From Russia with Love (film)
From Russia with Love is a 1963 British spy film and the second in the James Bond film series produced by Eon Productions, as well as Sean Connery's second role as MI6 agent James Bond. It was directed by Terence Young, produced by Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman, written by Richard Maibaum and Johanna Harwood, based on Ian Fleming's named 1957 novel. In the film, Bond is sent to assist in the defection of Soviet consulate clerk Tatiana Romanova in Turkey, where SPECTRE plans to avenge Bond's killing of Dr. No. Following the success of Dr. No, United Artists greenlit a sequel and doubled the budget available for the producers. In addition to filming on location in Turkey, the action scenes were shot at Pinewood Studios, in Scotland. Production ran over budget and schedule, was rushed to finish by its scheduled October 1963 release date. From Russia with Love was a commercial success, it took in more than $78 million in worldwide box-office receipts, far more than its $2 million budget and more than its predecessor Dr. No, thereby becoming a blockbuster in 1960s cinema.
This film marked the debut of Desmond Llewelyn as Q, a role he would play for 36 years until The World Is Not Enough in 1999. Seeking to exact revenge on James Bond for killing its agent Dr. No and destroying the organisation's assets in the Caribbean, the international criminal organisation SPECTRE begins training agents to kill Bond, their star pupil is Donald "Red" Grant, an Irish assassin who proves his mettle by killing a Bond impostor in 1 minute and 52 seconds on a training course with a garrote wire concealed in his wristwatch. Meanwhile, the organisation's chief planner, a Czech chess grandmaster named Kronsteen, devises a plan to play British and Soviet intelligence against each other to procure a Lektor cryptographic device from the Soviets. SPECTRE's chief executive, Number 1, puts Rosa Klebb, a former colonel of SMERSH who has defected to SPECTRE in the West, in charge of the mission as chief of operations. Klebb chooses Grant to protect Bond until he acquires the Lektor and to eliminate 007 and steal the cipher machine for SPECTRE.
As part of the scheme, Klebb recruits the beautiful Tatiana Romanova, a cipher clerk at the Soviet consulate in Istanbul, who believes the ex-colonel is still working for SMERSH. In London, M informs Bond that Romanova has contacted their "Station'T'" in Turkey, claiming to have fallen in love with Bond from his file photo, she offers to defect to the West, will bring a top-secret Lektor with her to sweeten the deal, but only on the condition that Bond handle her case, personally. Prior to his departure, Bond is supplied by Q with an attaché case containing a concealed throwing knife, gold sovereigns, a special tear gas booby trap connected to the lock mechanism, ammunition for an included ArmaLite AR-7 folding sniper rifle with an infrared night scope. After travelling to Istanbul, Bond heads into the city to meet with station head Ali Kerim Bey, tailed by Bulgarian secret agents working for the Russians, they are in turn tailed by Grant, who kills one of them after Bond is taken back to his hotel, stealing their car and dumping it outside the Soviet Consulate to provoke hostilities between British and Soviet Intelligence.
In response, the Soviets bomb Kerim's office with a limpet mine. Bond and he investigate the attack by spying on a Soviet consulate meeting through a periscope installed in the underground aqueducts beneath Istanbul. Thus, they learn. Kerim Bey declares it unwise to stay in the city under such circumstances and takes Bond to a rural gypsy settlement. However, Krilencu learns of this and promptly attacks a gypsy feast, where Bond and Kerim are honoured guests, with a band of hired Bulgarian fighters. Much to Bond's confusion, he is saved from an enemy fighter during the attack by a distant sniper shot from Grant; the following night and Kerim Bey track Krilencu to his hideout, where Kerim Bey kills him with Bond's rifle. Upon returning to his hotel suite that night, Bond finds Romanova waiting for him in his bed and has sex with her; the next day, Romanova heads off for a prearranged rendezvous at Hagia Sophia to drop off the floor plans for the consulate, with Grant ensuring Bond receives the plans by killing the other Bulgarian tail who attempts to intercept the drop.
Using the plans and Kerim Bey steal the Lektor, together with Romanova, escape with the device onto the Orient Express. On the train, Kerim Bey notices a Soviet security officer named Benz tailing them, prompting him and Bond to subdue him; when Bond leaves Benz and Kerim Bey alone together, Grant kills them and makes it appear as though they killed each other, preventing Bond from leaving the train with Romanova to rendezvous with one of Kerim's men. At the railway station in Belgrade, Bond passes on word of Kerim Bey's death to one of his sons, asks for an agent from Station Y to meet him at Zagreb. However, when the train arrives at the station, Grant intercepts Nash, sent from Station Y, killing the agent before posing as him. After drugging Romanova at dinner, Grant overpowers Bond before taunting him about SPECTRE's involvement in the theft. After disclosing that Romanova was unaware of what was going on, believing she was working for Russia, Grant reveals to Bond his plans to leave behind the film SPECTRE took of him and Romanova at the hotel, along with a forged blackmail letter, to make it appear that their deaths were the result of a murder-suicide, to scandalise the British intelligence community.
Die Another Day
Die Another Day is a 2002 spy film, the twentieth film in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions, as well as the fourth and final film to star Pierce Brosnan as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. The film follows Bond as he leads a mission to North Korea, during which he is betrayed and, after killing a rogue North Korean colonel, is captured and imprisoned. Fourteen months Bond is released as part of a prisoner exchange. Surmising that the mole is within the British government, he attempts to earn redemption by tracking down his betrayer and all those involved; the film, produced by Michael G. Wilson and Barbara Broccoli, directed by Lee Tamahori, marked the James Bond franchise's 40th anniversary; the series began in 1962 with Sean Connery starring as Bond in Dr. No. Die Another Day includes references to each of the preceding films; the film received mixed reviews. Some critics praised the work of Tamahori, while others criticised the film's heavy use of computer-generated imagery, which they found unconvincing and a distraction from the film's plot.
Die Another Day was the highest-grossing James Bond film up to that time if inflation is not taken into account. MI6 agent James Bond infiltrates a North Korean military base, where Colonel Tan-Sun Moon is illegally trading weapons for African conflict diamonds. After Moon's assistant Zao discovers that Bond is a British agent via an unknown source, Moon attempts to kill Bond and a hovercraft chase ensues, ending with Moon's death. Bond survives, but is captured by North Korean soldiers and imprisoned by the Colonel's father, General Moon. After fourteen months of captivity and torture, Bond is traded for Zao in a prisoner exchange, he is sedated and taken to meet M, who informs him that his status as a 00 Agent is suspended under suspicion of having leaked information under duress. Bond is convinced that he has been set up by a double agent in the British government and decides to avenge his betrayal. After escaping from the custody of MI6, he discovers that he is in Hong Kong, where he learns from a Chinese agent that Zao is in Cuba.
In Havana, Bond meets NSA agent Giacinta'Jinx' Johnson. Bond follows her to a gene therapy clinic, where patients can have their appearances altered through DNA restructuring. Bond locates Zao inside the clinic and attempts to kill him, but he escapes, leaving behind a pendant which leads Bond to a cache of diamonds, identified as conflict diamonds, but bearing the crest of the company owned by British billionaire businessman Gustav Graves. Bond learns that Graves only appeared a year prior discovering a vein of diamonds in Iceland leading to his current wealth and philanthropy from its assets. At Blades Club in London, Bond meets Graves along with his assistant Miranda Frost, an undercover MI6 agent. After a fencing exercise, Bond is invited by Graves to Iceland for a scientific demonstration. Shortly afterwards, M tells Bond of MI6's doubts about Graves, restores Bond's Double-0 status and offers assistance in the investigation. At his ice palace adjacent to the diamond mine site in Iceland, Graves unveils a new orbital mirror satellite, "Icarus", able to focus solar energy on a small area and provide year-round sunshine for crop development.
During the night, Jinx is captured by Graves and Zao. Bond rescues her and discovers that Colonel Moon is still alive. Moon has used the gene therapy technology to change his appearance, creating the identity of Gustav Graves and amassing his fortune from sale of the conflict diamonds. Bond confronts Graves, but Frost arrives to reveal herself as the traitor who betrayed Bond in North Korea, forcing Bond to escape from Graves' facility. Bond returns in his Aston Martin Vanquish to rescue Jinx, captured once again within the palace; as Graves uses Icarus to melt the ice palace, Zao pursues Bond into the palace using his Jaguar XKR. Bond kills Zao by causing a giant ice chandelier to fall onto him, revives Jinx after she has drowned. Bond and Jinx stow away on Graves' cargo plane. Graves reveals his true identity to his father, the true purpose of the Icarus satellite: to cut a path through the Korean Demilitarized Zone with concentrated sunlight, allowing North Korean troops to invade South Korea and reunite the peninsula by force.
Horrified at the fact that it would result in a nuclear war with the United States, General Moon tries to turn the plan down, but he is murdered by his own son. Bond attempts to shoot Graves. In their struggle, a gunshot pierces the fuselage. Bond and Graves engage in a fist fight, Jinx attempts to regain control of the plane. Frost attacks Jinx. After the plane passes through the Icarus beam and is further damaged, Jinx kills Frost. Graves attempts to escape by parachute, but Bond opens the parachute, causing Graves to be pulled out of the plane and into one of its engines, killing him and disabling the Icarus beam. Bond and Jinx escape from the disintegrating plane in a helicopter from the cargo hold, carrying away Graves' stash of diamonds in the process. In the end, they are seen to have sex amidst the diamonds on a bed in a South Korean Buddhist temple located in a valley. Pierce Brosnan as James Bond, an MI6 agent. Halle Berry as Jinx Johnson, an NSA agent. Toby Stephens as Gustav Graves, a British entrepreneur, alter ego of Colonel Moon.
Rosamund Pike as Miranda Frost, undercover MI6 agent and double agent. Rick Yune as Tang Ling Zao, a freelancer terrorist of Chinese origin working for Moon and li
You Only Live Twice (film)
You Only Live Twice is a 1967 British spy film and the fifth in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions, starring Sean Connery as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. The film's screenplay was written by Roald Dahl, loosely based on Ian Fleming's 1964 novel of the same name, it is the first James Bond film to discard most of Fleming's plot, using only a few characters and locations from the book as the background for an new story. In the film, Bond is dispatched to Japan after American and Soviet manned spacecraft disappear mysteriously in orbit. With each nation blaming the other amidst the Cold War, Bond travels secretly to a remote Japanese island to find the perpetrators and comes face to face with Ernst Stavro Blofeld, the head of SPECTRE; the film reveals the appearance of Blofeld, a unseen character. SPECTRE is working for the government of an unnamed Asian power, implied to be the People's Republic of China, to provoke war between the superpowers. During the filming in Japan, it was announced that Sean Connery would retire from the role of Bond, but after a hiatus, he returned in 1971's Diamonds Are Forever and 1983's non-Eon Bond film Never Say Never Again.
You Only Live Twice is the first Bond film to be directed by Lewis Gilbert, who directed the 1977 film The Spy Who Loved Me and the 1979 film Moonraker, both starring Roger Moore. You Only Live Twice was a great success, receiving positive reviews and grossing over $111 million in worldwide box office. American NASA spacecraft Jupiter 16 is hijacked from orbit by an unidentified spaceship; the United States suspects it to be the work of the Soviets, but the British suspect Japanese involvement since the spacecraft, after having "swallowed" Jupiter 16, landed in the Sea of Japan. To investigate, MI6 operative James Bond is sent to Tokyo, after faking his own death in Hong Kong and being buried at sea from HMS Tenby. Upon his arrival, Bond meets a mysterious Japanese woman while watching a sumo match, she introduces Bond to local MI6 operative Dikko Henderson, who claims to have critical evidence about the rogue craft, but is killed before he can elaborate. Bond chases and kills the assailant, taking the assailant's clothing as a disguise, is driven in the getaway car to Osato Chemicals.
Once there, Bond breaks into the office safe of president Mr. Osato. After obtaining certain documents, Bond is pursued by armed security, but is rescued by the woman he had met earlier, who flees to a secluded subway station. Bond chases her, but falls down a trap door leading to the office of the head of the Japanese secret service, Tiger Tanaka, who reveals that the woman is his assistant Aki; the stolen documents are examined, found to include a photograph of the cargo ship Ning-Po, with a microdot message saying the tourist who took the photo was killed as a security precaution. While at Tanaka's spa, Bond meets with Aki again and they spend the night together. Bond goes to Osato Chemicals masquerading as a potential new buyer. Osato humours Bond, but after their meeting, he orders his secretary, Helga Brandt, to have him killed. Outside the building, assassins open fire on Bond. Bond and Aki drive to Kobe, they investigate the company's dock facilities, discover that the ship was delivering elements for rocket fuel.
They are discovered. He wakes, tied up in SPECTRE operative Helga Brandt's cabin on the Ning-Po. In a sexy cocktail dress, she interrogates Bond, but he thinks of managing to bribe his way to freedom when she chooses to enjoy herself by kissing and freeing him. Brandt flies Bond to Tokyo the next day, but en route, she sets off a flare in the plane and bails out persuaded to kill him. Bond manages to land the plane. After finding out where the Ning-Po unloaded, Bond flies over the area in a armed autogyro created by Q. Near a volcano, Bond is attacked by helicopters, which he defeats, confirming his suspicions that the enemy's base is nearby. A Soviet spacecraft is captured in orbit by another unidentified craft, heightening tensions between Russia and the United States; the mysterious spaceship lands in an extensive base hidden inside the volcano. It soon turns out that the true mastermind behind this is Ernst Stavro Blofeld, the mysterious leader of SPECTRE, hired by the People's Republic of China to start a Soviet-American war.
Blofeld summons Osato to answer for not having killed Bond. Blofeld gives Osato a last chance, but as Brandt leaves, he activates a mechanism that drops her to her death into a pool filled with piranhas. Blofeld orders Osato to kill Bond. Bond is informed of Tanaka's plan: he is to train with Tanaka's ninjas, disguise himself as a Japanese fisherman alongside a Japanese wife, infiltrate SPECTRE's island. Before this plan can be completed, Aki is killed when she accidentally ingests poison that a SPECTRE assassin had meant for Bond to take. Bond moves on and enters into a fake marriage to Tanaka's student, Kissy Suzuki. Acting on her lead, the pair reconnoitre the volcano above it. Establishing that the mouth of the volcano is a disguised hatch to the secret rocket base, Bond slips in, while Kissy goes to alert Tanaka. Bond locates and frees the captured astronauts and, with their help, steals a space suit in an attempt to infiltrate the SPECTRE spacecraft, "Bird One". However, Blofeld spots Bond, he is detained while Bird One is launched.
Bird One closes in on the American space capsule, U. S. forces prepare to launch a nu
Spectre (2015 film)
Spectre is a 2015 British spy film, the twenty-fourth in the James Bond film series produced by Eon Productions for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures. It is the fourth film to feature Daniel Craig as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond, the second film in the series directed by Sam Mendes following Skyfall, it was written by Neal Purvis, Robert Wade and Jez Butterworth. It is the final James Bond film to be internationally distributed by Columbia Pictures, as Universal Pictures will become the international distributor of its future films; the story sees Bond pitted against the global criminal organisation Spectre and their leader Ernst Stavro Blofeld. Bond attempts to thwart Blofeld's plan to launch a global surveillance network, discovers Spectre and Blofeld were behind the events of the previous three films; the film marks Spectre and Blofeld's first appearance in an Eon Productions film since 1971's Diamonds Are Forever. Several James Bond characters, including M, Q and Eve Moneypenny return, with new additions Léa Seydoux as Dr. Madeleine Swann, Dave Bautista as Mr. Hinx, Andrew Scott as Max Denbigh and Monica Bellucci as Lucia Sciarra.
Spectre was filmed from December 2014 to July 2015 in Austria, the United Kingdom, Italy and Mexico. The action scenes prioritised practical effects and stunts, while employing computer-generated imagery made by five different companies. Spectre was estimated to have cost around $245 million—with some sources listing it as high as $300 million—making it the most expensive Bond film and one of the most expensive films made. Spectre was released on 26 October 2015 in the United Kingdom—fifty years after the release of Thunderball, thirty after A View to a Kill, twenty after GoldenEye—on the night of the world premiere at the London Royal Albert Hall, it was followed by a worldwide release, including IMAX screenings. It was released in the United States on 6 November. Spectre received mixed reviews from critics who praised the film's action sequences, cinematography and musical score, but criticised the runtime and pacing; the theme song "Writing's on the Wall", performed and co-written by Sam Smith, won an Academy Award and Golden Globe for Best Original Song.
Spectre grossed over $880 million worldwide, making it the sixth-highest-grossing film of 2015, the second-largest unadjusted total for the series after Skyfall. A posthumous message from the previous M leads MI6 agent James Bond to carry out an unauthorised mission in Mexico City on the Day of the Dead, where he stops a terrorist bombing plot. Bond kills Marco Sciarra, the terrorist leader, takes his ring, emblazoned with a stylised octopus. Upon his return to London, Bond is suspended from field duty by Gareth Mallory, the current M, engaged in a power struggle with Max Denbigh, the Director-General of the new, privately-backed Joint Intelligence Service formed by a recent merger of MI5 and MI6. C campaigns for Britain to join the global surveillance and intelligence initiative "Nine Eyes", uses his influence to close down the'00' field agent section, which he believes is outdated. Bond disobeys M's travels to Rome to attend Sciarra's funeral, he seduces Sciarra's widow, who tells him Marco belonged to an organisation of businessmen with criminal and terrorist connections.
Bond uses Sciarra's ring to infiltrate a meeting to select Sciarra's replacement, where he identifies the leader, Franz Oberhauser. After hearing Oberhauser give the order for the "Pale King" to be assassinated, Bond is pursued across the city by the organisation's assassin, Mr. Hinx. Eve Moneypenny informs Bond that the Pale King is Mr. White, a former member of the organisation's subsidiary Quantum who had fallen afoul of Oberhauser. Bond asks her to investigate Oberhauser, presumed dead years earlier. Bond locates White in Altaussee, where he is dying of thallium poisoning, he tells Bond to find and protect his daughter, psychiatrist Dr. Madeline Swann, who will take him to L'Américain in order to locate Oberhauser. Bond rescues her from Hinx and his forces; the pair meet Q, who links Oberhauser to Bond's previous missions, identifying Le Chiffre, Dominic Greene and Raoul Silva as agents of the same organisation, which Swann identifies as Spectre. Swann takes Bond to L'Américain, a hotel in Tangier, they discover that White left evidence directing them to Oberhauser's base at a crater in the Sahara.
Taking a train to a remote station and Swann encounter Hinx, who gets ejected from the train in the ensuing struggle, are escorted to Oberhauser's base. Oberhauser reveals that Spectre has funded the Joint Intelligence Service while staging terrorist attacks around the world, creating a need for the Nine Eyes programme. In return, C will give Spectre unlimited access to intelligence gathered by Nine Eyes, allowing them to anticipate and counter-act investigations into their operations. Bond is tortured as Oberhauser discusses their shared history: after the younger Bond was orphaned, Oberhauser's father, became his temporary guardian. Believing that Bond supplanted his role as son, Oberhauser killed his father, staged his own death, adopted the name Ernst Stavro Blofeld and went on to form Spectre and target Bond. Bond and Swann stun Blofeld by setting off an explosive wristwatch at his face, the two escape to London to prevent Nine Eyes from going online. In London and Swann meet M, Bill Tanner, Q, Moneypenny with the intention of arresting C.
Swann and Bond are abducted separately by Spectre operatives, whi
Casino Royale (Climax!)
"Casino Royale" is a live 1954 television adaptation of the novel of the same name by Ian Fleming. An episode of the American dramatic anthology series Climax!, the show is the first screen adaptation of a James Bond novel and stars Barry Nelson, Peter Lorre, Linda Christian. Though this marks the first onscreen appearance of the secret agent, Nelson's Bond is played as an American spy with "Combined Intelligence Agency" and is referred to as "Jimmy" by several characters. Most of the forgotten show was located in the 1980s by film historian Jim Schoenberger, with the ending found afterward. Both copies are black and white kinescopes; the rights to the program were acquired by MGM at the same time as the rights for the 1967 film version of Casino Royale, clearing the legal pathway and enabling it to make the 2006 film of the same name. Act I "Combined Intelligence" agent James Bond comes under fire from an assassin: he manages to dodge the bullets, enters Casino Royale. There he meets his British contact, Clarence Leiter, who remembers "Card Sense Jimmy Bond" from when he played the Maharajah at Deauville.
While Bond explains the rules of baccarat, Leiter explains Bond's mission: to defeat Le Chiffre at baccarat and force his Soviet spymasters to "retire" him. Bond encounters a former lover, Valerie Mathis, Le Chiffre's current girlfriend. Act II Bond beats Le Chiffre at baccarat, when he returns to his hotel room, is confronted by Le Chiffre and his bodyguards, along with Mathis, who Le Chiffre has discovered is an agent of the Deuxième Bureau, France's external military intelligence agency at the time. Act III Le Chiffre tortures Bond in order to find out where Bond has hidden the check for his winnings, but Bond does not reveal where it is. After a fight between Bond and Le Chiffre's guards, Bond shoots and wounds Le Chiffre, saving Valerie in the process. Exhausted, Bond sits in a chair opposite Le Chiffre to talk. Mathis gets in between them, Le Chiffre grabs her from behind, threatening her with a concealed razor blade; as Le Chiffre moves toward the door with Mathis as a shield, she struggles, breaking free and Bond is able to shoot Le Chiffre.
Barry Nelson as James Bond Peter Lorre as Le Chiffre Linda Christian as Valerie Mathis Michael Pate as Clarence Leiter Eugene Borden as Chef De Partie Jean Del Val as Croupier Gene Roth as Basil Kurt Katch as Zoltan Unknown actor as Zuroff William Lundigan as Host/Himself Herman Belmonte as Doorman In 1954 CBS paid Ian Fleming $1,000 to adapt his first novel, Casino Royale, into a one-hour television adventure as part of their dramatic anthology series Climax!, which ran between October 1954 and June 1958. It was adapted for the screen by Charles Bennett. Due to the restriction of a one-hour play, the adapted version lost many of the details found in the book, although it retained its violence in Act III; the hour-long Casino Royale episode aired on October 21, 1954 as a live production and starred Barry Nelson as secret agent James Bond, with Peter Lorre in the role of Le Chiffre and was hosted by William Lundigan. The Bond character from Casino Royale was re-cast as an American agent, described as working for "Combined Intelligence", supported by the British agent, Clarence Leiter.
Clarence Leiter was an agent for Station S, while being a combination of Felix Leiter and René Mathis. The name "Mathis", his association with the Deuxième Bureau, was given to the leading lady, named Valérie Mathis, instead of Vesper Lynd. Reports that toward the end of the broadcast "the coast-to-coast audience saw Peter Lorre, the actor playing Le Chiffre, get up off the floor after his'death' and begin to walk to his dressing room", do not appear to be accurate. Four years after the production of Casino Royale, CBS invited Fleming to write 32 episodes over a two-year period for a television show based on the James Bond character. Fleming began to write outlines for this series; when nothing came of this, Fleming grouped and adapted three of the outlines into short stories and released the 1960 anthology For Your Eyes Only along with an additional two new short stories. This was the first screen adaptation of a James Bond novel and was made before the formation of Eon Productions; when MGM obtained the rights to the 1967 film version of Casino Royale, it received the rights to this television episode.
The Casino Royale episode was lost for decades after its 1954 broadcast until a black and white kinescope of the live broadcast was located by film historian Jim Schoenberger in 1981. It aired on TBS as part of a Bond film marathon. However, the original 1954 broadcast had been in color; the missing footage was found and included on a Spy Guise & Cara Entertainment VHS release. MGM subsequently included the incomplete version on its DVD and Blu-ray releases of the 1967 spoof version of Casino Royale. David Cornelius of Efilmcritic.com remarked that "the first act gives in to spy pulp cliché" and noted that he believed Nelson was miscast and "trips over his lines and lacks the elegance needed for the role." He described Lorre as "the real main attraction here, the veteran villain working at full weasel mode. Peter Debruge of Variety praised Lorre, considering
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
Skyfall is a 2012 spy film, the twenty-third in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions. The film is the third to star Daniel Craig as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond and features Javier Bardem as Raoul Silva, the villain, it was directed by Sam Mendes and written by Neal Purvis, Robert Wade, John Logan, features the theme song "Skyfall", written and performed by Adele. It was distributed by Columbia Pictures; the story centres on Bond investigating an attack on MI6. The film sees the return of two recurring characters after an absence of two films: Q, played by Ben Whishaw, Moneypenny, played by Naomie Harris. Mendes was approached to direct after the release of Quantum of Solace in 2008. Development was suspended when MGM ran into financial trouble, did not resume until December 2010; the original screenwriter, Peter Morgan, left the project during the suspension. When production resumed, Logan and Wade continued writing what became the final version. Filming began in November 2011 in the United Kingdom, with smaller portions shot in China and Turkey.
Skyfall premiered in London at the Royal Albert Hall on 23 October 2012 and was released in the United Kingdom on 26 October and the United States on 9 November. It was the first James Bond film to be screened in IMAX venues, although it was not filmed with IMAX cameras; the release coincided with the 50th anniversary of the series, which began with Dr. No in 1962. Skyfall was well-received by critics, who praised its screenplay, Mendes' direction, musical score, action sequences, it was the 14th film to gross over $1 billion worldwide, the first James Bond film to do so. It became the seventh-highest-grossing film at the time, the highest-grossing film in the UK, the highest-grossing film in the series, the highest-grossing film worldwide for both Sony Pictures and MGM, the second highest-grossing film of 2012; the film won several accolades, including two Academy Awards, two BAFTA Awards and two Grammy Awards. In Istanbul, MI6 agents James Bond and Eve Moneypenny pursue mercenary Patrice, who has stolen a hard drive containing details of undercover agents.
As Bond and Patrice fight atop a moving train, M orders Moneypenny to shoot Patrice. Bond is presumed Patrice escapes with the hard drive. Three months M is pressured by Gareth Mallory, the chairman of the Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament and a former SAS officer, to retire. MI6's servers are hacked and M receives a taunting computer message moments before the MI6 building explodes. Bond, who used his presumed death to retire, learns of returns to London. Although he fails a series of physical and psychological examinations, M approves his return to the field, ordering him to identify Patrice's employer, recover the stolen hard drive, kill Patrice, he meets MI6's new quartermaster, who gives him a radio beacon and a Walther PPK pistol. In Shanghai, Bond follows Patrice into a skyscraper but is unable to prevent him from killing a target; the two fight. Bond finds a casino token that Patrice intended to cash in for the assassination, which leads him to a casino in Macau. There, Bond is approached by Sévérine, Patrice's accomplice, asks to meet her employer.
She warns him that he is about to be killed by her bodyguards, but promises to help Bond if he will kill her employer. Bond joins Sévérine on her yacht, the Chimera, they travel to an abandoned island off the coast of Macau where they are taken prisoner by the crew and delivered to Sévérine's employer, Raoul Silva. Silva, once an MI6 agent, has now turned to cyberterrorism and orchestrated the attack on MI6. Silva kills Sévérine. At MI6's new underground headquarters, Q attempts to decrypt Silva's laptop, but inadvertently gives it access to the MI6 servers, which allows Silva to escape. Bond deduces that Silva, who has disguised himself as a police officer, wanted to be captured as part of a plan to kill M, whom he resents for disavowing and betraying him to the Chinese government, it is noted that when he tried to kill himself with Cyanide upon capture, his capsule was expired, failing to kill him but doing severe damage to his teeth and jaw. Bond gives chase through the London Underground and, despite a train crash, reaches a public inquiry into M's handling of the stolen hard drive, repels Silva's attack on it, extracts M by car.
Instructing Q and Bill Tanner to leave an electronic trail for Silva to follow, Bond takes M to Skyfall, the Bond family estate in the Scottish Highlands. They meet Skyfall's gamekeeper Kincade, together the trio set up a series of booby traps throughout the house; when Silva's men arrive, Bond, M, Kincade manage to kill most of them, but M is wounded. Silva himself arrives by helicopter with more men and heavy weapons, so Bond sends M and Kincade through a priest hole to a nearby chapel; as the house is destroyed Bond heads toward the chapel. Silva follows Kincade and M to the chapel, he forces his gun into M's hand and presses his temple to hers, begging her to kill them both. Bond arrives and kills Silva by throwing a knife into his back, but M succumbs to her wounds and dies in Bond's arms. Following M's funeral, Moneypenny formally introduces herself to Bond and tells him she is retiring from field work to become secretary for the newly appointed M, who B