Italian Republican Party
The Italian Republican Party is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Italy. Founded in 1895, the PRI is the oldest political party still active in Italy; the PRI has old roots and a long history that began with a left-wing position, claiming descent from the political thought of Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi. The early PRI was known for its anti-clerical, anti-monarchist republican and anti-fascist stances. While maintaining the latter three traits, during the second half of the 20th century the party moved to the centre of the political spectrum, becoming economically liberal; as such, the PRI was a member of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party from 1976 to 2010. After 1949 the party was a member of the pro-NATO alliance formed by Christian Democrats, Democratic Socialists and Liberals, enabling it to participate in most governments of the 1950s. In 1963 the PRI helped bring together the Italian Socialist Party. Although small in terms of voter support, it was an important opinion leader, as articulated by Eugenio Chiesa, Giovanni Conti, Cipriano Facchinetti, Ugo La Malfa and Bruno Visentini.
The PRI traces its origins from the time of Italian unification and more to the democratic-republican wing represented by figures such as Giuseppe Mazzini, Carlo Cattaneo and Carlo Pisacane. They were against the so-called piemontesizzazione of Italy, meaning the conquest by war of the Kingdom of Sardinia of the rest of Italy. After the latter was unified under the Savoy kings, following the political lines of moderates such as Camillo Benso di Cavour, the Republicans remained aside from the political life of the new country, proclaiming their abstention from elections, they created several democratic movements, like the Brotherhood Pact of Workers' Societies, founded by Mazzini in 1871. However, Mazzini's death the following year and internationalism put the Republicans in a difficult position. In the run-up of the 1880 general election, the Republicans chose to abandon abstentionism. At the time, their ranks included both members of the middle class, such as Giovanni Bovio, Arcangelo Ghisleri and Napoleone Colajanni, as well as the working class, such as Valentino Armirotti.
The PRI, whose power base was limited to Romagna, Marche, the Tuscan littoral and Lazio, was founded in 1895. By the end of the century, the party was allied with the Italian Socialist Party and the Radical Party in several local governments, including Milan and Rome. At the outbreak of World War I, the PRI sided with interventionists, aiming at supporting France and annexing Trento and Trieste. After the end of the conflict, the party tried to form an alliance with other left-wing parties, but the attempt failed as the PSI at was influenced by its "maximalist" wing. In 1921, Pietro Nenni left the PRI to become one of the leaders of the PSI. In the 1920s, the rise of the National Fascist Party caused the collapse of all Italian left-wing parties, including the PRI, banned in 1926. Several Republicans were arrested, confined or exiled and the PRI collaborated to the anti-fascist struggle. In 1927, the party joined Anti-fascist Concentration. In the late 1930s it participated in the Spanish Civil War.
In 1940, the German occupation of France, where many Republicans had took refuge, put the party in jeopardy. During the armed resistance against the German occupation of Italy from 1943, PRI members were part of the provincial National Liberation Committees, but they did not participate to the national CLN as they did not want to collaborate with Italian monarchists, some of whom were active members of the committee. In 1946, the PRI gained 4.4% of the popular vote in the election for a Constituent Assembly, confirming its traditional strongholds. However, it was weak if compared to Christian Democracy and the Italian Communist Party. After that, a ballot on the same day abolished monarchy in Italy and the PRI declared itself available to take a role in the government of Italy, entering the second government of Alcide De Gasperi. In late 1946, Ugo La Malfa and Ferruccio Parri members of the Action Party, moved to the PRI. La Malfa would be appointed as minister in several of the following governments.
At the 19th congress of the party held in 1947, there were two main inner trends: one, represented by the national secretary Randolfo Pacciardi, supported an alliance with the PCI. The latter was to prevail. Carlo Sforza, a Republican, was Minister of Foreign Affairs in De Gasperi's third government, although only as an independent. Sforza signed the treaty of peace and contributed to the entrance of Italy into the Marshall Plan, NATO and the Council of Europe; the exclusion of left-wing parties from the government in 1947 led the PRI to join De Gasperi's fourth government. Pacciardi refused to take a position as minister; as the PCI was closer to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Pacciardi changed his mind and became Deputy Prime Minister. The 1948 general election saw the PRI as a solid ally of the DC, but a reduction of the party's share to 2.5%. In the following years, the strongest party faction was that of La Malfa, who refused to participate to the DC-led governments until 1962. In 1963, the party voted in favour of the first centre-left government in Italy led by Aldo Moro.
Pacciardi, who had voted against, was expelled and founded a separate movement, Democratic Union for the New Republic, whose electoral result were dis
Italian Minister of the Interior
The Minister of the Interior in Italy is one of the most important positions in the Italian Council of Ministers and leads the Ministry of the Interior. The current Minister is Matteo Salvini, appointed on 1 June 2018 in the government of Giuseppe Conte; the Minister of the Interior is responsible for internal security and the protection of the constitutional order, for civil protection against disasters and terrorism, for displaced persons and administrative questions. It is host to the Standing Committee of Interior Ministers and drafts all passport, identity card and explosives legislation; the Interior Minister is political head for the administration of internal affairs. He controls the State police, the Vigili del Fuoco, the prefects; the minister herefore sits on the High Council of Defence. Parties1861–1912: Historical Right Historical Left 1912–1922: Liberal Union Radical Party Reform Socialist Party Military 1922–1943: National Fascist Party 1943–1946: Christian Democracy Labour Democratic Party Action Party Socialist Party Independent Governments Rightist coalition Leftist coalition Liberal coalition Fascist Military Mixed coalition Parties 1946–1994: Christian Democracy Since 1994: Lega Nord Democratic Party of the Left People's Party The Democrats Forza Italia/The People of Freedom Democratic Party New Centre-Right Independent Governments Centrist coalition Centre-right coalition Centre-left coalition Populist coalition Mixed coalition
Catania is the second largest city of Sicily after Palermo located on the east coast facing the Ionian Sea. It is the capital of the Metropolitan City of Catania, one of the ten biggest cities in Italy, the seventh largest metropolitan area in Italy; the population of the city proper is 320,000 while the population of the city's metropolitan area, Metropolitan City of Catania, stood at 1,116,168 inhabitants. Catania was destroyed by catastrophic earthquakes in 1169 and 1693, by several volcanic eruptions from the neighbouring Mount Etna, the most violent of, in 1669. Catania was founded in the 8th century BC by Chalcidians. In 1434, the first university in Sicily was founded in the city. In the 14th century and into the Renaissance period, Catania was one of Italy's most important cultural and political centres; the city is noted for its history, culture and gastronomy. Its old town, besides being one of the biggest examples of baroque architecture in Italy, is a World Heritage Site, protected by UNESCO.
Catania has been a native or adoptive homeland of some of Italy's most famous artists and writers, including composers Vincenzo Bellini and Giovanni Pacini, writers Giovanni Verga, Luigi Capuana, Federico De Roberto and Nino Martoglio. The city is the main industrial and commercial center of Sicily, it is the home of the largest in Southern Italy. The ancient indigenous population of the Sicels named their villages after geographical attributes of their location; the Sicilian word, means "grater, flaying knife, skinning place" or a "crude tool apt to pare". Other translations of the name are "harsh lands", "uneven ground", "sharp stones", or "rugged or rough soil"; the latter etymologies are justifiable since, for many centuries following an eruption, the city has always been rebuilt within its black-lava landscape. Around 729 BC, the ancient village of Katane became the Chalcidian colony of Katánē where the native population was Hellenized; the Naxian founders, coming from the adjacent coast used the name for their new settlement along the River Amenano.
Around 263 BC, the city was variously known as Catăna. The former has been used for its supposed assonance with catina, the Latin feminization of the name catinus. Catinus has two meanings: "a gulf, a basin or a bay" and "a bowl, a vessel or a trough", thanks to the city’s distinctive topography. Around 900, when Catania was part of the emirate of Sicily, it was known in Arabic as Balad al-fīl and Madinat al-fīl; the former means "The Village of the Elephant", while the latter means "The City of the Elephant". The Elephant is the lava sculpture over the fountain in Piazza Duomo. Most a prehistoric sculpture, reforged during the Byzantine Era, it appears to be a talisman, reputedly powerful enough to protect the city from enemies and to keep away misfortune, plagues, or natural calamities. Another Arab toponym was Qaṭāniyyah from the Arabic word for the "leguminous plants". Pulses like lentils, peas, broad beans, lupins were chiefly cultivated in the plains around the city well before the arrival of Aghlabids.
Afterwards, many Arabic agronomists developed these crops and the citrus orchards in the area around the city. The toponym Wadi Musa, or "Valley of Moses", was used. Catania is located at the foot of Mount Etna; as observed by Strabo, the location of Catania at the foot of Mount Etna has been both a curse and a blessing. On the one hand, violent outbursts of the volcano throughout history have destroyed large parts of the city, whilst on the other hand the volcanic ashes yield fertile soil suited for the growth of vines. Two subterranean rivers run under the city; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Csa". It has one of the hottest in the whole country of Italy. Temperatures of 40 °C are surpassed every year a couple of times,Winters are mild with chilly nights. Most of precipitation is concentrated from October to March, leaving late spring and summer dry; the city receives around 500 millimetres of rain per year, although the amount can vary from year to year. During winter nights lows can go under 0 °C.
Highs under 10 °C can happen during winter. Snow, due to the presence of Etna that protects the city from the northern winds, is an uncommon occurrence, but occasional snow flurries have been seen over the recent years in the hilly districts, more substantial in the northern hinterland. More light snowfalls occurred on 9 February 2015, 6 January 2017 and 5 January 2019, but the last heavy snowfall dates back to 17 December 1988; as of January 2015, there are 315.601 people residing in Catania, of whom 47.2% are male and 52.8% are female. Minors totalled 20.50 percent of the population compared to pensioners. This compares with the Italian average of 19.94 percent. The average age of Catania residents is 41 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five
Giuseppe Natoli Gongora di Scaliti was an Italian lawyer and politician from the Mediterranean island of Sicily. He was Minister of Agriculture under Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, in the first government of the Kingdom of Italy after unification in 1861. Natoli was born in Messina, in Sicily, on 9 June 1815, the son of Giacomo Natoli and Emanuela Cianciolo, he studied oratory and philosophy at the Accademia Carolina of Messina, studied law at the University of Palermo, where he graduated at the age of 22. From 1843 he taught at the University of Messina, he was offered a post as a judge, but declined it, not wishing to serve the Bourbon king. Natoli took part in the Sicilian Revolution of 1848, as a result fled Sicily for Turin, where he spent eleven years in exile. In 1860 he was involved in organising Garibaldi's venture against Sicily, embarked with the second wave of ships. Under the dictatorship of Garibaldi he was minister for agriculture, acting minister for foreign affairs. After the unification of Italy in 1861, Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, invited him to become minister for agriculture in the short-lived first government of the new Kingdom of Italy.
Natoli was made a Senator of Italy and appointed prefetto of Brescia, but was dismissed after troops opened fire on a crowd on 16 May 1862. He was prefetto of Siena for about two weeks. In 1864 Alfonso La Marmora made Natoli minister for education in his government. In 1865, following the resignation Giovanni Lanza, he was interim minister for home affairs for a few months. Natoli died on 25 September 1867 in the cholera epidemic in Messina, he was buried in the chapel of the Arciconfraternita degli Azzurri. On 6 July 1880 his remains were exhumed and moved to the Gran Camposanto di Messina, where Letterio Gangeri made a large monument to him. Natoli was a Grand Officer of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, an officer of the Order of San Marino
Senate of the Republic (Italy)
The Senate of the Republic or Senate is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament. The two houses together form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they perform identical functions, but do so separately. Pursuant to Articles 57, 58, 59 of the Italian Constitution, the Senate has a variable number of members, of which 309 are elected from Italian constituencies, 6 from Italian citizens living abroad, a small number are senators for life, either appointed or ex officio, it was established in its current form on 8 May 1948, but existed during the Kingdom of Italy as Senato del Regno, itself a continuation of the Senato Subalpino of Sardinia established on 8 May 1848. Members of the Senate are styled Senator or The Honourable Senator and they meet at Palazzo Madama, Rome; the Senate consists of 315 elected members, as of 2018 six senators for life. The elected senators must be over 40 years of age and are elected by Italian citizens aged 25 or older; the Senate is elected on a regional basis. The 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population.
However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley and Molise. The senators for life are composed of former Presidents of the Italian Republic who hold office ex officio, up to five citizens who are appointed by the President "for outstanding merits in the social, artistic or literary field"; the current life senators are: The current term of the Senate is five years, except for senators for life that hold their office for their lifetime. Until a Constitutional change on February 9, 1963, the Senate was elected for six-year terms; the Senate may be dissolved before the expiration of its normal term by the President of the Republic. In 2016, Italian Parliament passed a constitutional law that "effectively abolishes the Senate as an elected chamber and restricts its ability to veto legislation"; the law was rejected on December 2016 by a referendum, leaving the Senate unchanged. According to article 58 of the Italian constitution, people aged more than 25 years are enabled to vote for the Senate.
The electoral system is a parallel voting system, with 37% of seats allocated using first-past-the-post voting and 63% using proportional representation, allocated with the largest remainder method, with one round of voting. The 315 elected senators are elected in: 116 by plurality. A small, variable number of senators for life are members of the Senate. For Italian residents, each house members are elected by single ballots, including the constituency candidate and his/her supporting party lists. In each single-member constituency the deputy/senator is elected on a plurality basis, while the seats in multi-member constituencies will be allocated nationally. In order to be calculated in single-member constituency results, parties need to obtain at least 1% of the national vote. In order to receive seats in multi-member constituencies, parties need to obtain at least 3% of the national vote. Elects from multi-member constituencies will come from closed lists; the single voting paper, containing both first-past-the-post candidates and the party lists, shows the names of the candidates to single-member constituencies and, in close conjunction with them, the symbols of the linked lists for the proportional part, each one with a list of the relative candidates.
The voter can cast their vote in three different ways: Drawing a sign on the symbol of a list: in this case the vote extends to the candidate in the single-member constituency, supported by that list. Drawing a sign on the name of the candidate of the single-member constituency and another one on the symbol of one list that supports them: the result is the same as that described above. Drawing a sign only on the name of the candidate for the FPTP constituency, without indicating any list: in this case, the vote is valid for the candidate in the single-member constituency and automatically extended to the list that supports them; the current membership of the Senate of the Republic, following the latest political elections of 4 March 2018: Under the current Constitution, the Senate must hold its first sitting no than 20 days after a general election. That session, presided by the oldest senator, proceeds to elect the President of the Senate for the following parliamentary period. On the first two attempts at voting, an absolute majority of all senators is needed.
If this third round fails to produce a winner, a final ballot is held between the two senators with the highest votes in the previous ballot. In the case of a tie, the elder senator is deemed the winner. In addition to overseeing the business of the chamber and regulating debates, deciding whether motions a
Giuseppe Zanardelli was an Italian jurisconsult and political figure. He was the Prime Minister of Italy from 15 February 1901 to 3 November 1903, he was a distinguished jurist and eloquent orator, Grand Master freemason. Zanardelli, representing the bourgeoisie from Lombardy, personified the classical 19th-century left liberalism, committed to suffrage expansion, civil liberties, free trade and laissez-faire economics. Throughout his long political career, he was among the most ardent advocates of freedom of conscience and divorce. Giuseppe Zanardelli was born in Brescia on 29 October 1826, he was a combatant in the volunteer corps during the First Italian War of Independence of 1848 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia, within the era of Italian unification. After the lost battle of Novara he went to Pisa to study law, he returned to Brescia to become a barrister. For a time earned a livelihood by teaching law, but was molested by the Austrian police and forbidden to teach in consequence of his refusal to contribute pro-Austrian articles to the press.
In 1859 he was forced to flee to Switzerland. He moved to Lugano, but returned in time to organize the insurrection of Brescia in the Second Italian War of Independence and welcomed Giuseppe Garibaldi in the city. On 29 February 1860 he was initiated in the Lodge "Propaganda" of Rome to the first degree, the most influential and important lodge of the Grande Oriente d'Italia at that time; the following lodge "Propaganda Due" has derived its name as a prosecution of ideals started in Propaganda1. In 1863, it was opened a new Lodge "Arnaldo" in Brescia, but since the 18th century the oldest italian lodge was operating in the same city where he was born. Brescia dedicated to Zanardelli his central way of shops. On 7 February 1872 he was entered in the regular Lodge "Dante Alighieri" of Turin. After some years, he reached 33-degree of Scottish Rite. Enlisted in the Cacciatori delle Alpi, he remained in the area until the armistice of Villafranca. With the annexation of Lombardy to Piedmont, he was elected to Parliament in Turin.
Elected deputy in 1859, he received various administrative appointments, but only attained a political office in 1876 when the Left, of which he had been a prominent and influential member, came into power. In 1876 he became Minister of Public Works in the first government of Agostino Depretis, Minister of the Interior in the government of Benedetto Cairoli in 1878. In the latter capacity, he drafted the franchise reform, but created dissatisfaction by the indecision of his administrative acts in regard to the Irredentist agitation, by his theory of repressing and not in any way preventing crime, which led for a time to an epidemic of murders. Overthrown with Cairoli in December 1878, he returned to power as Minister of Justice in 1881 with the Depretis government, succeeded in completing the commercial code, he was the architect of the electoral reform in 1892 which lowered the voting age from 25 to 21, reduced the minimum tax threshold for voting or allowed an elementary school certificate.
Abandoned awhile by Depretis in 1883, he remained in opposition until 1887, when he again joined Depretis as Minister of Justice, retaining his portfolio throughout the ensuing government of Francesco Crispi, until 31 January 1891. During this period he began the reform of the magistracy and promulgated a new penal code, which unified penal legislation in Italy, abolished capital punishment and recognised the workers right to strike; the code was regarded as a great work by contemporary European jurists. After the fall of the government of Giovanni Giolitti in 1893, Zanardelli made a strenuous but unsuccessful attempt to form an administration. Elected president of the chamber in 1894 and 1896, he exercised that office with ability until, in December 1897, he accepted the Ministry of Justice in the government of Antonio di Rudinì, only to resign in the following spring on account of dissensions with his colleague, marquis Visconti-Venosta, over the measures necessary to prevent a recurrence of the Bava-Beccaris massacre of May 1898.
Returning to the presidency of the chamber, he again abandoned his post in order to associate himself with the obstructionist campaign against the Public Safety Bill restricting political activity and free speech, introduced by the government of general Luigi Pelloux. He was rewarded by being enabled to form an administration with the support of the Extreme Left upon the fall of the government of Giuseppe Saracco in February 1901. Giolitti became Minister of the Interior in the administration of Zanardelli, became its real head. Zanardelli focused his attention on the issue of the South: in September 1902 he undertook a journey through Basilicata, as one of the poorest regions in Italy, to see for himself the problems in the Mezzogiorno. Zanardelli was unable to achieve much during his last term of office, as his health was impaired, his proposed Divorce Bill, although voted in the chamber, had to be withdrawn on account of the strong opposition of the country. He retired from the administration on 21 October 1903, Giolitti succeeded him as Prime Minister.
Tired and ill, he died in Maderno on 26 December 1903. On 15 September 1902, Giuseppe Zanardelli stayed at the Imperial Hotel Tramontano, owned by the Commendator Guglielmo Baron Tramontano of Sorrento, the mayor of the city Sorrento. Baron Guglielmo Tramontano asked the musician brothers Giambattista and Ernesto De Curtis to compose and write a song in honour of Zanardelli, the result became the famous Neapolitan song "Torna a Surriento". Kingdom of Prussia: Knight of the O
Francesco Crispi was an Italian patriot and statesman. He was among the main protagonists of the Italian Risorgimento and a close friend and supporter of Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, one of the architects of the unification of Italy in 1860. Crispi served as Italy's Prime Minister for six years, from 1887 until 1891 and again from 1893 until 1896. Crispi was internationally famous and mentioned along with world statesmen such as Bismarck and Salisbury. An enlightened Italian patriot and democrat liberal he went on to become a bellicose authoritarian Prime Minister and ally and admirer of Bismarck. Crispi was indefatigable and stirring up hostility toward France, his career ended amid controversy and failure: he got involved in a major banking scandal and fell from power in 1896 after the devastating loss of the Battle of Adwa, which repelled Italy's colonial ambitions over Ethiopia. Due to his authoritarian policies and style, Crispi is regarded as a strongman and seen as a precursor of the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini.
Crispi's paternal family came from the small agricultural community of Palazzo Adriano, in south-western Sicily. It had been founded in fifteenth century by Orthodox Albanians, who settled in Sicily after the Ottoman occupation of Albania, his grandfather was an Arbëreshë Orthodox priest. Crispi himself was born in Ribera, Sicily, to Tommaso Crispi, a grain merchant and Giuseppa Genova from Ribera. Belonging to a family of Arbëreshë descent, he spoke Italian as his fourth language, his uncle Giuseppe wrote the first monograph on the Albanian language. In a telegram from 1895 on the Albanian question, Francesco Crispi said of his origins that he was "an Albanian by blood and heart" and an Italo-Albanian from Sicily. At the age of 5 years old he was sent to a family in Villafranca, where he could receive an education. In 1829, at 11 years old, he attended a seminary in Palermo; the rector of the institute was his uncle. Crispi attended the seminary until 1834 or 1835, when his father, after becoming mayor of Ribera, encountered major difficulties in health and finances.
In the same period, Crispi became a close friend of the poet and doctor Vincenzo Navarro, whose friendship marked his initiation to the Romanticism. In 1835 he studied law and literature at the University of Palermo receiving a law degree in 1837. Despite his father's ban, Crispi married Rosina in 1837, when she was pregnant. In May Crispi became the father of his first daughter, named after his grandmother. Anyway it was a brief marriage, in fact Rosina died on 29 July 1839, the day after giving birth to her second son, Tommaso. Between 1838 and 1839, Crispi founded his own newspaper, L'Oreteo, from the name of the Sicilian river Oreto; this experience brought him into contact with a number of political figures including the Neapolitan liberal activist and poet, Carlo Poerio. In 1842 Crispi wrote about the necessity to educate poor people, about the huge damage caused by the excessive wealth of the Catholic Church and regarding the need for all citizens, including women, to be equal before the law.
In 1845 Crispi took up a judgeship in Naples, where he distinguished himself for his liberal and revolutionary ideas. On 20 December 1847, Crispi was sent to Palermo along with Salvatore Castiglia, a diplomat and patriot, to prepare the revolution against the Bourbon monarchy and King Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies; the revolution started on 12 January 1848, therefore was the first of the numerous revolutions to occur that year. Three revolutions had occurred on the island of Sicily starting from 1800 against Bourbon rule; the uprising was organized from, centered in, Palermo. The popular nature of the revolt is evident in the fact that posters and notices were being handed out a full three days before the substantive acts of the revolution occurred on 12 January 1848; the timing was deliberately planned, by Crispi and the other revolutionaries, to coincide with the birthday of Ferdinand II. The Sicilian nobles were able to resuscitate the constitution of 1812, which included the principles of representative democracy and the centrality of Parliament in the government of the state.
Vincenzo Fardella was elected president of Sicilian Parliament. The idea was put forward for a confederation of all the states of Italy; the constitution was quite advanced for its time in liberal democratic terms, as was the proposal of an Italian confederation of states. Crispi was appointed a member of the provisional Sicilian Parliament and responsible of the Defence Committee, thus Sicily survived as a quasi-independent state for sixteen months, with the Bourbon army taking back full control of the island on 15 May 1849 by force. The effective head of state during this period was Ruggero Settimo. On capitulating to the Bourbons, Settimo escaped to Malta where he was received with the full honours of a head of state. Unlike many, Crispi was forced to flee the country. After leaving Sicily, Crispi took refuge in Marseille, where he met the woman who would become his second wife, Rose Montmasson, born five years after him in Haute-Savoie in a