The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America, they defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, they rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor followed with a series of legislative acts which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government and caused the other colonies to rally behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain.
Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king's army attempted to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Continental Army forced the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, but that summer the British captured and held New York City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.
The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to defeat Washington's forces. The Patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76, but captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France now entered the war as an ally of the United States with a large army and navy that threatened Britain itself; the war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.
Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of the United States Constitution, establishing a strong federal national government that included an executive, a national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. The Revolution resulted in the migration of around 60,000 Loyalists to other British territories British North America; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies. On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, barring trade with foreign nations; some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the merchants most directly affected were most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, much of it was fought without significant assistance from England.
This contributed to the development of a unique identity from that of the British people. In the 1680s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more effectively, his efforts were fiercely opposed by the colonists, resulting in the abrogation of their colonial charter by the Crown. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England that saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689. Colonial governments reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive governments made no more attempts to restore the Dominion. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passing acts regulating the trade of wool and molasses; the Molasses Act of 1733 in particular was egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product.
The taxes damaged the N
Augusta Township is a township in the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville, located in eastern Ontario, Canada. Augusta is situated along the Saint Lawrence River, extends back into rural hamlets; the township is located between the city of Brockville to the west, the town of Prescott to the east. The hamlets and villages within Augusta were established prior to the 1900s. There are plenty of buildings and homes still standing in the township today that were built by early settlers. In 2013, it was discovered that Samuel Bass, the Canadian abolitionist mentioned in Solomon Northup's 1853 memoir 12 Years a Slave, was from Augusta township. According to early census records, Bass was born in Augusta in 1807, his wife and children remained in the area, some of his descendants still reside here to this day. Bass' grandparents were among the first Loyalists to settle in the area, his parents are buried at Maynard. Augusta township is located within the St. Lawrence Lowlands region. Much of the area is situated on top of large layers of limestone and grey sandstone, which formed between 500—75 million years ago during the Paleozoic era and the Ordovician period.
There is not much known about the period directly following the Ordovician period except that there were long periods of erosion followed by marine invasions. The last glaciation occurred around one million years ago, responsible for many of the present-day landscape features. During this glaciation the entire area of what would become Augusta was covered in a sheet of ice around two to three miles in thickness; this ice sheet melted around 12,000 years ago as a result of climatic changes. A few thousand years after it melted the Ottawa—St. Lawrence Valley was flooded by an arm of the Atlantic Ocean to a depth of around 400 feet; the retreat of the Champlain Sea around 9,500 years ago left excessive stone surfaces in many areas. The bedrock and boulder clay in the eastern portion of the township are covered by beds of sand which are glacial-fluvial in origin; the area has many pockets of clay and peat around the banks of the South Nation River and the South Kemptville Creek. The township of Augusta is situated at the confluence of three distinct physiographic regions: the Glengarry till plain, the Smiths Falls limestone plain and the Edwardsburgh sand plain.
The limestone plain accounts for around 50% of the townships total area. This area is level with a thin covering of soil, less than a foot in depth resulting in limestone outcroppings; the limestone plain supports a hardwood forest with the sugar maple being the most dominant species. Oak and pine are common in this region as well as elm, soft maple and cedar in the poorly drained areas; this land was not ideal for farming and has remained untouched. The Edwardsburgh sand plain extends into the township from the east; the water table is situated close to the surface in this plain resulting in shallow bogs. Most of the area has been cleared, however elm, beech and soft maple once grew in this region. Today, the area has been somewhat reforested with pine trees, such as in Limerick Forest; the front of the township is covered by the Glengarry till plain, which forms a drainage divide between the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa basins; this till can be described as loamy in stoney. Well drained sections of the Glengarry till plain are suitable for grain crop production.
The soils along the Nation River contain plant matter due to the poor drainage and are therefore of limited use. Another effect of the poor drainage in the region is the formation of large swamps which are common in the township and drained; the soils in the entire township vary due to the fact the township is situated within a variety of physiographical regions. Podzolic soils are low in fertility and acidic while the Gleysolic soils are high in agricultural value; the climate of Augusta township is determined by its latitude, however it is influenced by frontal systems which are the result of air masses coming out of the north and south. Westerly winds are the most prevalent wind system affecting the township. Augusta's climate can be described as humid continental with an average temperature range; the total average amount of precipitation for the year in the township of Augusta is around 96.8 centimetres annually. The climate has changed drastically since 1850. From 1550 until 1850 the area was in the grip of a minor ice age.
By 1885, a warming trend began. The township of Augusta was not settled until the late 1700s and into the early 1800s, when the Loyalists received their land grants throughout the area and began building homesteads. Most of the residents living in the township today are direct descendants of these Loyalists. Just prior to this in the mid-to-late 1700s, the French had occupied some of the land in the region, including Pointe au Baril in Maitland, Ontario. Before European settlement, many cultures of native individuals occupied the entire region; the earliest human ac
The Ottawa River is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. For most of its length, it defines the border between these two provinces, it is a major tributary of the St. Lawrence River; the river rises at Lac des Outaouais, north of the Laurentian Mountains of central Quebec, flows west to Lake Timiskaming. From there its route has been used to define the interprovincial border with Ontario; the river reaches great depths of nearly 460 feet in some places. From Lake Timiskaming, the river flows southeast to Ottawa and Gatineau, where it tumbles over Chaudière Falls and further takes in the Rideau and Gatineau rivers; the Ottawa River drains into the Lake of the St. Lawrence River at Montreal; the river is 1,271 kilometres long. The average annual mean waterflow measured at Carillon dam, near the Lake of Two Mountains, is 1,939 cubic metres per second, with average annual extremes of 749 to 5,351 cubic metres per second. Record historic levels since 1964 are a low of 529 cubic metres per second in 2005 and a high of 8,190 cubic metres per second in 1976.
The river flows through large areas of deciduous and coniferous forest formed over thousands of years as trees recolonized the Ottawa Valley after the ice age. The coniferous forests and blueberry bogs occur on old sand plains left by retreating glaciers, or in wetter areas with clay substrate; the deciduous forests, dominated by birch, beech and ash occur in more mesic areas with better soil around the boundary with the La Varendrye Park. These primeval forests were affected by natural fire started by lightning, which led to increased reproduction by pine and oak, as well as fire barrens and their associated species; the vast areas of pine were exploited by early loggers. Generations of logging removed hemlock for use in tanning leather, leaving a permanent deficit of hemlock in most forests. Associated with the logging and early settlement were vast wild fires which not only removed the forests, but led to soil erosion. Nearly all the forests show varying degrees of human disturbance. Tracts of older forest are uncommon, hence they are considered of considerable importance for conservation.
The Ottawa River has large areas of wetlands. Some of the more biologically important wetland areas include, the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex, Mississippi Snye, Breckenridge Nature Reserve, Shirleys Bay, Ottawa Beach/Andrew Haydon Park, Petrie Island, the Duck Islands and Greens Creek; the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex is significant for its pristine sand dunes, few of which remain along the Ottawa River, the many associated rare plants. Shirleys Bay has a biologically diverse shoreline alvar, as well as one of the largest silver maple swamps along the river. Like all wetlands, these depend upon the seasonal fluctuations in the water level. High water levels help create and maintain silver maple swamps, while low water periods allow many rare wetland plants to grow on the emerged sand and clay flats. There are five principal wetland vegetation types. One is swamp silver maple. There are four herbaceous vegetation types, named for the dominant plant species in them: Scirpus, Eleocharis and Typha.
Which type occurs in a particular location depends upon factors such as substrate type, water depth, ice-scour and fertility. Inland, south of the river, older river channels, which date back to the end of the ice age, no longer have flowing water, have sometimes filled with a different wetland type, peat bog. Examples include Alfred Bog. Major tributaries include: Communities along the Ottawa River include: The Ottawa River lies in the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben, a Mesozoic rift valley that formed 175 million years ago. Much of the river flows through the Canadian Shield, although lower areas flow through limestone plains and glacial deposits; as the glacial ice sheet began to retreat at the end of the last ice age, the Ottawa River valley, along with the St. Lawrence River valley and Lake Champlain, had been depressed to below sea level by the glacier's weight, filled with sea water; the resulting arm of the ocean is known as the Champlain Sea. Fossil remains of marine life dating 12 to 10 thousand years ago have been found in marine clay throughout the region.
Sand deposits from this era have produced vast plains dominated by pine forests, as well as localized areas of sand dunes, such as Westmeath and Constance Bay. Clay deposits from this period have resulted in areas of poor drainage, large swamps, peat bogs in some ancient channels of this river. Hence, the distribution of forests and wetlands is much a product of these past glacial events. Large deposits of a material known as Leda clay formed; these deposits become unstable after heavy rains. Numerous landslides have occurred as a result; the former site of the town of Lemieux, Ontario collapsed into the South Nation River in 1993. The town's residents had been relocated because of the suspected instability of the earth in that location; as the land rose again the sea coast retreated and the fresh water courses of today took shape. Following the demise of the Champlain Sea the Ottawa River Valley continued to drain the waters of the emerging Upper Great Lakes basin through Lake Nipissing and the Mattawa River.
Owing to the ongoing uplift of the la
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property. A slave works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, de jure slavery. In a broader sense, the word slavery may refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against their own will. Scholars use the more generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour to refer to such situations. However, under slavery in broader senses of the word, slaves may have some rights and protections according to laws or customs. Slavery existed in many cultures since the time before written history. A person could capture, or purchase. Slavery was legal in most societies at some time in the past, but is now outlawed in all recognized countries; the last country to abolish slavery was Mauritania in 2007. There are an estimated 40.3 million people worldwide subject to some form of modern slavery.
The most common form of modern slave trade is referred to as human trafficking. In other areas, slavery continues through practices such as debt bondage, the most widespread form of slavery today, domestic servants kept in captivity, certain adoptions in which children are forced to work as slaves, child soldiers, forced marriage; the English word slave comes from Old French sclave, from the Medieval Latin sclavus, from the Byzantine Greek σκλάβος, which, in turn, comes from the ethnonym Slav, because in some early Medieval wars many Slavs were captured and enslaved. An older interpretation connected it to the Greek verb skyleúo'to strip a slain enemy'. There is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as unfree labourer or enslaved person, rather than "slave", should be used when describing the victims of slavery. According to those proposing a change in terminology, including Andi Cumbo-Floyd, slave perpetuates the crime of slavery in language. Other historians prefer slave because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow for.
Indenture, otherwise known as bonded labour or debt bondage, is a form of unfree labour under which a person pledges himself or herself against a loan. The services required to repay the debt, their duration, may be undefined. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their progenitors' debt, it is the most widespread form of slavery today. Debt bondage is most prevalent in South Asia. Chattel slavery called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel of the owner and are bought and sold as commodities. Under the chattel slave system, slave status was imposed on children of the enslaved at birth. Although it dominated many different societies throughout human history, this form of slavery has been formally abolished and is rare today; when it can be said to survive, it is not upheld by the legal system of any internationally recognized government. "Slavery" has been used to refer to a legal state of dependency to somebody else.
For example, in Persia, the situations and lives of such slaves could be better than those of common citizens. Forced labour, or unfree labour, is sometimes used to refer to when an individual is forced to work against their own will, under threat of violence or other punishment, but the generic term unfree labour is used to describe chattel slavery, as well as any other situation in which a person is obliged to work against their own will and a person's ability to work productively is under the complete control of another person; this may include institutions not classified as slavery, such as serfdom and penal labour. While some unfree labourers, such as serfs, have substantive, de jure legal or traditional rights, they have no ability to terminate the arrangements under which they work, are subject to forms of coercion and restrictions on their activities and movement outside their place of work. Human trafficking involves women and children forced into prostitution and is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand, India and Mexico having been identified as leading hotspots of commercial sexual exploitation of children.
Examples of sexual slavery in military contexts, include detention in "rape camps" or "comfort stations," "comfort women", forced "marriages" to soldiers and other practices involving the treatment of women or men as chattel and, as such, violations of the peremptory norm prohibiting slavery. In 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts. More girls under 16 work as domestic workers than any other category of child labor sent to cities by parents living in rural poverty such as in restaveks in Haiti. Forced marriages or early marriages are considered types of slavery. Forced marriage continues to be practiced in parts of the world including some parts of Asia and Africa and in immigrant communities in the West. Sacred prostitution is where girls and women are pledged to priests or those of higher castes, such as the practice of Devadasi in South Asia or fetish slaves in West Africa. Marriage by abduction occurs in many places in the world today, with a national average of 69% of marriages in
Weston is a town in Middlesex County, about 15 miles west of downtown Boston. The population of Weston, as of June 2017, was 11,389. Weston was incorporated in 1713, protection of the town's historic resources is driven by the Weston Historical Commission and Weston Historical Society; the town has one Local Historic District, 10 National Register Districts, 26 Historic Areas, seven houses individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In the town’s 2014 Community Livability Survey, 97 percent of respondents rated Weston an excellent or good place to live. Among the survey's eight "facets of community livability," four of them—education, natural environment and community engagement—were rated higher than national benchmarks. Weston's predominance as a residential community is reflected in its population density, among the lowest of Boston's suburbs near or within Route 128. More than 2,000 acres, or 18 percent of the town's total acreage, have been preserved as parks, fields and forests, with 90 miles of trails for hiking, horseback riding, cross-country skiing.
Thirty-seven scenic roads, as defined by Massachusetts law, maintain the town's aesthetic value and historical significance, affording Weston a semi-rural ambiance. In 2017, Boston magazine ranked Weston Public Schools as the third best public school district in greater Boston, in 2018, Weston High School was ranked as the fourth best public high school. In 2019 Bloomberg ranked Weston, with an average adjusted gross income of $757,000, as the 11th richest zip code in the United States and the richest in Massachusetts; the description of Weston's history here is pulled directly from the 2017 Weston Open Space and Recreation Plan. Weston was part of the Watertown settlement of 1630, but until the end of the century, the land was used for grazing cattle. In 1698, “The Farms” was set off as a separate precinct with its own meetinghouse. Early settlers discovered that the amount of useful agricultural land was limited, as was the potential for water-powered industries. Weston did have one advantage: it was situated along the main route west from Boston.
By the 18th century, residents were providing services to travelers on the Boston Post Road. Two taverns of great historical and architectural importance remain today: the Josiah Smith Tavern and the Golden Ball Tavern, now a museum. North Avenue was an important route to the northwest and, like the Post Road, hosted shops and taverns serving travelers. Grist and sawmills were established beginning in the 17th century on Stony Brook and in the Crescent Street area. Two important manufacturing enterprises were begun during the Colonial period: the Hews redware pottery on Boston Post Road and Hobbs Tannery on North Avenue. By 1776, Weston’s population of 1,027 was spread throughout the town on scattered farms along major roads, with some consolidation within the village center around the meetinghouse, along the length of the Post Road, on North Avenue; the opening of the Worcester Turnpike in 1810 drew some commercial traffic from the Boston Post Road, but dry goods merchants continued to supply neighboring towns until about 1830-40.
The Boston and Worcester Railroad was built through the southeast corner of town in 1834, the Fitchburg Railroad was built along Stony Brook on the north side of town around 1844. Population continued to grow, supported in part by small industries such as the pottery and related boot and shoe making, school desk and chair factory, tool factories, shops making machinery for cotton and woolen mills; the Hook & Hastings Company organ factory, Weston’s largest industry, moved to the North Avenue area in 1888 and was a major town employer until it closed during the Great Depression. The Mass Central Railroad, the third to serve Weston, commenced service in 1881, its tracks ran east-west through the center of town. The rural landscape of Weston and convenience to rail transportation made it attractive as a summer resort area; the shingle-style Drabbington Lodge, once a popular summer resort, remains on North Avenue and is now a senior living community. Development of country estates in Weston began on a small scale in the 1860s and was widespread by 1900.
Wealthy businessmen were attracted to Weston by its convenience to Boston, quiet country atmosphere, low taxes, as well as the beauty of the area and that same rocky topography that in earlier years had proved unsuitable for farming. By the turn of the century, Weston was described as a “country town of residences of the first class.” Population growth and the influence of large estate owners led to the construction of new institutional buildings, such as the fieldstone First Parish Church, designed by the nationally known Boston firm of Peabody and Stearns and located on the site of earlier church meetinghouses. The first library, central fire station, present town hall were built during the estate era. Coinciding with the town’s Bicentennial in 1913, an ambitious Town Improvement Plan began the process of creating the Town Green by draining and landscaping an existing wetland. Suburban development began in the early 20th century and increased with the advent of the auto mobile. Two prominent estates, the Winsor estate on Meadowbrook Road and Hubbard estate on the south side, were subdivided after World War I.
In the 1910s and 1920s, estates were purchased as golf courses. Many other large properties remained as open farm fields or woodlands through the Great Depression and World War II
Jonas Jones was a lawyer, judge and political figure in Upper Canada. Jones was born in Upper Canada in 1791, the son of Ephraim Jones, he was educated at John Strachan's school in Cornwall and studied law with Levius Peters Sherwood in Elizabethtown. During the War of 1812, he enlisted with the Leeds militia, he was set up a practice in Brockville. In 1816, he was elected to the 7th Parliament of Upper Canada representing Grenville and held that seat until 1828. Although conservative, he had his own views on the protection of individual rights and the independence of the elected assembly. However, he helped unseat Barnabas Bidwell in 1821. In 1822, he opposed the union of Lower Canada, he supported bills which helped fund the development of the Welland Canal and he was a member of a committee which recommended further improvements of transportation along the Saint Lawrence River. He was appointed judge in the Johnstown District courts. With his brother Charles Jones, who represented Leeds in the Legislative Assembly, he operated mills at Furnace Falls.
He was a director of the Bank of Upper Canada branch at Brockville and, in 1834, became the president of the Saint Lawrence Inland Marine Assurance Company. In 1833, he was appointed president of a commission to help improve navigation along the Saint Lawrence which met with American engineers and, in 1834, work began on a canal at Cornwall and other projects were planned. In 1836, he was elected to the 13th Parliament of Upper Canada representing Leeds, he was appointed to the Legislative Council in 1839, serving as speaker while John Beverley Robinson was on leave. He was appointed to the Court of the King's Bench in 1837. In 1842, his daughter, Mary Elizabeth married Lieutenant-General Charles Younghusband CB FRS, a British Army officer and meteorologist, he died in Toronto in 1848 of some form of seizure or stroke. In 1817, Jones married Mary Elizabeth Ford, his oldest son David Ford became a member of the Canadian House of Commons. His son Chilion was a business partner with architect Thomas Fuller in the reconstruction of the Canadian Parliament buildings.
Fraser, Robert L.. "Jones, Jonas". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. VII. University of Toronto Press
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands; the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government, based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover; the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746.
In 1763, victory in the Seven Years' War led to the dominance of the British Empire, to become the foremost global power for over a century and grew to become the largest empire in history. The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801 with the Acts of Union 1800; the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used in 1474; the use of the word "Great" before "Britain" originates in the French language, which uses Bretagne for both Britain and Brittany. French therefore distinguishes between the two by calling Britain la Grande Bretagne, a distinction, transferred into English; the Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", as such "Great Britain" was the official name of the state, as well as being used in titles such as "Parliament of Great Britain".
Both the Acts and the Treaty describe the country as "One Kingdom" and a "United Kingdom", which has led some much publications into the error of treating the "United Kingdom" as a name before it came into being in 1801. The websites of the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, others, including the Historical Association, refer to the state created on 1 May 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain; the term United Kingdom was sometimes used during the 18th century to describe the state, but was not its name. The kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a personal union in 1603, when James VI of Scotland became king of England under the name of James I; this Union of the Crowns under the House of Stuart meant that the whole of the island of Great Britain was now ruled by a single monarch, who by virtue of holding the English crown ruled over the Kingdom of Ireland. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws.
Various smaller islands were in the king's domain, including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. This disposition changed when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800; the Union of 1707 provided for a Protestant-only succession to the throne in accordance with the English Act of Settlement of 1701. The Act of Settlement required that the heir to the English throne be a descendant of the Electress Sophia of Hanover and not be a Catholic. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland; as with the former Parliament of England and the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Parliament of Great Britain was formally constituted of three elements: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Crown.
The right of the English peerage to sit in the House of Lords remained unchanged, while the disproportionately large Scottish peerage was permitted to send only 16 representative peers, elected from amongst their number for the life of each parliament. The members of the former English House of Commons continued as members of the British House of Commons, but as a reflection of the relative tax bases of the two countries the number of Scottish representatives was reduced to 45. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a separate parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws and system of courts, As its own established Presbyterian Church, control over its own schools; the social structure was hierarchical, the same elite remain in control after 1707. Scotland continued to have its own excellent universities, with the strong intellectual community in Edinburgh, The Scottish Enlightenment had a major impact on British and European thinking.
As a result of Poynings' Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, after 1707 to the Parliament of Great Britain. The Westminster parliament's Declaratory Act 1719 (also called the Dependency of Ireland