Battle of Traigh Ghruinneart
The Battle of Traigh Ghruinneart or in Scottish Gaelic Blàr Tràigh Ghruineart or sometimes called the Battle of Gruinart Strand was a Scottish clan battle fought on 5 August 1598, on the Isle of Islay, in the Scottish Highlands. It was fought between the Clan Clan Maclean. A tràigh or stand is the flat area of land bordering a body of a beach, or shoreline; the Isle of Islay had belonged to Clan MacDonald whose leader was Sir James MacDonald, 9th of Dunnyveg, the son of Clan chief Angus MacDonald and who may have imprisoned his father, a nephew of Sir Lachlan Mor Maclean. Sir Lachlan Mor Maclean claimed that the island belonged to his clan and landed about 800 to 1,000 men at Loch Ghruinneart. MacDonald offered his uncle half of the island for MacLean's lifetime only, but he refused unless he received the entire island. James MacDonald had fewer troops but they were well trained. Allies to the Clan MacDonald sent men from Kintyre and Arran, including Clan MacAlister, which were led by Angus MhicMhuirich of Arran.
MacDonald's forces feigned retreat toward the setting sun turned around to fight with the sun in the eyes of their enemy. The MacDonalds were victorious and the MacLeans were defeated. A dwarf named Dubh Sith was hidden in a tree and he killed Sir Lachlan Mor Maclean with a shot through his eye after he had removed his helmet. With Sir Lachlan Mor Maclean and about 280 of his men killed in battle, the rest were chased to their boats and some sought refuge in the chapel of Kilnave; the chapel was burnt down. Sir James MacDonald was wounded after being shot through the body with an arrow, he was found after the battle amongst the dead MacDonalds, which included Angus MhicMhuirich of Arran. About 30 MacDonalds were 60 wounded. Afterwards James VI and I, the King of Scotland, awarded MacDonald lands to Clan Campbell, leading to an extension of the feud. Clan MacDonald's reign in Islay came to an end in 1612 when Angus MacDonald, 8th of Dunnyveg, the father of Sir James, sold his land holdings to Sir John Campbell of Cawdor of Clan Campbell of Cawdor
Frank Miller (comics)
Frank Miller is an American comic book writer, inker, film director, producer best known for his comic book stories and graphic novels such as Ronin, Daredevil: Born Again, The Dark Knight Returns, Batman: Year One, Sin City, 300. He directed the film version of The Spirit, shared directing duties with Robert Rodriguez on Sin City and Sin City: A Dame to Kill For, produced the film 300, his film Sin City earned a Palme d'Or nomination, he has received every major comic book industry award. In 2015, Miller was inducted into the Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame, he created the comic book characters Elektra for Marvel Comics' Daredevil series, a female version of the Robin character, Carrie Kelley, for DC Comics. Miller is noted for combining film manga influences in his comic art creations. "I realized when I started Sin City that I found American and English comics be too wordy, too constipated, Japanese comics to be too empty. So I was attempting to do a hybrid". Miller was born in Olney, Maryland, on January 27, 1957, raised in Montpelier, the fifth of seven children of a nurse mother and a carpenter/electrician father.
His family was Irish Catholic. Miller grew up a comics fan, his first published work was at Western Publishing's Gold Key Comics imprint, received at the recommendation of comics artist Neal Adams, to whom a fledgling Miller, after moving to New York City, had shown samples and received much critique and occasional informal lessons. Though no published credits appear, he is tentatively credited with the three-page story "Royal Feast" in the licensed TV series comic book The Twilight Zone #84, by an unknown writer, is credited with the five-page "Endless Cloud" by an unknown writer, in the following issue. By the time of the latter, Miller had his first confirmed credit in writer Wyatt Gwyon's six-page "Deliver Me From D-Day", inked by Danny Bulanadi, in Weird War Tales #64. Former Marvel editor-in-chief Jim Shooter recalled Miller going to DC Comics after having broken in with "...a small job from Western Publishing, I think. Thus emboldened, he went to DC, after getting savaged by Joe Orlando, got in to see art director Vinnie Colletta, who recognized talent and arranged for him to get a one-page war-comic job".
The Grand Comics Database does not list this job. Other fledgling work at DC included the six-page "The Greatest Story Never Told", by writer Paul Kupperberg, in that same issue, the five-page "The Edge of History", written by Elliot S. Maggin, in Unknown Soldier #219, his first work for Marvel Comics was penciling the 17-page story "The Master Assassin of Mars, Part 3" in John Carter, Warlord of Mars #18. At Marvel, Miller would settle in as a regular fill-in and cover artist, working on a variety of titles. One of these jobs was drawing Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man #27–28, which guest-starred Daredevil. At the time, sales of the Daredevil title were poor but Miller saw potential in "a blind protagonist in a purely visual medium," he recalled in 2000. Miller went to writer and staffer Jo Duffy and she passed on his interest to editor-in-chief Jim Shooter to get Miller work on Daredevil's regular title. Shooter made Miller the new penciller on the title; as Miller recalled in 2008: Daredevil #158, Miller's debut on that title, was the finale of an ongoing story written by Roger McKenzie and inked by Klaus Janson.
After this issue, Miller became one of Marvel's rising stars. However, sales on Daredevil did not improve, Marvel's management continued to discuss cancellation, Miller himself quit the series, as he disliked McKenzie's scripts. Miller's fortunes changed with the arrival of Denny O'Neil as editor. Realizing Miller's unhappiness with the series, impressed by a backup story he had written, O'Neil moved McKenzie to another project so that Miller could try writing the series himself. Miller and O'Neil would maintain a friendly working relationship throughout his run on the series. With issue # 168, Miller took over full duties as penciller. Sales rose so swiftly that Marvel once again began publishing Daredevil monthly rather than bimonthly just three issues after Miller became its writer. Issue #168 saw the first full appearance of the ninja mercenary Elektra—who would become a popular character and star in a 2005 motion picture—although her first cover appearance was four months earlier on Miller's cover of The Comics Journal #58.
Miller wrote and drew a solo Elektra story in Bizarre Adventures #28. He added a martial arts aspect to Daredevil's fighting skills, introduced unseen characters who had played a major part in the character's youth: Stick, leader of the ninja clan the Chaste, Murdock's sensei after he was blinded and a rival clan called the Hand. Unable to handle both writing and penciling Daredevil on the new monthly schedule, Miller began relying on Janson for the artwork, sending him looser and looser pencils beginning with #173. By issue #185, Miller had relinquished his role as Daredevil's artist, was providing only rough layouts for Janson to both pencil and ink, allowing him to focus on the writing. Miller's work on Daredevil was characterized by darker stories; this peaked when in #181 (April 1
A synonym is a word or phrase that means or nearly the same as another lexeme in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. For example, the words begin, start and initiate are all synonyms of one another. Words are synonymous in one particular sense: for example and extended in the context long time or extended time are synonymous, but long cannot be used in the phrase extended family. Synonyms with the exact same meaning share a seme or denotational sememe, whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field; the former are sometimes called cognitive synonyms and the latter, near-synonyms, plesionyms or poecilonyms. Some lexicographers claim that no synonyms have the same meaning because etymology, phonic qualities, ambiguous meanings, so on make them unique. Different words that are similar in meaning differ for a reason: feline is more formal than cat.
Synonyms are a source of euphemisms. Metonymy can sometimes be a form of synonymy: the White House is used as a synonym of the administration in referring to the U. S. executive branch under a specific president. Thus a metonym is a type of synonym, the word metonym is a hyponym of the word synonym; the analysis of synonymy, polysemy and hypernymy is inherent to taxonomy and ontology in the information-science senses of those terms. It has applications in pedagogy and machine learning, because they rely on word-sense disambiguation; the word comes from ónoma. Synonyms can be any part of speech. Examples: noun drink and beverage verb buy and purchase adjective big and large adverb and speedily preposition on and upon"glass" and"cup"Synonyms are defined with respect to certain senses of words: pupil as the aperture in the iris of the eye is not synonymous with student; such like, he expired means the same as he died, yet my passport has expired cannot be replaced by my passport has died. In English, many synonyms emerged after the Norman conquest of England.
While England's new ruling class spoke Norman French, the lower classes continued to speak Old English. Thus, today we have synonyms like the Norman-derived people and archer, the Saxon-derived folk and bowman. For more examples, see the list of Germanic and Lat Latinate equivalents in English. A thesaurus lists related words; the word poecilonym is a rare synonym of the word synonym. It is not entered in most major dictionaries and is a curiosity or piece of trivia for being an autological word because of its meta quality as a synonym of synonym. Antonyms are words with nearly opposite meanings. For example: hot ↔ cold, large ↔ small, thick ↔ thin, synonym ↔ antonym Hypernyms and hyponyms are words that refer to a general category and a specific instance of that category. For example, vehicle is a hypernym of car, car is a hyponym of vehicle. Homophones are words that have different meanings. For example and which are homophones in most accents. Homographs are words that have different pronunciations.
For example, one can keep a record of documents. Homonyms are words that have different meanings. For example and rose are homonyms. -onym Cognitive synonymy Elegant variation, the gratuitous use of a synonym in prose Synonym ring Synonomy in Japanese Tools which graph words relations: Graph Words – Online tool for visualization word relations Synonyms.net – Online reference resource that provides instant synonyms and antonyms definitions including visualizations, voice pronunciations and translations English/French Semantic Atlas – Graph words relations in English and gives cross representations for translations – offers 500 searches per user per day. Plain words synonyms finder: Synonym Finder – Synonym finder including hypernyms in search result Thesaurus – Online synonyms in English, Italian and German Woxikon Synonyms – Over 1 million synonyms – English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Dutch FindMeWords Synonyms – Online Synonym Dictionary with definitions Classic Thesaurus - Crowdsourced Synonym Dictionary Power Thesaurus - Synonym dictionary with definitions and examples
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
"Quisling" is a term originating in Norway, used in Scandinavian languages and in English for a person who collaborates with an enemy occupying force – or more as a synonym for traitor. The word originates from the surname of the Norwegian war-time leader Vidkun Quisling, who headed a domestic Nazi collaborationist regime during World War II. Use of Quisling's surname as a term predates World War II; the first recorded use of the term was by Norwegian Labour Party politician Oscar Torp in a 2 January 1933 newspaper interview, where he used it as a general term for followers of Vidkun Quisling. Quisling was at this point in the process of establishing the Nasjonal Samling party, a fascist party modelled on the German Nazi Party. Further uses of the term were made by Aksel Sandemose, in a newspaper article in Dagbladet in 1934, by the newspaper Vestfold Arbeiderblad, in 1936; the term with the opposite meaning, a Norwegian patriot, is Jøssing. The use of the name as a term for collaborators or traitors in general came about upon Quisling's unsuccessful coup d'état in 1940, when he attempted to seize power and make Norway cease resisting the invading Germans.
The term was introduced to an English-speaking audience by the British newspaper The Times. It published an editorial on the 19th April 1940 titled "Quislings everywhere", in which it was asserted that "To writers, the word Quisling is a gift from the gods. If they had been ordered to invent a new word for traitor... they could hardly have hit upon a more brilliant combination of letters. Aurally it contrives to suggest something at once slippery and tortuous." The Daily Mail picked up the term four days. The War Illustrated discussed "potential Quislings" among the Dutch during the German invasion of the Netherlands. Subsequently, the BBC brought the word into common use internationally. Chips Channon described how during the Norway Debate of 7–8 May 1940, he and other Conservative MPs who supported Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Neville Chamberlain called those who voted against a motion of confidence "Quislings". Chamberlain's successor Winston Churchill used the term during an address to the Allied Delegates at St. James's Palace on 21 June 1941, when he said: "A vile race of Quislings—to use a new word which will carry the scorn of mankind down the centuries—is hired to fawn upon the conqueror, to collaborate in his designs and to enforce his rule upon their fellow countrymen while grovelling low themselves."
He used the term again in an address to both houses of Congress in the United States of America on 26 December 1941. Commenting upon the effect of a number of Allied victories against Axis forces, moreover the United States’ decision to enter the war, Churchill opined: "Hope has returned to the hearts of scores of millions of men and women, with that hope there burns the flame of anger against the brutal, corrupt invader, and still more fiercely burn the fires of hatred and contempt for the filthy Quislings whom he has suborned." The term subsequently became a target for political cartoonists. In the United States it was used often; some examples include: In the Warner Bros. cartoon Tom Turk and Daffy, it was uttered by a Thanksgiving turkey whose presence is betrayed to Porky Pig by Daffy Duck. In the American film Edge of Darkness, about the Resistance in Norway, the heroine's brother is described as a quisling; the back-formed verb, to quisle existed. This back-formed verb gave rise to a much less common version of the noun: quisler.
However, H. L. Mencken in 1944 appeared not to be aware of the existence of the verb form, to quisle has disappeared from contemporary usage. "Quisling" was applied to some Communist figures who participated in the establishment of Communist regimes. As an illustration, the renegade socialist Zdeněk Fierlinger of Czechoslovakia was derided as "Quislinger" for his collaboration with the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia."The Patriot Game", one of the best known songs to emerge from the Irish nationalist struggle, includes the line "...those quislings who sold out the Patriot Game" in some versions. In a June 2018 New York Times column, Paul Krugman called US President Donald Trump a "quisling", in reference to what Krugman described as Trump's "serv the interests of foreign masters at his own country’s expense" and "defend Russia while attacking our closest allies". Other publications revived the term in the 2010s for use in describing President Trump and his associates and supporters. In Max Brooks' novel World War Z "quisling" is used to describe humans that have broken down psychologically and act like a zombie.
Collaborationism Eponym vs. Namesake Fifth column Treason
Thespiae was an ancient Greek city in Boeotia. It stood on level ground commanded by the low range of hills which run eastward from the foot of Mount Helicon to Thebes, near modern Thespies. In the history of ancient Greece, Thespiae was one of the cities of the federal league known as the Boeotian League. Several traditions agree that the Boeotians were a people expelled from Thessaly some time after the Trojan War, who colonised the Boeotian plain over a series of generations, of which the occupation of Thespiae formed a stage. Other traditions suggest. In the Archaic Period the Thespian nobility was dependent on Thebes; this reflected that land ownership was concentrated in the hands of a small number of nobles, therefore there was difficulty in equipping an effective force of hoplites. Thespiae therefore decided to become a close ally of Thebes; the Thespians destroyed Ascra at some point between 700 and 650, settled Eutresis between 600 and 550. Thespiae took control over Creusis, Siphae and Chorisae some time in the late sixth century.
The Thessalians invaded Boeotia as far as Thespiae, more than 200 years before Leuctra, c. 571 BC, which might have given Thespiae the impetus to join the Boeotian League. But elsewhere Plutarch gives a date for the Thessalian invasion as shortly preceding the Second Persian War. Herodotus suggests. Following the Persian Wars, Thespiae provided two Boeotarchs to the league, rather than one. During the Persian invasion of 480 BC Thespiae's ability to field a substantial force of hoplites had changed. Thespiae and Thebes were the only Boeotian cities to send a contingent to fight at Thermopylae, Thespiae sending a force of 700 hoplites who remained to fight beside the Spartans on the final day of the battle. In 1997, the Greek government dedicated a monument to the Thespians who fell alongside that of the Spartans. After the battle, Thebes was the final Boeotian state to side with the Persians, in doing so they denounced both Plataea and Thespiae to Xerxes I as the only Boeotian states to side with the Greeks.
After the city was burned down by Xerxes, the remaining inhabitants furnished a force of 1800 men for the confederate Greek army that fought at Plataea. During the Athenian invasion of Boeotia in 424 BC, the Thespian contingent of the Boeotian army sustained heavy losses at the Battle of Delium. In the next year the Thebans dismantled the walls of Thespiae on the charge that the Thespians were pro-Athenian as a measure to prevent a democratic revolution. In 414 the Thebans aided the Thespians in suppressing a democratic revolution. In the Corinthian War, Thespiae was part of the anti-Spartan alliance. At the Battle of Nemea in 394 BC, the Thespian contingent fought the Pellenes to a standstill while the rest of the Spartan allies were defeated by the Boeotians. After Nemea, Thespiae became an ally to Sparta and served as staging point for Spartan campaigns in Boeotia throughout the Corinthian War; the city became autonomous as stipulated in the King's Peace of 386 which resolved the Corinthian War, maintained autonomy until 373.
In 373 Thespiae was subdued by the Thebans, the Thespians were exiled from Boeotia and they arrived in Athens along with the Plataeans seeking aid. But they still sent a contingent to fight against the Spartans at the Battle of Leuctra in 371; the Boeotarch Epameinondas allowed the Thespians to withdraw before the battle, along with other Boeotians who nursed a grudge against Thebes. Not long after the battle Thespiae was razed by its inhabitants expelled. At some point the city was restored. In 335 BC, the Thespians joined in an alliance with Alexander the Great in destroying Thebes; the famous hetaera Phryne was born at Thespiae in the 4th century BC, though she seems to have lived at Athens. One of the anecdotes told of her is that she offered to finance the rebuilding of the Theban walls on the condition that the words Destroyed by Alexander, Restored by Phryne the courtesan were inscribed upon them. During the Hellenistic Period Thespiae sought the friendship of the Roman Republic in the war against Mithridates VI.
It is subsequently mentioned by Strabo as a place of some size, by Pliny as a free city within the Roman Empire, a reward for its support against Mithridates. Thespiae hosted an important group of Roman negotiatores until the refoundation of Corinth in 44 BC. Remains of what was the ancient acropolis are still to be seen, consisting of an oblong or oval line of fortification and built; the adjacent ground to the east and south is covered with foundations, bearing witness to the extent of the ancient city. In 1882, the remains of a communal tomb, including a colossal stone lion, were discovered on the road to Leuctra; the tomb contains both cremated remains, associated with an in-situ pyre, seven inhumations. The tomb dates from the second half of the 5th century BC, is identified as that of the Thespians who fell at the Battle of Delium in 424 BC. According to Pausanias, the deity most worshipped at Thespiae was Eros, whose primitive image was an unwrought stone; the city contained many works of art, among them the Eros of Praxiteles, one of the most famous statues in the ancient world.
It was carried off to Rome by Caligula, restored by Claudius, again carried off by Nero. Another work by Praxiteles associated with Thespiae was an Aphrodite, after which the Venus of Arles is thought to have been modeled. There was a bronze statue of Eros by Lysippos. T
300 is a inspired 1998 comic book limited series written and illustrated by Frank Miller with painted colors by Lynn Varley. The comic is a fictional retelling of the Battle of Thermopylae and the events leading up to it from the perspective of Leonidas of Sparta. 300 was inspired by the 1962 film The 300 Spartans, a film Miller watched as a young boy. The work was adapted in 2006 to a film of the same name; each page of the novel is illustrated as a double-page spread. When the series was gathered into hardcover form, the individual pages were twice as wide as a normal comic. Miller's art style for this project was similar to his Sin City work, although the addition of consistent color is an obvious difference. 300 was published as a monthly five-issue comic book limited series by Dark Horse Comics, the first issue published in May 1998. The issues were titled Honor, Glory and Victory; the series won three Eisner Awards in 1999: "Best Limited Series", "Best Writer/Artist" for Frank Miller and "Best Colorist" for Lynn Varley.
The work was collected as a hardcover volume in 1999. The popularity of the film has boosted sales of the trade paperback edition; the 10th printing had an announced print run of 40,000 copies, with an 11th printing to follow. This is in addition to the 88,000 copies sold since the initial volume was released in 1999. In 480 BC, King Leonidas of Sparta gathers 300 of his best men to fight the upcoming Persian invasion. In what is a suicide mission and their allies plan to stop King Xerxes' invasion of Greece at the narrow cliffs of the "Hot Gates"; the terrain prevents the Greeks from being overwhelmed by Xerxes' superior numbers. Before the battle starts, Ephialtes, a deformed Spartan, begs Leonidas to let him fight but is rejected due to his hunchbacked form, which prevents him from lifting his shield high enough to be of use for the phalanx. Ephialtes becomes so desperate by Leonidas' refusal; the Spartans and their allies hold off the Persians for two days and nights. During a break in the fighting, Xerxes meets with Leonidas and offers wealth and power in exchange for his surrender.
Leonidas declines, battle continues. Meanwhile, Ephialtes awakes from his suicide attempt and decides to betray the Greeks by telling the Persians about the existence of a small pass that allows Xerxes to attack them from behind. Learning of the Persian maneuvers the Greeks realize their position is indefensible, but the Spartans and a few others refuse to retreat. Before engaging the Persians for the last time, Leonidas orders one Spartan to return home so that he might survive to tell their story. On the third day Xerxes has the Spartans surrounded, their remaining allies dead, he gives Leonidas one final chance to kneel to him. After some hesitation, Leonidas complies and throws down his arms and kneels. This, however, is a trick by Leonidas, signals Stelios, a loyal Spartan soldier, to jump from his back and kill a general; the Spartans fight. Leonidas throws his spear at Xerxes, intending to make the "God-King" bleed, succeeds; the Spartans are killed to the last man by a storm of arrows. The story shifts about a year and ends as now-Captain Dilios relates the heroic sacrifice of Leonidas and his Spartan comrades to his troops before the historic Battle of Plataea.
Writer Alan Moore has criticized 300 as being inaccurate, with particular reference to the characters' attitudes towards homosexuality: Miller, in the letters page of the series, replied to accusations of homophobia from a reader regarding the phrase "Those boy-lovers": Writer David Brin has criticized 300 as being inaccurate, with particular reference to the bravery and efficacy of the non-Spartan Greeks: During the Battle of Marathon, ten years previous to Thermopylae, the Spartans had been obligated to honor the Carnea, a religious festival during which military engagements were forbidden. Once the religious prohibition was lifted, the Spartan troops covered the 220 kilometers to Athens in a quick three days and arrived only one day after the battle had taken place; the Spartans toured the battlefield at Marathon, agreed that the Athenians had won a great victory. Xerxes' invasion happened to coincide yet again with the celebration of the Carnea; this time, the Spartans chose not to hold back their entire army in deference to the festival, but instead sent an advance force of 300 men under Leonidas, who were to be reinforced by a full contingent of Spartan warriors after the festival concluded.
It is impossible to know for certain whether this change in policy regarding the Carnea was based in shame about missing Marathon or marked a reinterpretation of the military threat posed by the invading Persians. All Herodotus tells us is that the Spartan officials did not think that the engagement at Thermopylae would be decided so and intended the main part of their force to arrive before the fighting broke out. There are references to the Battle at Thermopylae in several of Frank Miller's other comic books. In Sin City: The Big Fat Kill, Dwight McCarthy considers Leonidas' choice of "where to fight" and manages to loosely recreate the Spartan defense tactics by cornering the enemy gang in a tight alley. In Hell and Back when Wallace is drugged he sees his friend as Leonidas with a machine gun. In The Dark Knight Returns and The Dark Knight Strikes Again, Miller's "omega" Batman stories, there are references to a character named "Hot Gates", an adult film star who firs