August Martin High School

August Martin High School is a New York City public high school located in South Jamaica, Queens, at 156-10 Baisley Boulevard. The school focuses on aviation and other vocational areas. Presently, the school comprises the following four academies, which as of 2014 had a combined enrollment of 853 students: Aerospace and Technology Academy Communication Arts Academy Law Scholars Academy Culinary Arts AcademyIn addition, two separate alternative high schools share the same building: Foundry High School, enrollment 108 Voyages Preparatory High School South Queens, enrollment 150As of the 2014-15 school year, the school had an enrollment of 678 students and 42.6 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 15.9:1. There were 42 eligible for reduced-cost lunch. Plans for the school the Woodrow Wilson High School, existed as early as 1930, to relieve crowding in Jamaica High School; the school's building opened in 1942 as Woodrow Wilson Vocational High School. Quotes from former President Woodrow Wilson still adorn the school building's facade.

It trained thousands of people to join defense-related industries during World War II, although it was planned in 1940, prior to the nation's entry into the war. Woodrow Wilson closed in 1971; the primary goal of the new school was to train African Americans to enter the aviation industry. The school's namesake, August Martin, was trained as a military pilot during World War II as one of the Tuskegee Airmen, after the war became the first African American commercial airline pilot. Martin graduated from DeWitt Clinton High School in the Bronx in 1938 and lived in New York City for much of his life, he died in 1968 when the plane he was piloting crashed during a humanitarian relief mission to the Biafra region of Nigeria. In 2012, neighborhood residents, elected officials, students protested a plan to close August Martin High School, considered to be under-performing by the New York City Department of Education's leadership, open new schools in the same building under different names; this practice had been followed at other schools around the city.

The protesters stressed the importance of the name to the community. As of 2015, the school continues to operate as August Martin High School, this name is still prominently engraved over the door, although the building hosts two smaller high schools that use different names. Lloyd Banks, rapper in the group G-Unit. Najee and smooth jazz saxophonist and flautist Joshua Wooten, First African American Football Player to win consecutive NCAA Football Player of the Year Awards for the Colonial Athletic Association. Selected as an Undrafted Rookie to the San Diego Chargers. Kelly Price, R&B and soul singer on the Def Soul label. Freedom Williams. African American entertainer and rapper and co-founder of the seminal dance hip-hop group C+C Music Factory. Russell Simmons, African American entrepreneur, the co-founder, with Rick Rubin, of the pioneering hip-hop label Def Jam, creator of the clothing fashion line Phat Farm. Graduated in 1975. Notes Official August Martin HS homepage Review of August Martin HS at Biography of August Martin at

List of unsolved problems in biology

This article lists unsolved problems in biology. Origin of life. How and when did life on Earth originate? Which, if any, of the many hypotheses is correct? Origins of viruses. How and when did different groups of viruses originate? Extraterrestrial life. Might life which does not originate from planet Earth have developed on other planets? Might this life be intelligent? What are the chemical origins of life? How did non-living chemical compounds generate self-replicating, complex life forms? Evolution of sex. What selective advantages drove the development of sexual reproduction, how did it develop? Homosexuality. What is the cause of homosexuality in the human species? Development and evolution of brain. How and why did the brain evolve? What are the molecular determinants of individual brain development? What do all the unknown proteins do? Two decades since the first eukaryotes were sequenced, the "biological role" of around 20% of proteins are still unknown. Many of these proteins are conserved across most eukaryotic species and some are conserved in bacteria, indicating a role fundamental for life.

Determinants of cell size. How do cells determine what size to grow to before dividing? Golgi apparatus. In cell theory, what is the exact transport mechanism by which proteins travel through the Golgi apparatus? Mechanism of action of drugs; the mechanisms of action of many drugs including paracetamol, lithium and ketamine are not understood. Protein folding. What is the folding code? What is the folding mechanism? Can we predict the native structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence? Is it possible to predict the secondary and quaternary structure of a polypeptide sequence based on the sequence and environmental information? Inverse protein-folding problem: Is it possible to design a polypeptide sequence which will adopt a given structure under certain environmental conditions? This has been achieved for several small globular proteins in recent years. Enzyme kinetics: Why do some enzymes exhibit faster-than-diffusion kinetics? RNA folding problem: Is it possible to predict the secondary and quaternary structure of a polyribonucleic acid sequence based on its sequence and environment?

Protein design: Is it possible to design active enzymes de novo for any desired reaction? Biosynthesis: Can desired molecules, natural products or otherwise, be produced in high yield through biosynthetic pathway manipulation? What is the mechanism of allosteric transitions of proteins? The concerted and sequential models have been hypothesised but neither has been verified. What are the endogenous ligands of orphan receptors? What substance is endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor? Why does biological aging occur? There are a number of hypotheses why senescence occurs including those that it is programmed by gene expression changes and that it is the accumulative damage of biological processes. Consistency of movement. How can we move so controllably though the motor nerve impulses seem haphazard and unpredictable? How do organs grow to the correct shape and size? How are the final shape and size of organs so reliably formed? These processes are in part controlled by the Hippo signaling pathway Can developing biological systems tell the time?

To an extent, this appears to be the case. Why are babies so born with cancer? Unsolved problems relating to the interactions between organisms and their distribution in the environment include: Paradox of the plankton; the high diversity of phytoplankton seems to violate the competitive exclusion principle. Cambrian explosion. What is the cause of the apparent rapid diversification of multicellular animal life around the beginning of the Cambrian, resulting in the emergence of all modern animal phyla? Latitudinal diversity gradient. Why does biodiversity increase when going from the poles towards the equator? Darwin's abominable mystery of botany/plants. What is the exact evolutionary history of flowers and what is the cause of the sudden appearance of nearly modern flowers in the fossil record? Absence of Loricifera fossils. There are at least 100 species of this phylum of marine dwelling animals, but none of them is known to be present in the fossil record. Adult form of Facetotecta; the adult form of this animal has never been encountered in the water, it remains a mystery to what it grows into.

Origin of snakes. Did snakes evolve from burrowing lizards or aquatic lizards? There is evidence for both hypotheses. Origin of turtles. Did turtles evolve from anapsids or diapsids? There is evidence for both hypotheses. Ediacaran biota. How should Ediacaran biota be classified? What kingdom they belong to is unclear. Why were they so decisively displaced by Cambrian biota? Unsolved problems relating to the behaviour of animals include: Homing. A satisfactory explanation for the neurobiological mechanisms that allow homing in animals has yet to be found. Butterfly migration. How do the descendants of monarch butterfly all over Canada and the US after migrating for several generations, manage to return to a few small overwintering spots? Blue whale. There is not much data on the sexuality of the blue whale. Gall wasp, it is unknown how gall wasps induce gall formation in plants. Unsolved problems relating to the structure and function of non-human organs and biomolecules include: Alkaloids; the function of these substances in living organisms which produce them is not known Korarchaeota.

The metabolic processes of this phylum of archaea are so far unclear. Rotifer. What is the function of the retrocerebral organ of rotifers (pseudocoelomate anima