The Enzo Ferrari is a 12 cylinder mid-engine sports car named after the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari. It was developed in 2002 using Formula One technology, such as a carbon-fibre body, F1-style automated shift transmission, carbon fibre-reinforced silicon carbide ceramic composite disc brakes. Used are technologies not allowed in F1 such as active aerodynamics and traction control; the Enzo Ferrari generates substantial amounts of downforce, achieved by the front underbody flaps, the small adjustable rear spoiler and the rear diffuser working in conjunction, 3,363 N is generated at 200 km/h 7,602 N is attained at 299 km/h before decreasing to 5,738 N at top speed. The Enzo's F140 B V12 engine was the first of a new generation for Ferrari, it is based on the design of the V8 engine found in the Maserati Quattroporte, using the same basic design and 104 mm bore spacing. This design replaced the former architectures seen in V12 and V8 engines used in most other contemporary Ferrari models; the 2005 F430 is the second Ferrari automobile to get a version of this new powerplant.
The Enzo was designed by Ken Okuyama, the Pininfarina head of design, announced at the 2002 Paris Motor Show with a claimed limited production run of 399 units and a price of US$659,330. The company sent invitations to existing customers those who had bought the F40 and F50. All 399 cars were sold in this way. Production began in 2003. In 2004, the 400th production car was built and donated to the Vatican for charity, sold at a Sotheby's auction for US$1.1 million. Three development mules were built: M1, M2, M3; each mule utilised the body work of a 348, a model, succeeded by two generations of mid-engined V8 sports cars—the F355 and the 360 Modena—by the time the mules were built. The third mule was offered for auction alongside the 400th Enzo in June 2005, selling for €195,500; the engine in the Enzo is longitudinally-mounted and the car has a rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout with a 43.9/56.1 front/rear weight distribution. The powerplant is Ferrari's F140B aspirated 65° V12 engine with DOHC 4 valves per cylinder, variable valve timing and Bosch Motronic ME7 fuel injection with a displacement of 5,998.80 cc generating a power output of 660 PS at 7,800 rpm and 657 N⋅m of torque at 5,500 rpm.
The redline limit is 8,200 rpm. The Enzo has an automated sequential manual transmission using paddle shifters to operate an automatically-actuated clutch and shifting mechanism, with LED lights on the steering wheel telling the driver when to change gears; the gearbox has a shift time of just 150 milliseconds. The transmission was a first generation "clutchless" design from the late 1990s, there have been complaints about its abrupt shifting; the Enzo has four-wheel independent suspension with push-rod actuated shock absorbers which can be adjusted from the cabin, complemented with anti-roll bars at the front and rear. The Enzo has 15-inch Brembo disc brakes; the wheels are fitted with Bridgestone Potenza Scuderia RE050A tires. The Enzo can reach 161 km/h in 6.6 seconds. The ¼ mile time is about 11 seconds, on skidpad it has reached 1.05 g and the top speed has been recorded to be as high as 355 km/h. It is rated at 7 miles per US gallon in the city, 12 miles per US gallon on the highway and 8 miles per US gallon combined.
Despite the Enzo's performance and price, the 430 Scuderia is capable of lapping the Ferrari test track just 0.1 seconds slower than the Enzo. The Porsche Carrera GT was 1.12 seconds faster in direct comparison on the only 0.98 miles long Autodromo del Levante near Bari. Evo magazine ran a 7:25.21 lap time. The Enzo in the test had a broken electronic damper, they tested it at Bedford Autodrome West circuit where it recorded a 1:21.3 laptime, 1.1 seconds slower than the Porsche Carrera GT, but faster than the Litchfield Type-25. In 2004, American magazine Sports Car International named the Enzo Ferrari number three on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 2000s. American magazine Motor Trend Classic named the Enzo as number four in their list of the ten "Greatest Ferraris of all time". However, the Enzo Ferrari was described as one of the "Fifty Ugliest Cars of the Past 50 Years", as Bloomberg Businessweek cited its superfluous curves and angles as too flashy the V-shaped hood, scooped-out doors, bulbous windshield.
Before being unveiled at the Paris Motor Show, the show car was flown from Italy to the U. S. to be filmed in Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle. It was driven on a beach by actress Demi Moore. After filming was complete, the Enzo was flown to France to be at the Motor Show; the Enzo Ferrari is briefly featured in the 2007 American film Redline. The Enzo Ferrari is featured in the cover art for the WWE wrestling stable Evolution. Ferrari decided to use some of the technology developed for the Enzo in a small-scale program to get more feedback from certain customers for use in future car design as well as their racing program; the core of this program is the Ferrari FXX. It was loosely based on the Enzo's design with a tuned 6.3-litre version of the Enzo's engine generating a power output of 800 PS (588 kW.
Wanda Urbanska is an author and television host, a media, public relations and political strategist. She directed the Jan Karski US Centennial Campaign and is President of the Jan Karski Educational Foundation. On May 29, 2012, the Campaign was successful in obtaining a Presidential Medal of Freedom for Polish Underground hero of World War II, Jan Karski; the author or coauthor of nine books, including The Heart of Simple Living: 7 Paths to a Better Life, Urbanska was host-producer of America's first nationally syndicated public TV series advocating sustainable living, Simple Living with Wanda Urbanska. She is published in the Los Angeles Times, the Washington Post, the Chicago Tribune, Natural Home, Mother Earth News, many others, is a monthly blogger for the American Library Association's “@ your library website.”A graduate of Harvard University and a frequent visitor to Poland, her father's native land, Urbanska was awarded the prestigious Amicus Poloniae award in 2006 for promoting good will between America and Poland.
Wanda Marie Urbanski was born in South Bend, when her father, Edmund Stephen Urbanski, was a visiting professor at Notre Dame. The family, which included her mother, Marie Olesen Urbanski, moved during her childhood, she began writing professionally while still in high school for the Bangor Daily News in Maine and interned on-camera on Maine Public Television's live program, Maine News and Comment, during her senior year. While at Harvard, Urbanska interned at Newsweek magazine and was named one of Glamour magazine's Top Ten College Women in 1977, she traveled to Poland the summer of her junior year in college and, upon graduation in 1978, adopted the Polish feminine of her name professionally. In 2009 – 2010, Urbanska took a seven-month sabbatical to Poland, with her 12-year-old son, staying with a widowed friend in a townhouse in suburban Warsaw. Urbanska began her career in New York, she moved to Los Angeles where she joined the staff of the Los Angeles Herald Examiner as an assistant editor of its in-house Sunday magazine and as a business reporter, covering retail and health care.
She moved to Southwest Virginia in 1986 with her husband, Frank Levering, to take over his family’s orchard business and wrote books in collaboration with him about the benefits of simple and rural living. Their Simple Living: One Couple's Search for a Better Life was published by Viking in 1992, it was followed by Moving to a Small Town: A Guidebook for Moving from Urban to Rural America. Urbanska co-authored Christmas on Jane Street: Based on a True Story with Billy Romp, she co-authored Nothing's too Small to Make a Difference with Levering, published in 2004. She hosted Simple Living with Wanda Urbanska for four seasons, which appeared on PBS stations nationally; the series advocates sustainable living based on the four multiple and overlapping principles of environmental stewardship. Urbanska married Frank Levering in 1983 in Maine, they had one child, Henry, in 1997. Their marriage ended in divorce. Builders of Hope: A Social Entrepreneur's Solution for Rebuilding America ISBN 978-0-89587-568-6 The Heart of Simple Living: 7 Paths to a Better Life ISBN 978-1-4402-0451-7 Less is More: Embracing simplicity for a healthy planet, a caring economy and lasting happiness ISBN 978-0-86571-650-6 The Singular Generation: Young Americans in the 1980s.
Doubleday, 1986, ISBN 0385192649, 245pp. Simple Living website Blair Publishing website USA Today article about green living USA Today article about saving money USA Today article about simplifying for the holidays New York Times article about generational living Oprah article about the simple living philosophy
The Mahāmāyā Tantra, is an important Buddhist Anuttarayoga tantra or Yoganiruttaratantra associated with the practice of Dream Yoga. The Mahāmāyā Tantra is a short text, having only three chapters and it deals with subjects such as Siddhis, the classification of Hetu and Upayatantras, manifestations of the deity Mahāmāyā; this text should not be confused with the Mayajala-tantra. The Mahāmāyā Tantra first appeared within Buddhist tantric communities in the late ninth or early tenth centuries CE. Based on instances of intertextuality it is considered to postdate the Guhyasamāja Tantra. By the eleventh century CE the Mahāmāyā Tantra was circulating within monastic institutions as well as communities surrounding tantric adepts or mahāsiddha. Xx The Mahāmāyā Tantra was translated from Sanskrit into Tibetan by the Indian paṇḍita Jinavara and the great Tibetan translator Gö Lhetsé; the Sanskrit text of this tantra has been reconstructed, with the help of the Tibetan text and the extant Sanskrit commentaries, by Samdhong Rinpoche and published by the Central University of Tibetan Studies.
It has been translated into Hindi by Dr. Kashinath Nyaupane and an English translation has been made by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, under the patronage and supervision of the 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha project. Although Mahāmāyā is a feminine deity, in her mandala and sadhana or meditation practice, she takes the form of a male heruka deity embracing a consort; the principal form of this meditational deity Mahāmāyā has a blue complexion and stands in dancing posture with his right leg extended and left leg bent up. The deity has four arms, his second pair of arms hold a bow. He wears the ornaments of a heruka. In the Shangpa Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism Mahāmāyā is one of the deities of the practice known as "The Deities of the Five Tantra Classes", the main yidam practice of this school; this practice brings the deities of the Guhyasamāja, Hevajra and Vajrabhairava tantras into a single mandala, imagined at different chakras within the body of Cakrasamvara.
In this practice Mahamaya is visualized in a two armed heruka form, standing in a dancing posture, dark blue in color, holding an arrow and bow, embracing a red consort. In Śaivism Mahāmāyā is the name of one of the twenty four goddesses of the Sūryamaṇḍala according to the Kubjikamata Tantra, she presides over the pitha of Ujjain. In Śāktism Mahāmāya is one of the names of Mahākālī or one of the sixty-four Matrikas or Yogini to be worshiped during Āvaraṇapūjā. Buddhist Deity: Mahamaya Main Page - at Himalayan Art Resources Shangpa