Environment friendly processes or environmental-friendly processes, are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment. Companies use these ambiguous terms to promote goods and services, sometimes with additional, more specific certifications, such as ecolabels, their overuse can be referred to as greenwashing. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO 14020 and ISO 14024 to establish principles and procedures for environmental labels and declarations that certifiers and eco-labellers should follow. In particular, these standards relate to the avoidance of financial conflicts of interest, the use of sound scientific methods and accepted test procedures, openness and transparency in the setting of standards. Products located in members of the European Union can use the EU's Eco-label pending the EU's approval. EMAS is another EU label that signifies whether an organization management is green as opposed to the product.
Germany uses the Blue Angel, based on Germany's standard. In the United States, environmental marketing claims require caution. Ambiguous titles such as environmentally friendly can be confusing without a specific definition; the United States Environmental Protection Agency has deemed some ecolabels misleading in determining whether a product is "green". In Canada, one label is that of the Environmental Choice Program. Created in 1988, only products approved by the program are allowed to display the label; the Energy Rating Label is a Type III label that provides information on "energy service per unit of energy consumption". It was first created in 1986, but negotiations led to a redesign in 2000; the environmentally friendly trends are marketed with a different color association, using the color blue for clean air and clean water, as opposed to green in western cultures. Japanese and Korean built hybrid vehicles use the color blue instead of green all throughout the vehicle, use the word "blue" indiscriminately.
Energy Star is a program with a primary goal of increasing energy efficiency and indirectly decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. Energy Star has different sections for different nations or areas, including the United States, the European Union and Australia; the program, founded in the United States exists in Canada, New Zealand, Taiwan. S. Korea unveils recharging road for eco-friendly buses Retrieved 2019-10-09
An Caighdeán Oifigiúil shortened to An Caighdeán, is the variety of the Irish language, used as the standard or state norm for the spelling and grammar of the language and is used in official publications and taught in most schools in the Irish state. The standard is based on the three Gaeltacht dialects: Connacht Irish, Munster Irish, Ulster Irish. In Northern Ireland the Ulster dialect ) is used extenslvely alongside the standard form, as the spoken language in Primary and Secondary Schools, it was first published in 1958 by combining spelling reforms, promulgated in 1945 to 1947, with grammar standards, published in 1953. Revised editions were published in 2012 and 2017. Since 2013, the Houses of the Oireachtas Commission, through the translation department, has been responsible for periodic updates to the standard, with reviews at least once every seven years. From the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922, successive governments were committed to promoting the Irish language, with separate teaching materials in each of the three living vernacular dialects.
Official publications were issued with Irish translations, including the texts of all acts of the Oireachtas. The Oireachtas establish the Rannóg an Aistriúchán for this work, which developed ad-hoc conventions to reconcile the different dialect forms and avoid favouring a single dialect in its output; when Éamon de Valera instigated a new Constitution, adopted in 1937, he established a committee to propose spelling reforms for the "popular edition" of the Irish-language text. The committee was unable to agree, but member T. F. O'Rahilly sent his notes to de Valera, who forwarded them to Rannóg an Aistriúchán, which developed a system circulated within the civil service in 1945, revised in 1947; the first edition was reprinted between 1960 and 2004. A revised edition was published in 2012 both online and in hardcopy. Among the changes to be found in the revised version are, for example, various attempts to bring the recommendations of the Caighdeán closer to the spoken dialect of Gaeltacht speakers, including allowing further use of the nominative case where the genitive would have been found.
The context influencing the differences between dialects has changed over time. On one hand, the shrinking of the Irish-speaking areas over the past two centuries means that where there was once a continuum of dialects from one end of the country to the other, the dialects are now each geographically isolated. On the other hand, national TV and radio stations have increased certain types of mixing between the dialects in recent decades, reducing the differences, its development had three purposes. One was to create a standard written form that would be mutually intelligible by speakers with different dialects. Another was to simplify Irish spelling by removing many silent letters which had existed in Classical Irish, and lastly, to create a uniform and less-complicated grammar which should provide less of a hindrance to learners and thus combat the decline of the language. The building blocks of the Caighdeán come from the three main dialects, namely Ulster Irish, Munster Irish, Connacht Irish.
The standard is described by Mícheál Ó Siadhail as being "to an extent based on a'common core' of all Irish dialects, or the most frequent forms, on random choice". A side effect of simplifying the spelling was. For example, while pre-Caighdeán Irish had separate spellings for the three words "bay", "sympathy", "drowning", the Caighdeán replaced all three by "bá"; the older forms resembled the Scottish Gaelic words "bàgh", "bàidh", "bàthadh". The Caighdeán does not recommend any pronunciation but it is affected by pronunciation because it aims to represent the all current pronunciations. So, if an "mh" is silent in Ulster and Connacht, but pronounced in Munster the "mh" is kept; this is why so many silent letters remain, despite the Caighdeán having the goal of eliminating silent letters. Letters have been removed when they are no longer pronounced in any dialect, so beiriú and dearbhú replaced beirbhiughadh and dearbhughadh. Examples exist where preserving multiple pronunciations would have been difficult and a winner and a loser had to be picked, such as the word for "again" which most native speakers pronounce as arís but a large minority pronounce as aríst.
The Caighdeán uses the former. Uíbh Eachach, Vivian, ed.. Gramadach na Gaeilge: An Caighdeán Oifigiúil. Oireachtas. ISBN 9781406425765. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2016. Gramadach na Gaeilge agus Litriú na Gaeilge – An Caighdeán Oifigiúil. Dublin: Stationery Office / Oifig an tSoláthair. 1958. Nic Pháidín, Caoilfhionn. "Corpus planning for Irish – dictionaries and terminology". A New View of the Irish Language. Dublin: Cois Life. Pp. 93–107. ISBN 978-1-901176-82-7. Retrieved 8 March 2016. Ó Cearúil, Micheál. "Script and Spelling". Bunreacht na hÉireann: a study of the Irish text. Dublin: Stationery Office. Pp. 27–41. ISBN 0-7076-6400-4. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Ó hIfearnáin, Tadhg. "Irish-speaking society and the state". In Ball, M; the Celtic Languages. London: Routledge. Pp. 539–586. ISBN 0415422795. Retrieved 28 November 2016. Ó hIfearnáin, Tadhg. "The Perception of Standard Irish as a Prestige Target Variety". In Kristiansen, Tore. Standard langu
Alan Daniel Luque is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a defender for Newell's Old Boys. Luque started with Newell's Old Boys, he was selected on the substitutes bench for Argentine Primera División fixtures with Arsenal de Sarandí and Estudiantes during the 2017–18 campaign, though he didn't make it on to the field on both occasions. Luque's senior debut arrived in August 2018, with manager Omar De Felippe playing him for the full ninety minutes of a Copa Argentina tie with Defensores Unidos of Primera B Metropolitana. Luque has trained with the Argentina U20s in the past, while he was selected to train against the senior squad during the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia; as of 23 October 2018. Alan Luque at Soccerway