The diplomatic corps is the collective body of foreign diplomats accredited to a particular country or body. The diplomatic corps may, in certain contexts, refer to the collection of accredited heads of mission who represent their countries in another state or country; as a body, they only assemble to attend state functions like a coronation, national day or State Opening of Parliament, depending on local custom. They may assemble in the royal or presidential palace to give their own head of state's New Year greeting to the head of state of the country in which they are based; the term is sometimes confused with the collective body of diplomats from a particular country—the proper term for, diplomatic service. The diplomatic corps is not always given any formal recognition by its host country, but can be referenced by official orders of precedence. In many countries, in Africa, the heads and the foreign members of the country offices of major international organizations are considered members—and granted the rights and privileges—of the diplomatic corps.
Diplomatic vehicles in most countries have distinctive diplomatic license plates with the prefix or suffix CD, the abbreviation for the French corps diplomatique. In most countries, the longest-serving ambassador to a country is given the title Dean of the Diplomatic Corps; the dean is accorded a high position in the order of precedence. In New Zealand, for example, the dean takes precedence over figures such as the deputy prime minister and former governors-general. In many countries that have Roman Catholicism as the official or dominant religion, the apostolic nuncio serves as Dean by virtue of his office, regardless of seniority; the Congress of Vienna and the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations provided that any country may choose to give nuncios a different precedence than other ambassadors. The diplomatic corps may cooperate amongst itself on a number of matters, including certain dealings with the host government. In practical terms, the dean of the diplomatic corps may have a role to play in negotiating with local authorities regarding the application of aspects of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and diplomatic immunity, such as the payment of certain fees or taxes, since the receiving country is required "not to discriminate between states".
In this sense, the dean has the role of representing the entire diplomatic corps for matters that affect the corps as a whole, although this function is formalized. Marshal of the Diplomatic Corps Consular corps United States' Deans of the Diplomatic Corps: 1893 To Present
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations. The main functions of diplomats are: representation and protection of the interests and nationals of the sending state. Seasoned diplomats of international repute are used in international organizations as well as multinational companies for their experience in management and negotiating skills. Diplomats are diplomatic corps of various nations of the world. Diplomats are the oldest form of any of the foreign policy institutions of the state, predating by centuries foreign ministers and ministerial offices, they have diplomatic immunity. The regular use of permanent diplomatic representation began between the states of fifteenth century Italy; however the terms ‘diplomacy’ and ‘diplomat’ appeared in the French Revolution. Diplomat is derived from the Greek διπλωμάτης, the holder of a diploma, referring to diplomats' documents of accreditation from their sovereign. Diplomats themselves and historians refer to the foreign ministry by its address: the Ballhausplatz, the Quai d’Orsay, the Wilhelmstraße.
For imperial Russia to 1917 it was the Choristers’ Bridge. The Italian ministry was called "the Consulta." Though any person can be appointed by the state's national government to conduct said state's relations with other states or international organisations, a number of states maintain an institutionalised group of career diplomats—that is, public servants with a steady professional connection to the country's foreign ministry. The term career diplomat is used worldwide in opposition to political appointees. While posted to an embassy or delegation in a foreign country or accredited to an international organisation, both career diplomats and political appointees enjoy the same diplomatic immunities. Ceremonial heads of state act as diplomats on behalf of their nation following instructions from their head of Government. Whether being a career diplomat or a political appointee, every diplomat, while posted abroad, will be classified in one of the ranks of diplomats as regulated by international law.
Diplomats can be contrasted with consuls and attachés, who represent their state in a number of administrative ways, but who don't have the diplomat's political functions. Diplomats in posts collect and report information that could affect national interests with advice about how the home-country government should respond. Once any policy response has been decided in the home country's capital, posts bear major responsibility for implementing it. Diplomats have the job of conveying, in the most persuasive way possible, the views of the home government to the governments to which they are accredited and, in doing so, of trying to convince those governments to act in ways that suit home-country interests. In this way, diplomats are part of the beginning and the end of each loop in the continuous process through which foreign policy develops. In general, it has become harder for diplomats to act autonomously. Diplomats have to seize secure communication systems and mobile telephones can be tracked down and instruct the most reclusive head of mission.
The same technology in reverse gives diplomats the capacity for more immediate input about the policy-making processes in the home capital. Secure email has transformed the contact between the ministry, it is less to leak, enables more personal contact than the formal cablegram, with its wide distribution and impersonal style. The home country will send instructions to a diplomatic post on what foreign policy goals to pursue, but decisions on tactics – who needs to be influenced, what will best persuade them, who are potential allies and adversaries, how it can be done - are for the diplomats overseas to make. In this operation, the intelligence, cultural understanding, energy of individual diplomats become critical. If competent, they will have developed relationships grounded in trust and mutual understanding with influential members of the country in which they are accredited, they will have worked hard to understand the motives, thought patterns and culture of the other side. The diplomat should be an excellent negotiator but, above all, a catalyst for peace and understanding between peoples.
The diplomat's principal role is to foster peaceful relations between states. This role takes on heightened importance. Negotiation must continue – but within altered contexts. Most career diplomats have university degrees in international relations, political science, economics, or law. Diplomats have been considered members of an exclusive and prestigious profession; the public image of diplomats has been described as "a caricature of pinstriped men gliding their way around a never-ending global cocktail party". J. W. Burton has noted that "despite the absence of any specific professional training, diplomacy has a high professional status, due to a degree of secrecy and mystery that its practitioners self-consciously promote." The state supports the high status and self-esteem of its diplomats in order to
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a full range of topical issues. International treaties are negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. David Stevenson reports that by 1900 the term "diplomats" covered diplomatic services, consular services and foreign ministry officials; some of the earliest known diplomatic records are the Amarna letters written between the pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt and the Amurru rulers of Canaan during the 14th century BC. Following the in c. 1274 BC during the Nineteenth dynasty, the pharaoh of Egypt and the ruler of the Hittite Empire created one of the first known international peace treaties which survives in stone tablet fragments, now called the Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty. Relations with the government of the Ottoman Empire were important to Italian states.
The maritime republics of Genoa and Venice depended less and less upon their nautical capabilities, more and more upon the perpetuation of good relations with the Ottomans. Interactions between various merchants and clergy men hailing from the Italian and Ottoman empires helped inaugurate and create new forms of diplomacy and statecraft; the primary purpose of a diplomat, a negotiator, evolved into a persona that represented an autonomous state in all aspects of political affairs. It became evident that all other sovereigns felt the need to accommodate themselves diplomatically, due to the emergence of the powerful political environment of the Ottoman Empire. One could come to the conclusion that the atmosphere of diplomacy within the early modern period revolved around a foundation of conformity to Ottoman culture. One of the earliest realists in international relations theory was the 6th century BC military strategist Sun Tzu, author of The Art of War, he lived during a time in which rival states were starting to pay less attention to traditional respects of tutelage to the Zhou Dynasty figurehead monarchs while each vied for power and total conquest.
However, a great deal of diplomacy in establishing allies, bartering land, signing peace treaties was necessary for each warring state, the idealized role of the "persuader/diplomat" developed. From the Battle of Baideng to the Battle of Mayi, the Han Dynasty was forced to uphold a marriage alliance and pay an exorbitant amount of tribute to the powerful northern nomadic Xiongnu, consolidated by Modu Shanyu. After the Xiongnu sent word to Emperor Wen of Han that they controlled areas stretching from Manchuria to the Tarim Basin oasis city-states, a treaty was drafted in 162 BC proclaiming that everything north of the Great Wall belong to nomads' lands, while everything south of it would be reserved for Han Chinese; the treaty was renewed no less than nine times, but did not restrain some Xiongnu tuqi from raiding Han borders. That was until the far-flung campaigns of Emperor Wu of Han which shattered the unity of the Xiongnu and allowed Han to conquer the Western Regions; the Koreans and Japanese during the Chinese Tang Dynasty looked to the Chinese capital of Chang'an as the hub of civilization and emulated its central bureaucracy as the model of governance.
The Japanese sent frequent embassies to China in this period, although they halted these trips in 894 when the Tang seemed on the brink of collapse. After the devastating An Shi Rebellion from 755 to 763, the Tang Dynasty was in no position to reconquer Central Asia and the Tarim Basin. After several conflicts with the Tibetan Empire spanning several different decades, the Tang made a truce and signed a peace treaty with them in 841. In the 11th century during the Song Dynasty, there were cunning ambassadors such as Shen Kuo and Su Song who achieved diplomatic success with the Liao Dynasty, the hostile Khitan neighbor to the north. Both diplomats secured the rightful borders of the Song Dynasty through knowledge of cartography and dredging up old court archives. There was a triad of warfare and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty to the northwest of Song China. After warring with the Lý Dynasty of Vietnam from 1075 to 1077, Song and Lý made a peace agreement in 1082 to exchange the respective lands they had captured from each other during the war.
Long before the Tang and Song dynasties, the Chinese had sent envoys into Central Asia and Persia, starting with Zhang Qian in the 2nd century BC. Another notable event in Chinese diplomacy was the Chinese embassy mission of Zhou Daguan to the Khmer Empire of Cambodia in the 13th century. Chinese diplomacy was a necessity in the distinctive period of Chinese exploration. Since the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese became invested in sending diplomatic envoys abroad on maritime missions into the Indian Ocean, to India, Arabia, East Africa, Egypt. Chinese maritime activity was increased during the commercialized period of the Song Dynasty, with new nautical technologies, many more private ship owners, an increasing amount of economic investors in overseas ventures. During the Mongol Empire the Mongols created something similar to today's diplomatic passport called paiza; the paiza were in three different types (
A legation was a diplomatic representative office of lower rank than an embassy. Where an embassy was headed by an ambassador, a legation was headed by a minister. Ambassadors had precedence at official events. Legations were the most common form of diplomatic mission, but they fell out of favor after World War II and were upgraded to embassies. Through the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century, most diplomatic missions were legations. An ambassador was considered the personal representative of his monarch, so only a major power, a monarchy would send an ambassador and establish an embassy. A republic or a smaller monarchy would only establish a legation; because of diplomatic reciprocity a major monarchy would only establish a legation in a republic or a smaller monarchy. For example, in the waning years of the Second French Empire, the North German Confederation had an embassy in Paris, while Bavaria and the United States had legations; the practice of establishing legations fell from favor as the embassy became the standard form of diplomatic mission.
The establishment of the French Third Republic and the continued growth of the United States meant that two of the Great Powers were now republics. The French Republic continued the French Empire's practice of receiving ambassadors. In 1893, the United States followed the French precedent and began sending ambassadors, upgrading its legations to embassies; the last remaining American legations, in Bulgaria and Hungary, were upgraded to embassies in 1966. The last legations in the world were the Baltic legations, which were upgraded to embassies in 1991 after the Baltic states reestablished their independence from the Soviet Union. American Legation, Tangier Beijing Legation Quarter Concession Papal Legations, certain administrative regions of the erstwhile Papal States the "legations" of Ferrara and Romagna Villa Lituania
Cultural diplomacy is a type of public diplomacy and soft power that includes the "exchange of ideas, art and other aspects of culture among nations and their peoples in order to foster mutual understanding". The purpose of cultural diplomacy is for the people of a foreign nation to develop an understanding of the nation's ideals and institutions in an effort to build broad support for economic and political goals. In essence "cultural diplomacy reveals the soul of a nation", which in turn creates influence. Though overlooked, cultural diplomacy can and does play an important role in achieving national security efforts. Culture is a set of practices that create meaning for society; this includes popular culture. This is, it is a type of soft power, the "ability to get what you want through attraction rather than coercion or payments. It arises from a country's culture, political ideals and policies." This indicates. Cultural diplomacy is a component of public diplomacy. Public diplomacy is enhanced by a larger society and culture, but public diplomacy helps to "amplify and advertise that society and culture to the world at large".
It could be argued that the information component of public diplomacy can only be effective where there is a relationship that gives credibility to the information being relayed. This comes from knowledge of the other's culture." Cultural diplomacy has been called the "linchpin of public diplomacy" because cultural activities have the possibility to demonstrate the best of a nation. In this way, cultural diplomacy and public diplomacy are intimately linked. Richard T. Arndt, a former State Department cultural diplomacy practitioner, said "Cultural relations grow and organically, without government intervention – the transactions of trade and tourism, student flows, book circulation, media access, inter-marriage – millions of daily cross-cultural encounters. If, correct, cultural diplomacy can only be said to take place when formal diplomats, serving national governments, try to shape and channel this natural flow to advance national interests." It is important to note that, while cultural diplomacy is, as indicated above, a government activity, the private sector has a real role to play because the government does not create culture, therefore, it can only attempt to make a culture known and define the impact this organic growth will have on national policies.
Cultural diplomacy attempts to manage the international environment by utilizing these sources and achievements and making them known abroad. An important aspect of this is listening- cultural diplomacy is meant to be a two-way exchange; this exchange is intended to foster a mutual understanding and thereby win influence within the target nation. Cultural diplomacy derives its credibility not from being close to government institutions, but from its proximity to cultural authorities, it is seen as a silent weapon in gaining control over another nation with the use of non-violent methods to perpetrate a relationship of mutual understanding and support among the countries involved. The goal of cultural diplomacy is to influence a foreign audience and use that influence, built up over the long term, as a sort of good will reserve to win support for policies, it seeks to harness the elements of culture to induce foreigners to: have a positive view of the country's people and policies, induce greater cooperation between the two nations, aid in changing the policies or political environment of the target nation, prevent and mitigate conflict with the target nation.
In turn, cultural diplomacy can help a nation better understand the foreign nation it is engaged with and it fosters mutual understanding. Cultural diplomacy is a way of conducting international relations without expecting anything in return in the way that traditional diplomacy expects. Cultural exchange programs work as a medium to relay a favourable impression of the foreign country in order to gain outsiders' understanding and approval in their cultural practices and naturalize their social norms among other cultures. Cultural diplomacy is more focused on the longer term and less on specific policy matters; the intent is to build up influence over the long term for when it is needed by engaging people directly. This influence has implications ranging from national security to increasing tourism and commercial opportunities, it allows the government to create a "foundation of trust" and a mutual understanding, neutral and built on people-to-people contact. Another unique and important element of cultural diplomacy is its ability to reach youth, non-elites and other audiences outside of the traditional embassy circuit.
In short, cultural diplomacy plants the seeds of ideals, political arguments, spiritual perceptions and a general view point of the world that may or may not flourish in a foreign nation. Therefore, ideologies spread by cultural diplomacy about the values that American people believe in enables those that seek a better life to look towards the Western world where happiness and freedom are portrayed as desirable and achievable goals. First and foremost, cultural diplomacy is a demonstration of national power because it demonstrates to foreign audiences every aspect of culture, including wealth and technological advances, competitiveness in everything from sports and industry to military power, a nation's overall confidence. The
The Corps of Queen's Messengers are couriers employed by the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office. They hand-carry secret and important documents to British Embassies/High Commission and consulates around the world. Many Queen's Messengers were retired Army personnel. Messengers travel in plain clothes in business class on scheduled airlines with their consignment; the safe passage of diplomatic baggage is guaranteed by the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, for reasons of state secrecy, the diplomatic bag does not go through normal airport baggage-checks and must not be opened, x-rayed, weighed, or otherwise investigated by customs, airline security staff, or anyone else for that matter. The bag has its own diplomatic passport; the Queen's Messenger has the status of a diplomatic courier and cannot be detained, however the messenger and the messenger's personal luggage go through normal security screening. The first recorded King's Messenger was John Norman, appointed in 1485 by King Richard III to hand-deliver secret documents for his monarch.
During his exile, Charles II appointed four trusted men to convey messages to Royalist forces in England. As a sign of their authority, the King broke four silver greyhounds from a bowl familiar to royal courtiers, gave one to each man. A silver greyhound thus became the symbol of the Service. On formal occasions, the Queen's Messengers wear this badge from a ribbon, on less formal occasions many messengers wear ties with a discreet greyhound pattern while working. Modern communications have diminished the role of the Queen's Messengers, but as original documents still need to be conveyed between countries by "safe-hand", their function remains valuable, but declining. In 1995 a Parliamentary question put the number of Messengers at 27; the number in March 2015 was sixteen full-time and two part-time, the departmental headcount was nineteen. In December 2015 an article in the Daily Express suggested that the Queen's Messenger service was "facing the chop by cost-cutting Foreign Office mandarins who see them as a legacy of a by-gone age".
The British Rail Class 67 diesel locomotive 67005 bears the name Queen's Messenger. Diplomatic courier BSAA Star Dust was carrying a King's Messenger at the time of its disappearance SS Berlin was carrying a King's Messenger at the time of its sinking Antrobus, George Pollock, Cecil Hunt. King's Messenger, 1918-1940, Memoirs of a Silver Greyhound. London: H. Jenkins, 1941. Bamber, Iain. From Pouch to Passport: A History of Kings & Queens Messenger Insignia. Mandurah, W. A.: DB Publishing, 2009. Wheeler-Holohan, Vincent; the History of the King's Messengers. London: Grayson & Grayson, 1935. Queen's British Pathe film, 7:42 mins. Can be viewed online
A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country. A representative of his government, he has diplomatic functions which are seen as a form of indirect rule; this full style occurred as a diplomatic rank for the head of a mission ranking just below envoy reflecting the low status of the states of origin and/or residency, or else difficult relations. On occasion, the Resident Minister's role could become important, as when in 1806 the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV fled his Kingdom of Naples, Lord William Bentinck, the British Resident, authored a new and liberal constitution. Residents could be posted with shadowy governments. For instance, the British sent Residents to the Mameluk Beys who ruled Baghdad province as an autonomous state in the north of present-day Iraq, until the Ottoman sultans regained control over it and its Wali. After the Congress of Vienna restored the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1815, the British posted a "mere" Resident to Florence.
As international relations developed, it became customary to give the highest title of diplomatic rank - ambassador - to the head of all permanent missions in any country, except as a temporary expression of down-graded relations or where representation was an interim arrangement. Some official representatives of European colonial powers, while in theory diplomats, in practice exercised a degree of indirect rule; some such Residents were former military officers, rather than career diplomats, who resided in smaller self-governing protectorates and tributary states and acted as political advisors to the rulers. A trusted Resident could become the de facto prime minister to a native ruler. In other respects they acted as an ambassador of their own government, but at a lower level, since large and rich native states were seen as inferior to Western nations. Instead of being a representative to a single ruler, a Resident could be posted to more than one native state, or to a grouping of states which the European power decided for its convenience.
This could create an artificial geographical unit, as in Residency X in some parts of the British Indian Empire. Similar positions could carry alternative titles, such as Resident Commissioner. In some cases, the intertwining of the European power with the traditional native establishment went so far that members of the native princely houses became Residents, either in other states or within their own state, provided that they were unlikely to succeed as ruler of the state. A Resident's real role varied enormously, depending upon the underlying relationship between the two parties and upon the personalities of the Resident and the ruler; some residents were little more than observers and diplomats, others were seen as the "face of the oppressor" and were treated with hostility, while some won enough trust from the ruler that they were able to exercise great influence. In French protectorates, such as those of Morocco and Tunisia, the resident or resident general was the effective ruler of the territory.
In 1887, when both Boers and gold prospectors of all nationalities were overrunning his country, the Swazi Paramount chief Umbandine asked for a British resident, seeing this as a desirable and effective form of protection. His request was refused; the Residents of the governments of the United Kingdom and the dominions to a variety of protectorates include: In the Sultanate of Zanzibar, the second'homeland' of the Omani dynasty, since 1913. From 1913 to 1961 the Residents were the Sultan's vizier. There were Consuls and Consuls-general until 1963. In present-day Kenya, in the Sultanate of Witu, after the British took over the protectorate from the German Empire, which had itself posted a Resident. In British Cameroon, since 1916, in 1949 restyled Special Resident for Edward John Gibbons, who stayed on in October 1954 as first Commissioner when it became an autonomous part of Nigeria. In Southern Africa: when the military party sent from Cape Colony to occupy Port Natal on behalf of Great Britain was recalled in 1839, a British Resident was appointed among the Fingo and other tribes in Kaffraria until the definite establishment of British rule in Natal and its 1845 organization as an administrative entity, when the incumbent Shepstone was made Agent for the native tribes.
In kwaZulu, which since 1843 was under a British protectorate, after it became the Zulu "Native" Reserve or Zululand Province on 1 September 1879: two British Residents. Thereafter there were Resident Commissioners until Zululand was incorporated into the crown colony of Natal as British Zululand on 1 December 1897. in 1845 the resident'north of the Orange river' chose his residency at Bloemfontein, which became the capital of the Orange River Sovereignty in 1848. In 1854 the British abandoned the Sovereignty, the independent Boer republic of the Orange Free State was established in the Boer republic of Transvaal at Pretoria with the Matabele chief at Bulawayo in Ghana, with the rulers of the Asanteman Confederation, since it became in 1896 a British protectorate.