues concerning truth and the philosophy of language. In educated opinion, at least, it is reputed as true that Sherlock Holmes lived in London. It is considered true that Samuel Pepys lived in London, yet Sherlock Holmes never lived anywhere at all, he is a fictional character. Samuel Pepys, contrarily, is judged to have been a real person and these two statements would appear to belong to two different orders of truth. A number of poets have written poems on themes. The cosmogony of Hesiod and the De Rerum Natura of Lucretius are important philosophical poems, the genre of epic poetry was used to teach philosophy
Philosophy of music
Philosophy of music is the study of. fundamental questions about the nature of music and our experience of it. The philosophical study of music has many connections with philosophical questions in metaphysics and aesthetics, some basic questions in the philosophy of music are, What is the definition of music. What is the relationship between music and mind, what is the relationship between music and language. What does musical history reveal to us about the world, what is the connection between music and emotions. What is meaning in relation to music, explications of the concept of music usually begin with the idea that music is organized sound. There are many different ways of denoting the fundamental aspects of music which are more specific than sound, popular aspects include melody, rhythm, however, noise music may consist mainly of noise. Musique concrète often consists only of sound samples of non-musical nature, ambient music may consist of recordings of wildlife or nature. There was intense debate over absolute music versus program music during the late Romantic Era, advocates of the absolute music perspective argued that instrumental music does not convey emotions or images to the listener.
They claimed that music is not explicitly about anything and that it is non-representational. The idea of music developed at the end of the 18th century in the writings of authors of early German Romanticism, such as Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder, Ludwig Tieck. Adherents of the program music perspective believed that music could convey emotions, one example of program music is Berliozs Symphonie fantastique, in which the fourth movement is the composers depiction of a story about an artist who poisons himself with opium and is executed. The majority of opposition to absolute instrumental-based music came from composer Richard Wagner, wagners works were chiefly programmatic and often used vocalization, and he said that Where music can go no further, there comes the word… the word stands higher than the tone. Nietzsche wrote many commentaries applauding the music of Wagner and was in fact a composer himself. Some expressed a spiritual connection with music, in Part IV of his chief work, The World as Will and Representation, Arthur Schopenhauer said that music is the answer to the mystery of life.
The most profound of all the arts, it expresses the deepest thoughts of life, in The Immediate Stages of the Erotic, or Musical Erotic, a chapter of Either/Or, Søren Kierkegaard examines the profundity of music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and the sensual nature of Don Giovanni. In the pre-modern tradition, the aesthetics of music or musical aesthetics explored the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of rhythmic and harmonic organization, in the eighteenth century, focus shifted to the experience of hearing music, and thus to questions about its beauty and human enjoyment of music. The origin of this shift is sometimes attributed to Baumgarten in the 18th century. Through their writing, the ancient term aesthetics, meaning sensory perception, in recent decades philosophers have tended to emphasize issues besides beauty and enjoyment
Philosophy of mathematics
The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions and implications of mathematics. The aim of the philosophy of mathematics is to provide an account of the nature and methodology of mathematics, the logical and structural nature of mathematics itself makes this study both broad and unique among its philosophical counterparts. The terms philosophy of mathematics and mathematical philosophy are frequently used interchangeably, the latter, may be used to refer to several other areas of study. Another refers to the philosophy of an individual practitioner or a like-minded community of practicing mathematicians. Recurrent themes include, What is the role of Mankind in developing mathematics, what are the sources of mathematical subject matter. What is the status of mathematical entities. What does it mean to refer to a mathematical object, what is the character of a mathematical proposition. What is the relation between logic and mathematics, what is the role of hermeneutics in mathematics.
What kinds of play a role in mathematics. What are the objectives of mathematical inquiry, what gives mathematics its hold on experience. What are the human traits behind mathematics, what is the source and nature of mathematical truth. What is the relationship between the world of mathematics and the material universe. The origin of mathematics is subject to argument, whether the birth of mathematics was a random happening or induced by necessity duly contingent upon other subjects, say for example physics, is still a matter of prolific debates. Many thinkers have contributed their ideas concerning the nature of mathematics, there are traditions of mathematical philosophy in both Western philosophy and Eastern philosophy. Greek philosophy on mathematics was strongly influenced by their study of geometry, for example, at one time, the Greeks held the opinion that 1 was not a number, but rather a unit of arbitrary length. A number was defined as a multitude, therefore,3, for example, represented a certain multitude of units, and was thus not truly a number.
At another point, an argument was made that 2 was not a number. These earlier Greek ideas of numbers were upended by the discovery of the irrationality of the root of two
Philosophy of culture
Philosophy of culture is a branch of philosophy that examines the essence and meaning of culture. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant has formulated an individualist definition of enlightenment similar to the concept of bildung and he argued that this immaturity comes not from a lack of understanding, but from a lack of courage to think independently. Against this intellectual cowardice, Kant urged, Sapere aude, Dare to be wise, Herder proposed a collective form of bildung, For Herder, Bildung was the totality of experiences that provide a coherent identity, and sense of common destiny, to a people. In 1795, the great linguist and philosopher Wilhelm von Humboldt called for an anthropology that would synthesize Kants, according to this school of thought, each ethnic group has a distinct worldview that is incommensurable with the worldviews of other groups. Although more inclusive than earlier views, this approach to culture still allowed for distinctions between civilized and primitive or tribal cultures, in 1860, Adolf Bastian argued for the psychic unity of mankind.
He proposed that a comparison of all human societies would reveal that distinct worldviews consisted of the same basic elements. According to Bastian, all human societies share a set of ideas, different cultures. This view paved the way for the understanding of culture. Franz Boas was trained in this tradition, and he brought it with him when he left Germany for the United States, in practice, culture referred to an élite ideal and was associated with such activities as art, classical music, and haute cuisine. As these forms were associated with life, culture was identified with civilization. Another facet of the Romantic movement was an interest in folklore and this distinction is often characterized as that between high culture, namely that of the ruling social group, and low culture. In other words, the idea of culture that developed in Europe during the 18th, matthew Arnold contrasted culture with anarchy, other Europeans, following philosophers Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, contrasted culture with the state of nature.
According to this way of thinking, one could classify some countries and nations as more civilized than others and this contrast led to Herbert Spencers theory of Social Darwinism and Lewis Henry Morgans theory of cultural evolution. These critics considered folk music to express a natural way of life, while classical music seemed superficial. Equally, this view often portrayed indigenous peoples as noble savages living authentic and unblemished lives, in 1870 the anthropologist Edward Tylor applied these ideas of higher versus lower culture to propose a theory of the evolution of religion. According to this theory, religion evolves from more polytheistic to more monotheistic forms, in the process, he redefined culture as a diverse set of activities characteristic of all human societies. This view paved the way for the understanding of culture. A Philosophy of Culture, The Scope of Holistic Pragmatism by Morton White Cultura
Gilbert LaFreniere is an American ecological philosopher, active in the study of geology and human impact upon nature. LaFreniere taught geology, environmental ethics, and environmental history for more than twenty-five years at Willamette University in Salem, many of his lectures rely heavily on his own travels and photography of the national parks of Europe, New England, the Pacific Northwest, and Canada. Gilberts most recent book is The Decline of Nature, among his other publications are the book Jean Jacques Rousseau and the Idea of Progress and articles in Environmental History Review and Human Values, and The Trumpeter. Environmental ethics Environmental philosophy Jean-Jacques Rousseau Natural philosophy List of environmental philosophers List of historians of science Official website Publishers Website
Philosophy of education
As an academic field, philosophy of education is the philosophical study of education and its problems. its central subject matter is education, and its methods are those of philosophy. The philosophy of education may be either the philosophy of the process of education or the philosophy of the discipline of education. Although there is overlap, philosophy of education should not be conflated with educational theory, Philosophy of education should not be confused with philosophy education, the practice of teaching and learning the subject of philosophy. These theories are called educational philosophies, for example, a teacher might be said to follow a perennialist educational philosophy or to follow a perennialist philosophy of education. Date, 424/423 BC – 348/347 BC Platos educational philosophy was grounded in his vision of the ideal Republic, Education would be holistic, including facts, physical discipline, and music and art, which he considered the highest form of endeavor. Plato believed that talent was distributed non-genetically and thus must be found in children born in any social class and he built on this by insisting that those suitably gifted were to be trained by the state so that they might be qualified to assume the role of a ruling class.
While elementary education made the soul responsive to the environment, higher education helped the soul to search for truth which illuminated it, both boys and girls receive the same kind of education. Elementary education consisted of music and gymnastics, designed to train and blend gentle and fierce qualities in the individual, at the age of 20, a selection was made. The best students would take a course in mathematics, astronomy. The first course in the scheme of education would last for ten years. It would be for those who had a flair for science, at the age of 30 there would be another selection, those who qualified would study dialectics and metaphysics and philosophy for the next five years. After accepting junior positions in the army for 15 years, a man would have completed his theoretical and practical education by the age of 50, Date, 1724–1804 Immanuel Kant believed that education differs from training in that the former involves thinking whereas the latter does not. In addition to educating reason, of importance to him was the development of character.
Kant was a proponent of education and of learning by doing. Date, 1770–1831 Date,384 BC –322 BC Only fragments of Aristotles treatise On Education are still in existence and we thus know of his philosophy of education primarily through brief passages in other works. Aristotle considered human nature and reason to be important forces to be cultivated in education. Thus, for example, he considered repetition to be a key tool to develop good habits, the teacher was to lead the student systematically, this differs, for example, from Socrates emphasis on questioning his listeners to bring out their own ideas. Aristotle placed great emphasis on balancing the theoretical and practical aspects of subjects taught, subjects he explicitly mentions as being important included reading and mathematics, physical education and history, and a wide range of sciences
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The term ethics derives from the Ancient Greek word ἠθικός ethikos, the branch of philosophy axiology comprises the sub-branches of ethics and aesthetics, each concerned with values. As a branch of philosophy, ethics investigates the questions What is the best way for people to live, and What actions are right or wrong in particular circumstances. In practice, ethics seeks to resolve questions of morality by defining concepts such as good and evil and wrong, virtue and vice, justice. As a field of enquiry, moral philosophy is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics. Richard William Paul and Linda Elder define ethics as a set of concepts, the Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy states that the word ethics is commonly used interchangeably with morality. And sometimes it is used narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition.
Paul and Elder state that most people confuse ethics with behaving in accordance with social conventions, religious beliefs, the word ethics in English refers to several things. It can refer to philosophical ethics or moral philosophy—a project that attempts to use reason in order to various kinds of ethical questions. As bioethicist Larry Churchill has written, understood as the capacity to think critically about moral values, Ethics can be used to describe a particular persons own idiosyncratic principles or habits. For example, Joe has strange ethics, the English word ethics is derived from an Ancient Greek word êthikos, which means relating to ones character. The Ancient Greek adjective êthikos is itself derived from another Greek word, meta-ethics asks how we understand, know about, and what we mean when we talk about what is right and what is wrong. An ethical question fixed on some particular practical question—such as, Should I eat this particular piece of chocolate cake. —cannot be a meta-ethical question, a meta-ethical question is abstract and relates to a wide range of more specific practical questions.
For example, Is it ever possible to have knowledge of what is right. Meta-ethics has always accompanied philosophical ethics, meta-ethics is important in G. E. In it he first wrote about what he called the naturalistic fallacy, moore was seen to reject naturalism in ethics, in his Open Question Argument. This made thinkers look again at second order questions about ethics, the Scottish philosopher David Hume had put forward a similar view on the difference between facts and values. Studies of how we know in ethics divide into cognitivism and non-cognitivism, non-cognitivism is the claim that when we judge something as right or wrong, this is neither true nor false