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Eparchy

Eparchy is an anglicized Greek word, authentically Latinized as eparchia, which can be loosely translated as the rule or jurisdiction over something, such as a province, prefecture, or territory. It has specific meanings both in politics, history and in the hierarchy of the Eastern Christian churches. In secular use, the word eparchy denotes an administrative district in the Roman / Byzantine Empire, or in modern Greece or Cyprus. In ecclesiastical use, an eparchy is a territorial diocese governed by a bishop of one of the Eastern churches, who holds the title of eparch, it is part of a metropolis. Each eparchy is divided into parishes in the same manner as a diocese of western Christendom. In the Catholic Church, an archieparchy equivalent to an archdiocese of the Roman Rite and its bishop is an archieparch, equivalent to an archbishop of the Roman Rite. Eparchy was the Greek equivalent of the Latin term provincia, one of the districts of the Roman Empire; as such it was used, chiefly in the eastern parts of the Empire.

The term eparch however, designating an eparchy's governor, was most used to refer to the praetorian prefects in charge of the Empire's praetorian prefectures, to the Eparch of Constantinople, the city's urban prefect. The Dominate-period administrative system was retained In the Byzantine period of the Empire until the 7th century; as Greek became the Empire's main administrative language, replacing Latin, in the latter 6th century the provinces of the Exarchate of Ravenna, in reconquered Italy, were termed eparchiae in Greek as well as in Latin. In the latter half of the 7th century, the old provincial administration was replaced by the thematic system. After that however, the term eparchos remained in use until the 840s for the senior administrative official of each thema, under the governing strategos. Thereafter, eparchs are evident in some cases as city governors, but the most important by far amongst them was the Eparch of Constantinople, whose office had wide-ranging powers and functioned continuously until the 13th century.

The term eparchia was revived as one of the administrative sub-provincial units of post-Ottoman independent Greece, the country being divided into nomoi, of which in turn some were subdivided into eparchies. From 1887, the eparchies were abolished as actual administrative units, but were retained for some state services finance services and education, as well as for electoral purposes. Before the Second World War, there were 139 eparchies, after the war, with the addition of the Dodecanese Islands, their number grew to 147; the provinces were abolished in the mainland, in the wide-ranging administrative reform implemented in 1997 and replaced by enlarged municipalities. In Cyprus, the term eparchia is used to refer to the Districts of Cyprus; the Christian Church adopted elements of political, administrative system of the late Roman Empire, as introduced by the reforms of Diocletian. Adopted elements included both organizational terminology. Notwithstanding the primacies of the Apostolic Sees of Rome and Antioch, the bishoprics of each civil province were grouped in one ecclesiastical province called eparchy, under the supervision of the metropolitan the bishop of the provincial capital.

The First Council of Nicaea in 325 accepted this arrangement and orders that: "the authority shall belong to the metropolitan in each eparchy", i.e. in each such civil eparchy there shall be a metropolitan bishop who has authority over the others. Since the use of the term eparchy was linked to metropolitan rights in Eastern Christianity, after a process of title-inflation and multiplying the numbers of metropolitans by elevating local bishops to honorary metropolitan rank without giving them any real metropolitan powers, the use of the word "eparchy" was modified and came to refer to dioceses of such "metropolitan" bishops, to dioceses in general; this process was promoted in the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, the new usage of term "eparchy" became prevalent in the Eastern Orthodox Church, the ancient Oriental Churches, the Eastern Catholic Churches. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the name eparchy is not used as the usual term for a diocese except in the Bulgarian, Czechoslovak and Serbian Orthodox Churches.

The Russian Orthodox Church in the early 20th century counted 86 eparchies, of which three were ruled by bishops who always bore the title "Metropolitan." This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Pauly-Wissowa Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Meyendorff, John. Imperial unity and Christian divisions: The Church 450-680 A. D; the Church in history. 2. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. Nedungatt, George, ed.. A Guide to the Eastern Code: A Commentary on the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. Rome: Oriental Institute Press. Map with all Dioceses of the Eastern Churches The dictionary definition of eparchy at Wiktionary

Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014

The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, popularly known as the Telangana Act is an Act of Indian Parliament that bifurcated the state of Andhra Pradesh into Telangana and the residuary Andhra Pradesh state, due to the Telangana movement. The Act defined the boundaries of the two states, determined how the assets and liabilities were to be divided, laid out the status of Hyderabad as the permanent capital of new Telangana state and temporary capital of the Andhra Pradesh state. An earlier version of the bill, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2013, was rejected by the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly on 30 January 2014; the 2014 bill was passed in the Lok Sabha on 18 February 2014 and in the Rajya Sabha on 20 February 2014. The bill was attested by the President of India, Pranab Mukherjee on 1 March 2014 and published in the official Gazette on 2 March 2014, where as 2 June 2014 is the'appointed day' according to the act; the new states were created on 2 June 2014. The Union Cabinet formed a Group of Ministers committee in August 2013 led by the Union Home Minister, Sushil Kumar Shinde to look into the suitability of a division of Andhra Pradesh.

The members included the Finance Minister, P. Chidambaram, Health Minister Ghulam Nabi Azad, Petroleum Minister & Natural Gas Minister Veerappa Moily, Union Rural Development Minister Jairam Ramesh and minister of state in PMO Narayanaswamy, it took the Srikrishna committee on Telangana into account. A no-confidence motion against the Congress government was submitted to the speaker of the house Meira Kumari by Congress MPs from Andhra Pradesh making the sitting government a minority government was rejected by the speaker. Amidst a lot of protest in the Lok Sabha, the bill was introduced by the speaker Meira Kumar at 12:00 pm on 13 February 2014. During this time, there was a lot of shouting of slogans and disruption of proceedings by the Seemandhra MPs in the parliament who were determined to stop the bill; the Indian National Congress party MP's attacked the anti-Telangana protestors, the MP Lagadapati Rajagopal used pepper spray in the parliament. He said he was attacked by some Congress MPs from other states and had to use it in self-defense.

The parliament was adjourned at 12:05 pm to 02:00 pm. The leader of the opposition in the Lok Sabha Sushma Swaraj said she did not know if the bill was introduced. On 18 February 2014, the Telangana Bill was passed by the Voice Vote in the Lok Sabha with support from the Bharatiya Janata Party while the live telecast of the House was cut off and the doors and galleries were sealed; the Seemandhra leaders accused the United Progressive Alliance government of having taken it up for electoral gains and said it was a "black day" for the Indian parliament. On 20 February, the Telangana bill was passed by the Rajya Sabha with support from the BJP. MPs from various parties asked for division but it was rejected by the speaker; the bill was passed by a voice vote. The bill received the assent of the President and published in the Gazette on 1 March 2014; the new State came into effect "from the date set by the central government known as appointed date." It became the 29th state of India. Due to disruptions to the House, Meira Kumar suspended 18 MPs from Andhra Pradesh on 13 February 2014 for the rest of the session.

They included 11 MPs of the Congress party, three MPs of the Telugu Desam party, two MPs of YSR Congress, two other MPs from the Telangana region. Though only an opinion is required under Article 3 of the Indian Constitution, a resolution was adopted and the bill was rejected by the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly and Council on 30 January 2014. Only 119 out of 294 MLAs in state assembly are from Telangana. Non-Telangana MLAs opposed the bill; this was the first instance a state was re-organized after a state expressed an opinion against the re-organization in Indian history. Nine petitions were filed in the Supreme Court of India requesting a stay of the tabling of the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Bill in parliament; the court rejected the pleas saying, "We do not think this is the appropriate stage for us to interfere". They would only consider the petition, but the court issued notices to the centre regarding the issue on 7 March 2014. The apex court would take up the issue on 5 May 2014.

The next hearing in the Supreme Court was scheduled for 20 August 2014 One petitioner approached the Supreme Court praying that the parliament does not have the power either under Articles 3, 4 or any other provision of the Constitution of India to divide a state except by an appropriate amendment of the Constitution under article 368 and with the unanimous consent of the people of the affected State or States. While invoking Articles 2 & 3, the deemed constitutional amendment provision under article 4 of the constitution bypassing Article 368 was said to be invalid after the 24th amendment in 1971; the law ministry of the union government considered bringing appropriate amendments to the Act to bring legality to it. The common high court of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states stated that the division of the high court located at Hyderabad can only be done with the formation of separate high court for Andhra Pradesh located in that state as per section 31 of the Act. A separate high court for Telangana can not be formed by dividing the present common hi

1953 Maltese general election

General elections were held in Malta between 12 and 14 December 1953. The Malta Labour Party emerged as the largest party. However, the Nationalist Party formed a government with the Malta Workers Party on 9 January 1954 with Giorgio Borġ Olivier continuing as Prime Minister; the Nationalist Party-Workers Party government led by Giorgio Borġ Olivier had been defeated in the Legislative Assembly vote on a budget motion on 9 October 1953. This led to the three Workers Party ministers resigning from the cabinet on 12 October. Following discussions with party leaders, the Assembly was dissolved by Governor Gerald Creasy on 15 October. Elections were called, the Nationalist Party ministers remained in office as a caretaker government; the election was contested by five parties.