In 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any surface of an object in three dimensions via specialized software. The product is called a 3D model. Someone who works with 3D models may be referred to as a 3D artist, it can be displayed as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering or used in a computer simulation of physical phenomena. The model can be physically created using 3D printing devices. Models may be created manually; the manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting. 3D modeling software is a class of 3D computer graphics. Individual programs of this class are called modeling modelers. Three-dimensional models represent a physical body using a collection of points in 3D space, connected by various geometric entities such as triangles, curved surfaces, etc. Being a collection of data, 3D models scanned, their surfaces may be further defined with texture mapping.
3D models are used anywhere in 3D graphics and CAD. Their use predates the widespread use of 3D graphics on personal computers. Many computer games used pre-rendered images of 3D models as sprites before computers could render them in real-time; the designer can see the model in various directions and views, this can help the designer see if the object is created as intended to compared to their original vision. Seeing the design this way can help the designer/company figure out changes or improvements needed to the product. Today, 3D models are used in a wide variety of fields; the medical industry uses detailed models of organs. The movie industry uses them as objects for animated and real-life motion pictures; the video game industry uses them as assets for video games. The science sector uses them as detailed models of chemical compounds; the architecture industry uses them to demonstrate proposed buildings and landscapes in lieu of traditional, physical architectural models. The engineering community uses them as designs of new devices and structures as well as a host of other uses.
In recent decades the earth science community has started to construct 3D geological models as a standard practice. 3D models can be the basis for physical devices that are built with 3D printers or CNC machines. All 3D models can be divided into two categories. Solid – These models define the volume of the object they represent. Solid models are used for engineering and medical simulations, are built with constructive solid geometry Shell/boundary – these models represent the surface, e.g. the boundary of the object, not its volume. All visual models used in games and film are shell models. Solid and shell modeling can create functionally identical objects. Differences between them are variations in the way they are created and edited and conventions of use in various fields and differences in types of approximations between the model and reality. Shell models must be manifold to be meaningful as a real object. Polygonal meshes are by far the most common representation. Level sets are a useful representation for deforming surfaces which undergo many topological changes such as fluids.
The process of transforming representations of objects, such as the middle point coordinate of a sphere and a point on its circumference into a polygon representation of a sphere, is called tessellation. This step is used in polygon-based rendering, where objects are broken down from abstract representations such as spheres, cones etc. to so-called meshes, which are nets of interconnected triangles. Meshes of triangles are popular. Polygon representations are not used in all rendering techniques, in these cases the tessellation step is not included in the transition from abstract representation to rendered scene. There are three popular ways to represent a model: Polygonal modeling – Points in 3D space, called vertices, are connected by line segments to form a polygon mesh; the vast majority of 3D models today are built as textured polygonal models, because they are flexible and because computers can render them so quickly. However, polygons can only approximate curved surfaces using many polygons.
Curve modeling – Surfaces are defined by curves, which are influenced by weighted control points. The curve follows the points. Increasing the weight for a point will pull the curve closer to that point. Curve types include nonuniform rational B-spline, splines and geometric primitives Digital sculpting – Still a new method of modeling, 3D sculpting has become popular in the few years it has been around. There are three types of digital sculpting: Displacement, the most used among applications at this moment, uses a dense model and stores new locations for the vertex positions through use of an image map that stores the adjusted locations. Volumetric, loosely based on voxels, has similar capabilities as displacement but does not suffer from polygon stretching when there are not enough polygons in a region to achieve a deformation. Dynamic te
Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animation only refers to the moving images. Modern computer animation uses 3D computer graphics, although 2D computer graphics are still used for stylistic, low bandwidth, faster real-time renderings. Sometimes, the target of the animation sometimes film as well. Computer animation is a digital successor to the stop motion techniques using 3D models, traditional animation techniques using frame-by-frame animation of 2D illustrations. Computer-generated animations are more controllable than other more physically based processes, constructing miniatures for effects shots or hiring extras for crowd scenes, because it allows the creation of images that would not be feasible using any other technology, it can allow a single graphic artist to produce such content without the use of actors, expensive set pieces, or props.
To create the illusion of movement, an image is displayed on the computer monitor and replaced by a new image, similar to it, but advanced in time. This technique is identical to how the illusion of movement is achieved with television and motion pictures. For 3D animations, objects are built on the computer monitor and 3D figures are rigged with a virtual skeleton. For 2D figure animations, separate objects and separate transparent layers are used with or without that virtual skeleton; the limbs, mouth, etc. of the figure are moved by the animator on key frames. The differences in appearance between key frames are automatically calculated by the computer in a process known as tweening or morphing; the animation is rendered. For 3D animations, all frames must be rendered. For 2D vector animations, the rendering process is the key frame illustration process, while tweened frames are rendered as needed. For pre-recorded presentations, the rendered frames are transferred to a different format or medium, like digital video.
The frames may be rendered in real time as they are presented to the end-user audience. Low bandwidth animations transmitted via the internet use software on the end-users computer to render in real time as an alternative to streaming or pre-loaded high bandwidth animations. To trick the eye and the brain into thinking they are seeing a smoothly moving object, the pictures should be drawn at around 12 frames per second or faster. With rates above 75-120 frames per second, no improvement in realism or smoothness is perceivable due to the way the eye and the brain both process images. At rates below 12 frames per second, most people can detect jerkiness associated with the drawing of new images that detracts from the illusion of realistic movement. Conventional hand-drawn cartoon animation uses 15 frames per second in order to save on the number of drawings needed, but this is accepted because of the stylized nature of cartoons. To produce more realistic imagery, computer animation demands higher frame rates.
Films seen in theaters in the United States run at 24 frames per second, sufficient to create the illusion of continuous movement. For high resolution, adapters are used. Early digital computer animation was developed at Bell Telephone Laboratories in the 1960s by Edward E. Zajac, Frank W. Sinden, Kenneth C. Knowlton, A. Michael Noll. Other digital animation was practiced at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In 1967, a computer animation named "Hummingbird" was created by James Shaffer. In 1968, a computer animation called "Kitty" was created with BESM-4 by Nikolai Konstantinov, depicting a cat moving around. In 1971, a computer animation called "Metadata" was created. An early step in the history of computer animation was the sequel to the 1973 film Westworld, a science-fiction film about a society in which robots live and work among humans; the sequel, used the 3D wire-frame imagery, which featured a computer-animated hand and face both created by University of Utah graduates Edwin Catmull and Fred Parke.
This imagery appeared in their student film A Computer Animated Hand, which they completed in 1972. Developments in CGI technologies are reported each year at SIGGRAPH, an annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, attended by thousands of computer professionals each year. Developers of computer games and 3D video cards strive to achieve the same visual quality on personal computers in real-time as is possible for CGI films and animation. With the rapid advancement of real-time rendering quality, artists began to use game engines to render non-interactive movies, which led to the art form Machinima; the first full length computer animated television series was ReBoot, which debuted in September 1994. The first feature-length computer animated film was Toy Story, made by Pixar, it followed an adventure centered around their owners. This groundbreaking film was the first of many computer-animated movies. In most 3D computer animation systems, an animator creates a simplified representation of a character's anatomy, analogous to a skeleton or stick figure.
They are by default arranged into a default position known. The position of each segment of the skeletal model is defined by animation variables, or Avars for short. In human and animal characters, many parts of the skeletal mo
3D computer graphics
3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data, stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images. Such images may be stored for viewing or displayed in real-time. 3D computer graphics rely on many of the same algorithms as 2D computer vector graphics in the wire-frame model and 2D computer raster graphics in the final rendered display. In computer graphics software, 2D applications may use 3D techniques to achieve effects such as lighting, 3D may use 2D rendering techniques. 3D computer graphics are referred to as 3D models. Apart from the rendered graphic, the model is contained within the graphical data file. However, there are differences: a 3D model is the mathematical representation of any three-dimensional object. A model is not technically a graphic. A model can be displayed visually as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering or used in non-graphical computer simulations and calculations.
With 3D printing, 3D models are rendered into a 3D physical representation of the model, with limitations to how accurate the rendering can match the virtual model. William Fetter was credited with coining the term computer graphics in 1961 to describe his work at Boeing. One of the first displays of computer animation was Futureworld, which included an animation of a human face and a hand that had appeared in the 1972 experimental short A Computer Animated Hand, created by University of Utah students Edwin Catmull and Fred Parke.3D computer graphic s software began appearing for home computers in the late 1970s. The earliest known example is 3D Art Graphics, a set of 3D computer graphics effects, written by Kazumasa Mitazawa and released in June 1978 for the Apple II. 3D computer graphics creation falls into three basic phases: 3D modeling – the process of forming a computer model of an object's shape Layout and animation – the placement and movement of objects within a scene 3D rendering – the computer calculations that, based on light placement, surface types, other qualities, generate the image The model describes the process of forming the shape of an object.
The two most common sources of 3D models are those that an artist or engineer originates on the computer with some kind of 3D modeling tool, models scanned into a computer from real-world objects. Models can be produced procedurally or via physical simulation. A 3D model is formed from points called vertices that define the shape and form polygons. A polygon is an area formed from at least three vertexes. A polygon of n points is an n-gon; the overall integrity of the model and its suitability to use in animation depend on the structure of the polygons. Materials and textures are properties that the render engine uses to render the model, in an unbiased render engine like blender cycles, one can give the model materials to tell the engine how to treat light when it hits the surface. Textures are used to give the material color using a color or albedo map, or give the surface features using a bump or normal map, it can be used to deform the model itself using a displacement map. Before rendering into an image, objects must be laid out in a scene.
This defines spatial relationships including location and size. Animation refers to the temporal description of an object; these techniques are used in combination. As with animation, physical simulation specifies motion. Rendering converts a model into an image either by simulating light transport to get photo-realistic images, or by applying an art style as in non-photorealistic rendering; the two basic operations in realistic rendering are scattering. This step is performed using 3D computer graphics software or a 3D graphics API. Altering the scene into a suitable form for rendering involves 3D projection, which displays a three-dimensional image in two dimensions. Although 3D modeling and CAD software may perform 3D rendering as well, exclusive 3D rendering software exists. 3D computer graphics software produces computer-generated imagery through 3D modeling and 3D rendering or produces 3D models for analytic and industrial purposes. 3D modeling software is a class of 3D computer graphics. Individual programs of this class are called modeling modelers.
3D modelers allow users to alter models via their 3D mesh. Users can add, subtract and otherwise change the mesh to their desire. Models can be viewed from a variety of angles simultaneously. Models can be rotated and the view can be zoomed in and out. 3D modelers can export their models to files, which can be imported into other applications as long as the metadata are compatible. Many modelers allow importers and exporters to be plugged-in, so they can read and write data in the native formats of other applications. Most 3D modelers contain a number of related features, such as ray tracers and other rendering alternatives and texture mapping facilities; some contain features that support or allow animation of models. Some may be able to generate full-motion video of a series of rendered scenes. Computer aided design software may employ the same fundamental 3D modeling techniques that 3D modeling software use but their goal differs, they are used in computer-aided engineering, computer-aided man
In elementary geometry, a polygon is a plane figure, described by a finite number of straight line segments connected to form a closed polygonal chain or polygonal circuit. The solid plane region, the bounding circuit, or the two together, may be called a polygon; the segments of a polygonal circuit are called its edges or sides, the points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices or corners. The interior of a solid polygon is sometimes called its body. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides. A simple polygon is one. Mathematicians are concerned only with the bounding polygonal chains of simple polygons and they define a polygon accordingly. A polygonal boundary may be allowed to cross over itself, creating star polygons and other self-intersecting polygons. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. There are many more generalizations of polygons defined for different purposes; the word polygon derives from the Greek adjective πολύς "much", "many" and γωνία "corner" or "angle".
It has been suggested. Polygons are classified by the number of sides. See the table below. Polygons may be characterized by their convexity or type of non-convexity: Convex: any line drawn through the polygon meets its boundary twice; as a consequence, all its interior angles are less than 180°. Equivalently, any line segment with endpoints on the boundary passes through only interior points between its endpoints. Non-convex: a line may be found which meets its boundary more than twice. Equivalently, there exists a line segment between two boundary points that passes outside the polygon. Simple: the boundary of the polygon does not cross itself. All convex polygons are simple. Concave. Non-convex and simple. There is at least one interior angle greater than 180°. Star-shaped: the whole interior is visible from at least one point, without crossing any edge; the polygon must be simple, may be convex or concave. All convex polygons are star-shaped. Self-intersecting: the boundary of the polygon crosses itself.
The term complex is sometimes used in contrast to simple, but this usage risks confusion with the idea of a complex polygon as one which exists in the complex Hilbert plane consisting of two complex dimensions. Star polygon: a polygon which self-intersects in a regular way. A polygon can not be both star-shaped. Equiangular: all corner angles are equal. Cyclic: all corners lie on a single circle, called the circumcircle. Isogonal or vertex-transitive: all corners lie within the same symmetry orbit; the polygon is cyclic and equiangular. Equilateral: all edges are of the same length; the polygon need not be convex. Tangential: all sides are tangent to an inscribed circle. Isotoxal or edge-transitive: all sides lie within the same symmetry orbit; the polygon is equilateral and tangential. Regular: the polygon is both isogonal and isotoxal. Equivalently, it is both equilateral, or both equilateral and equiangular. A non-convex regular polygon is called a regular star polygon. Rectilinear: the polygon's sides meet at right angles, i.e. all its interior angles are 90 or 270 degrees.
Monotone with respect to a given line L: every line orthogonal to L intersects the polygon not more than twice. Euclidean geometry is assumed throughout. Any polygon has as many corners; each corner has several angles. The two most important ones are: Interior angle – The sum of the interior angles of a simple n-gon is π radians or × 180 degrees; this is because any simple n-gon can be considered to be made up of triangles, each of which has an angle sum of π radians or 180 degrees. The measure of any interior angle of a convex regular n-gon is 180 − 360 n degrees; the interior angles of regular star polygons were first studied by Poinsot, in the same paper in which he describes the four regular star polyhedra: for a regular p q -gon, each interior angle is π p radians or 180 p degrees. Exterior angle – The exterior angle is the supplementary angle to the interior angle. Tracing around a convex n-gon, the angle "turned" at a corner is external angle. Tracing all the way around the polygon makes one full turn, so the sum of the exterior angles must be 360°.
This argument can be generalized to concave simple polygons, if external angles that turn in the opposite direction are subtracted from the total turned. Tracing around an n-gon in general, the sum of the exterior angles can be any integer multiple d of 360°, e.g. 720° for a pentagram and 0° for an angular "eight" or antiparallelogram, where d is the density or starriness of the polygon. See orbit. In this section, the vertices of the polygon under consideration are taken to be, ( x 1
Vector graphics are computer graphics images that are defined in terms of 2D points, which are connected by lines and curves to form polygons and other shapes. Each of these points has a definite position on the x- and y-axis of the work plane and determines the direction of the path. Vector graphics are found today in the SVG, EPS and PDF graphic file formats and are intrinsically different from the more common raster graphics file formats of JPEG, PNG, APNG, GIF, MPEG4. One of the first uses of vector graphic displays was the US SAGE air defense system. Vector graphics systems were retired from the U. S. en route air traffic control in 1999, are still in use in military and specialized systems. Vector graphics were used on the TX-2 at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory by computer graphics pioneer Ivan Sutherland to run his program Sketchpad in 1963. Subsequent vector graphics systems, most of which iterated through dynamically modifiable stored lists of drawing instructions, include the IBM 2250, Imlac PDS-1, DEC GT40.
There was a home gaming system that used vector graphics called Vectrex as well as various arcade games like Asteroids, Space Wars and many cinematronics titles such as Rip-Off, Tail Gunner using vector monitors. Storage scope displays, such as the Tektronix 4014, could display vector images but not modify them without first erasing the display. In computer typography, modern outline fonts describe printable characters by cubic or quadratic mathematical curves with control points. Bitmap fonts are still in use. Converting outlines requires filling them in. Processing outline character data in a sophisticated fashion to create satisfactory bitmaps for rendering is called "hinting". Although the term implies suggestion, the process is deterministic and done by executable code a special-purpose computer language. While automatic hinting is possible, results can be inferior to that done by experts. Modern vector graphics displays can sometimes be found at laser light shows, where two fast-moving X-Y mirrors position the beam to draw shapes and text as straight and curved strokes on a screen.
Vector graphics can be created in a form using a pen plotter, a special type of printer that uses a series of ballpoint and felt-tip pens on a servo-driven mount that moves horizontally across the paper, with the plotter moving the paper back and forth through its paper path for vertical movement. Although a typical plot might require a few thousand paper motions and forth, the paper doesn't slip. In a tiny roll-fed plotter made by Alps in Japan, teeth on thin sprockets indented the paper near its edges on the first pass and maintained registration on subsequent passes; some Hewlett-Packard pen plotters had stationery paper. However, the moving-paper H-P plotters had grit wheels which, on the first pass, indented the paper surface, collectively maintained registration. Present-day vector graphic files such as engineering drawings are printed as bitmaps, after vector-to-raster conversion; the term "vector graphics" is used today in the context of two-dimensional computer graphics. It is one of several modes.
Vector graphics can be uploaded to online databases for other designers to download and manipulate, speeding up the creative process. Other modes include text, 3D rendering. All modern 3D rendering is done using extensions of 2D vector graphics techniques. Plotters used in technical drawing still draw vectors directly to paper; the World Wide Web Consortium standard for vector graphics is Scalable Vector Graphics. The standard is complex and has been slow to be established at least in part owing to commercial interests. Many web browsers now have some support for rendering SVG data but full implementations of the standard are still comparatively rare. In recent years, SVG has become a significant format, independent of the resolution of the rendering device a printer or display monitor. SVG files are printable text that describes both straight and curved paths, as well as other attributes. Wikipedia prefers SVG for images such as simple maps, line illustrations, coats of arms, flags, which are not like photographs or other continuous-tone images.
Rendering SVG requires conversion to raster format at a resolution appropriate for the current task. SVG is a format for animated graphics. There is a version of SVG for mobile phones. In particular, the specific format for mobile phones is called SVGT; these images can count links and exploit anti-aliasing. They can be displayed as wallpaper; the list of image file formats covers public vector formats. Modern displays and printers are raster devices; the size of the bitmap/raster-format file generated by the conversion will depend on the resolution required, but the size of the vector file generating the bitmap/raster file will always remain the same. Thus, it is easy to convert from a vector file to a range of bitmap/raster file formats but it is much more difficult to go in the opposite direction if subsequent editing of the vector picture is required, it might be an advantage to save an image created
Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production. Its key characteristic is that design is separated from manufacture: the creative act of determining and defining a product's form and features takes place in advance of the physical act of making a product, which consists purely of repeated automated, replication; this distinguishes industrial design from craft-based design, where the form of the product is determined by the product's creator at the time of its creation. All manufactured products are the result of a design process, but the nature of this process can take many forms: it can be conducted by an individual or a large team; the role of an industrial designer is to create and execute design solutions for problems of form, usability, physical ergonomics, brand development and sales. For several millennia before the onset of industrialisation, technical expertise, manufacturing were done by individuals craftsmen, who determined the form of a product at the point of its creation, according to their own manual skill, the requirements of their clients, experience accumulated through their own experimentation, knowledge passed on to them through training or apprenticeship.
The division of labour that underlies the practice of industrial design did have precedents in the pre-industrial era. The growth of trade in the medieval period led to the emergence of large workshops in cities such as Florence, Venice and Bruges, where groups of more specialized craftsmen made objects with common forms through the repetitive duplication of models which defined by their shared training and technique. Competitive pressures in the early 16th century led to the emergence in Italy and Germany of pattern books: collections of engravings illustrating decorative forms and motifs which could be applied to a wide range of products, whose creation took place in advance of their application; the use of drawing to specify how something was to be constructed was first developed by architects and shipwrights during the Italian Renaissance. In the 17th century, the growth of artistic patronage in centralized monarchical states such as France led to large government-operated manufacturing operations epitomised by the Gobelins Manufactory, opened in Paris in 1667 by Louis XIV.
Here teams of hundreds of craftsmen, including specialist artists and engravers, produced sumptuously decorated products ranging from tapestries and furniture to metalwork and coaches, all under the creative supervision of the King's leading artist Charles Le Brun. This pattern of large-scale royal patronage was repeated in the court porcelain factories of the early 18th century, such as the Meissen porcelain workshops established in 1709 by the Grand Duke of Saxony, where patterns from a range of sources, including court goldsmiths and engravers, were used as models for the vessels and figurines for which it became famous; as long as reproduction remained craft-based, the form and artistic quality of the product remained in the hands of the individual craftsman, tended to decline as the scale of production increased. The emergence of industrial design is linked to the growth of industrialisation and mechanisation that began with the industrial revolution in Great Britain in the mid 18th century.
The rise of industrial manufacture changed the way objects were made, urbanisation changed patterns of consumption, the growth of empires broadened tastes and diversified markets, the emergence of a wider middle class created demand for fashionable styles from a much larger and more heterogeneous population. The first use of the term "industrial design" is attributed to the industrial designer Joseph Claude Sinel in 1919, but the discipline predates 1919 by at least a decade. Christopher Dresser is considered among the first independent industrial designers. Industrial design's origins lie in the industrialization of consumer products. For instance the Deutscher Werkbund, founded in 1907 and a precursor to the Bauhaus, was a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques, to put Germany on a competitive footing with Great Britain and the United States; the earliest use of the term may have been in The Art Union, A monthly Journal of the Fine Arts, 1839.
Dyce's report to the Board of Trade on foreign schools of Design for Manufactures. Mr Dyces official visit to France and Bavaria for the purpose of examining the state of schools of design in those countries will be fresh in the recollection of our readers, his report on this subject was ordered to be printed some few months since, on the motion of Mr Hume. The school of St Peter, at Lyons was founded about 1750 for the instruction of draftsmen employed in preparing patterns for the silk manufacture, it has been much more successful than the Paris school and having been disorganized by the revolution, was restored by Napoleon and differently constituted, being erected into an Academy of Fine Art: to which the study of design for silk manufacture was attached as a subordinate branch. It appears that all the students who entered the school commence as if they were intended for artists in the higher sense of the word and are not expected to decide as to whether they will devote themselves to the Fine Arts or to Industrial Design, until they have completed their exercises in drawing and p
Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players. Flash displays text, vector graphics and raster graphics to provide animations, video games and applications, it allows streaming of audio and video, can capture mouse, keyboard and camera input. Related development platform Adobe AIR continues to be supported. Artists may produce Flash animations using Adobe Animate. Software developers may produce applications and video games using Adobe Flash Builder, FlashDevelop, Flash Catalyst, or any text editor when used with the Apache Flex SDK. End-users can view Flash content via AIR or third-party players such as Scaleform. Adobe Flash Player enables end-users to view Flash content using web browsers. Adobe Flash Lite enabled viewing Flash content on older smartphones, but has been discontinued and superseded by Adobe AIR; the ActionScript programming language allows the development of interactive animations, video games, web applications, desktop applications and mobile applications.
Programmers can implement Flash software using an IDE such as Adobe Animate, Adobe Flash Builder, Adobe Director, FlashDevelop and Powerflasher FDT. Adobe AIR enables full-featured desktop and mobile applications to be developed with Flash and published for Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, Xbox One, PlayStation 4, Nintendo Wii U, Switch. Although Flash was a dominant platform for online multimedia content, it is being abandoned as Adobe favors a transition to HTML5. Flash Player has been deprecated and has an official end-of-life at the end of 2020. However, Adobe will continue to develop Adobe AIR, a related technology for building stand-alone applications and games. In the early 2000s, Flash was installed on desktop computers, was used to display interactive web pages, online games, to playback video and audio content. In 2005, YouTube was founded by former PayPal employees, it used Flash Player as a means to display compressed video content on the web. Between 2000 and 2010, numerous businesses used Flash-based websites to launch new products, or to create interactive company portals.
Notable users include Nike, Hewlett-Packard, General Electric, World Wildlife Fund, HBO, Cartoon Network and Motorola. After Adobe introduced hardware-accelerated 3D for Flash, Flash websites saw a growth of 3D content for product demonstrations and virtual tours. In 2007, YouTube offered videos in HTML5 format to support the iPhone and iPad, which did not support Flash Player. After a controversy with Apple, Adobe stopped developing Flash Player for Mobile, focussing its efforts on Adobe AIR applications and HTML5 animation. In 2015, Google introduced Google Swiffy to convert Flash animation to HTML5, a tool Google would use to automatically convert Flash web ads for mobile devices. In 2016, Google discontinued its support. In 2015, YouTube switched to HTML5 technology on all devices. After Flash 5 introduced ActionScript in 2000, developers combined the visual and programming capabilities of Flash to produce interactive experiences and applications for the Web; such Web-based applications came to be known as "Rich Internet Applications".
In 2004, Macromedia Flex was released, targeted the application development market. Flex introduced new user interface components, advanced data visualization components, data remoting, a modern IDE. Flex competed with Microsoft Silverlight during its tenure. Flex was upgraded to support integration with remote data sources, using AMF, BlazeDS, Adobe LiveCycle, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, others; as of 2015, Flex applications can be published for desktop platforms using Adobe AIR. Between 2006 and 2016, the Speedtest.net web service conducted over 9.0 billion speed tests using an RIA built with Adobe Flash. In 2016, the service shifted to HTML5 due to the decreasing availability of Adobe Flash Player on PCs; as of 2016, Web applications and RIAs can be developed with Flash using the ActionScript 3.0 programming language and related tools such as Adobe Flash Builder. Third-party IDEs such as FlashDevelop and Powerflasher FDT enable developers to create Flash games and applications, are similar to Microsoft Visual Studio.
Flex applications are built using Flex frameworks such as PureMVC. Flash video games were popular on the Internet, with portals like Newgrounds and Armor Games dedicated to hosting of Flash-based games. Popular games developed with Flash include Angry Birds, Clash of Clans, FarmVille, AdventureQuest, Hundreds, N, QWOP and Solipskier. Adobe introduced various technologies to help build video games, including Adobe AIR, Adobe Scout, CrossBridge, Stage3D. 3D frameworks like Away3D and Flare3D simplified creation of 3D content for Flash. Adobe AIR allows creation of Flash-based mobile games, which may be published to the Google Play and Apple app stores. Flash is used to build interfaces and HUDs for 3D video games using Scaleform GFx, a technology that renders Flash content within non-Flash video games. Scaleform is supported by more than 10 major video game engines including Unreal Engine, UDK, CryEngine and PhyreEngine, has been used to provide 3D interfaces for more than 150 majo