Honeymoon in Vegas
Honeymoon in Vegas is a 1992 comedy film directed by Andrew Bergman and starring Nicolas Cage, James Caan and Sarah Jessica Parker. Jack Singer has sworn to his mother. Years he goes back on his promise and proposes to his girlfriend and arranges a Las Vegas marriage, they check into the Bally's Hotel. Before the wedding, however, a wealthy professional gambler, Tommy Korman, sees Betsy and notices a striking resemblance to his beloved late wife, he arranges a crooked poker game where Jack borrows $65,000 after being dealt a straight flush, only to lose to the gambler's higher straight flush. After getting Korman to agree to no sex, the desperate couple agrees. Jack tries to get Betsy back and discovers that Tommy has taken her to Hawaii, where he has a vacation home; the gambler has a taxi driver friend, Mahi Mahi, asks him to keep Jack as far as possible from him and Betsy. Jack discovers this, steals the taxi, sees Betsy outside the Kauai Club, where he's attacked by Tommy and arrested. After Dr. Molar bails Jack out of jail, Mahi Mahi meets him outside and admits that Korman left for Vegas with Betsy and has convinced her to marry him.
Mahi races Jack to the airport. Betsy decides she can not go through with escapes from Tommy. Meanwhile, after changing many planes and finding himself stuck in San Jose, Jack tries frantically to find a flight to Vegas, he finds a group about to depart for Vegas, much to his surprise, finds out mid-flight that they are the Utah chapter of the "Flying Elvises" - a skydiving team of Elvis impersonators. Jack now realizes. Jack is able to overcome his fear and lands and spots Betsy, which ruins Tommy's plans; the final scene shows Jack and Betsy getting married in a small Las Vegas chapel with the Flying Elvises as guests, Jack still in his white illuminated jumpsuit and Betsy in her stolen showgirl outfit. James Caan as Tommy Korman Nicolas Cage as Jack Singer Sarah Jessica Parker as Betsy Nolan/Donna Korman Peter Boyle as Chief Orman Seymour Cassel as Tony Cataracts Pat Morita as Mahi Mahi Johnny Williams as Johnny Sandwich John Capodice as Sally Molars Bruno Mars as Little Elvis Robert Costanzo as Sidney Tomashefsky Anne Bancroft as Bea Singer Tony Shalhoub as Buddy Walker Burton Gilliam as Roy Bacon Clearance Giddens as Black Elvis Ben Stein as Walter "It wasn’t based on anything," said Bergman.
"I wanted to do a boy-girl story, in my perverse fashion, it turned out to be this." The film earned mixed to positive reviews from critics, holds a 61% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 31 reviews. 50th Golden Globe AwardsNominated: Best Picture - Musical or Comedy Nominated: Best Actor in a Motion Picture - Musical or Comedy: Nicolas Cage The soundtrack was composed of covers of Elvis Presley songs performed by country and pop/rock artists. Included are the ramblings of Chief Orman when Mahi Mahi takes Jack to his Chief's shack instead of Korman's beach side mansion; the score is by David Newman. "Viva Las Vegas" - Bruce Springsteen "Hound Dog" - - Jeff Beck and Jed Leiber "Are You Lonesome Tonight?" - Bryan Ferry "Heartbreak Hotel" - Billy Joel "Jailhouse Rock" - John Mellencamp "Suspicious Minds" - Dwight Yoakam "Burning Love" - Travis Tritt "That's All Right" - Vince Gill "Love Me Tender" - Amy Grant "All Shook Up" - Billy Joel "Blue Hawaii" - Willie Nelson " Devil in Disguise" - Trisha Yearwood "Wear My Ring Around Your Neck" - Ricky Van Shelton "Surrender" - Elvis Presley "Jailhouse Rock" - Elvis Presley "That's All Right" - Elvis Presley "Can't Help Falling in Love" - Bono "It's Now or Never" - Elvis Presley "Can't Help Falling in Love" - "La Donna è Mobile" - Franco Bonisolli "Hawaii Kua Uli" - "Happy Talk" - Peter Boyle "Hilo March" - " Be Your Teddy Bear - "Ka Lae O Makahonu" - "Waikiki Beach" - "Bali Hai" - Peter Boyle "All Shook Up" - Billy Joel "Wear My Ring Around Your Neck" - Ricky Van Shelton "Love Me Tender" - Amy Grant "Burning Love" - Travis Tritt "Heartbreak Hotel" - Billy Joel "Are You Lonesome Tonight?"
- Bryan Ferry "Suspicious Minds" - Dwight Yoakam " Devil In Disguise" - Trisha Yearwood "Hound Dog" - Jeff Beck and Jed Leiber "That's All Right" - Vince Gill "Jail House Rock" - John Mellencamp "Blue Hawaii" - Willie Nelson "Can't Help Falling In Love" - Bono Bergman says when he finished the film he thought it might make a good musical. He was distracted making movies but had open heart surgery in 2001. "When you have open-heart surgery, you say, what do I want to do? What haven’t I done? I thought it’d be great to do a musical."Jason Robert Brown, a composer, had always wanted to do Honeymoon as a musical and wrote some songs on spec. He and Bergman agreed to collaborate. "We were looking to do a real book musical that isn’t done much anymore," said Bergman. We wanted the sound to be of the ` 60s and ` 70s -- not that it's a throwback. We wanted to be a brassy and love us kind of show."A big change from the movie was the character of the mother was kept alive. "Having her recur is a great thing for the show," said Bergman.
"It keeps her spirit alive and it keeps his mishigas alive. That was a real change.”A musical stage version of the movie was written by Jason Robert Brown and Andrew Bergman. A Broadway-bound production was expected to debut in T
Judge Joseph Dredd is a fictional character created by writer John Wagner and artist Carlos Ezquerra. He first appeared in the second issue of 2000 AD, a British weekly anthology comic, he is the magazine's longest-running character. He appears in a number of movie and video game adaptations. Judge Dredd is a law enforcement and judicial officer in the dystopian future city of Mega-City One, which covers most of the east coast of North America, he is a "street judge", empowered to summarily arrest, convict and execute criminals. In Great Britain, the character of Dredd and his name are sometimes invoked in discussions of police states and the rule of law. In 2011, IGN ranked Judge Dredd 35th among the top 100 comic book heroes of all time. Judge Dredd made his live action debut in 1995 in Judge Dredd, portrayed by Sylvester Stallone, he was portrayed by Karl Urban in the 2012 adaptation Dredd. When comics editor Pat Mills was developing 2000 AD in 1976, he brought in his former writing partner, John Wagner, to develop characters.
Wagner had written a Dirty Harry-style "tough cop" story, "One-Eyed Jack", for Valiant, suggested a character who took that concept to its logical extreme. Mills had developed a horror strip called Judge Dread but abandoned the idea as unsuitable for the new comic; the task of visualising the character was given to Carlos Ezquerra, a Spanish artist who had worked for Mills before on Battle Picture Weekly. Wagner gave Ezquerra an advertisement for the film Death Race 2000, showing the character Frankenstein clad in black leather on a motorbike, as a suggestion of Dredd's appearance. Ezquerra added body-armour and chains, which Wagner objected to. Wagner's initial script was drawn up by Ezquerra; the hardware and cityscapes Ezquerra had drawn were far more futuristic than the near-future setting intended. The original launch story written by Wagner and drawn by Ezquerra was vetoed by the board of directors for being too violent. A new script was needed for the first episode. Mills based the characterisation of Judge Dredd on Brother James, one of his teachers at St Joseph's College, Ipswich.
Brother James was considered to be an excellent teacher but an excessively strict disciplinarian to the extent he was considered abusive. In his blog Mills detailed the moments of rage for which Brother James had a reputation and his own experience witnessing them; the De La Salle monks at the school were a major influence in the 2000 AD design of the'judge and executioner' attitude of the judges. The name Joseph refers to the school. By this stage, Wagner had quit, disillusioned that a proposed buy-out of the new comic by another company, which would have given him and Mills a greater financial stake in the comic, had fallen through. Mills was reluctant to lose Judge Dredd and farmed the strip out to a variety of freelance writers, hoping to develop it further, their scripts were given to a variety of artists as Mills tried to find a strip which would provide a good introduction to the character. This Judge Dredd would not be ready for the first issue of 2000 AD, launched in February 1977; the story chosen to introduce the character was submitted by freelance writer Peter Harris, was extensively re-written by Mills, who added a new ending suggested by Kelvin Gosnell.
It was drawn by newcomer Mike McMahon. The strip debuted in "prog" no. 2. Around this time Ezquerra returned to work for Battle. There are conflicting sources about why. Ezquerra says it was because he was angry that another artist had drawn the first published Judge Dredd strip. Mills says he chose McMahon because Ezquerra had left, having been offered a better deal by the editor of Battle. Wagner soon returned to the character, starting in prog 9, his storyline, "The Robot Wars", was drawn by a rotating team of artists, marked the point where Dredd became the most popular character in the comic, a position he has relinquished. Judge Dredd has appeared in every issue since, most of the stories written by Wagner. In 1983 Judge Dredd made his American debut with his own series from publisher Eagle Comics, titled Judge Dredd, it consisted of stories reprinted from the British comic. Since 1990 Dredd has had his own title in Britain, the Judge Dredd Megazine. With Wagner concentrating his energies on that, the Dredd strip in 2000 AD was left to younger writers, including Garth Ennis, Mark Millar, Grant Morrison and John Smith.
Their stories were less popular with fans, sales fell. Wagner returned to writing the character full-time in 1994. Judge Dredd has been published in a long-running comic strip in the Daily Star, in Metro from January to April 2004; these were created by the same teams writing and drawing the main strip, the Daily Star strips have been collected into a number of volumes. In 2012 Dredd was one of ten British comic characters commemorated in a series of stamps issued by the Royal Mail. Joseph Dredd is the most famous of the Street Judges that patrol Mega-City One, empowered to convict and sometimes execute offenders. Dredd is armed with a "Lawgiver", a pistol programmed to recognise only his palm-print, capable of firing six types of ammunition, a daystick, a boot knife and stun or gas grenades, his helmet obscures his face, except for his mouth and jaw
Singles: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Singles is the original soundtrack album to the film Singles focused on the ascendant Seattle grunge scene of the early 1990s. It features contributions from Minneapolis's Paul Westerberg, Chicago's The Smashing Pumpkins, past Seattle rockers Jimi Hendrix and The Lovemongers, it was released on June 30, 1992. The album has been certified two times platinum by the RIAA in the United States; the soundtrack was reissued in a 2×CD and 2×LP edition on May 19, 2017, coincidentally one day following Chris Cornell's death, although the release date had been announced in January. The reissued soundtrack features a new mastering and a bonus disc of unreleased material, including rare Chris Cornell recordings; the reissue includes 18 bonus tracks in addition to the original 13-song soundtrack, new liner notes and track-by-track descriptions by Cameron Crowe, demos and live recordings from the likes of Paul Westerberg, Alice in Chains and Mudhoney. Included is “Touch Me I’m Dick” by Matt Dillon’s fictional band in the film, Citizen Dick, featuring Pearl Jam’s Eddie Vedder, Stone Gossard and Jeff Ament.
It marks the first commercial release of "Touch Me" as part of the soundtrack. The soundtrack is considered to have helped open the door to the explosive popularity of Seattle grunge in the early 1990s. According to Steve Huey of AllMusic, "Singles helped crystallize the idea of the'Seattle scene' in the mainstream public's mind, it was one of the first big-selling'90s movie soundtracks to feature new work from contemporary artists...it's a milestone in the breakthrough of alternative rock into mainstream popular culture and packaging the Seattle phenomenon for the wider national consciousness." In April 2019, the album was ranked No. 19 on Rolling Stone's "50 Greatest Grunge Albums" list. Soundtrack Credits on IMDb
Sleepless in Seattle
Sleepless in Seattle is a 1993 American romantic comedy directed and co-written by Nora Ephron, based on a story by Jeff Arch. It stars Tom Hanks and Meg Ryan, alongside a supporting cast featuring Bill Pullman, Ross Malinger, Rob Reiner, Rosie O'Donnell, Gaby Hoffmann, Victor Garber, Rita Wilson. Released on June 25, 1993, the film was a critical and commercial success, grossing over $227 million worldwide. After Chicago architect Sam Baldwin loses his wife Maggie to cancer, he and his eight-year-old son Jonah start a new life in Seattle, but they continue to grieve. A year and a half on Christmas Eve, Jonah calls in to a radio talk show. Jonah persuades a reluctant Sam to go on the air to talk about. Hundreds of women from around the country who hear the program and are touched by the story write to Sam. One of the listeners is Annie Reed, a Baltimore Sun reporter, engaged to Walter but feels there is something missing from their relationship. After watching the film An Affair to Remember, Annie writes a letter suggesting that Sam meet her on top of the Empire State Building on Valentine's Day.
She decides not to mail it, but her friend and editor Becky does it for her and agrees to send Annie to Seattle. Sam begins dating a co-worker, whom Jonah dislikes. Jonah reads Annie's letter and likes that it mentions the Baltimore Orioles, but he fails to convince his father to go to New York to meet Annie. On the advice of his playmate Jessica, Jonah replies to Annie. While dropping Victoria off at the airport for a flight, Sam sees Annie exiting from her plane and is mesmerized by her, although he has no idea who she is. Annie secretly watches Sam and Jonah playing on the beach together; the next day she mistakes Sam's sister for Victoria. He recognizes her from the airport and says "hello" but Annie only responds with "hello" before leaving, she returns to Baltimore and goes to New York to meet Walter for Valentine's Day. With Jessica's help, Jonah flies to New York and goes to the Empire State Building searching for Annie; when Sam discovers what Jonah did, he grabs a plane and follows Jonah where he finds him on the observation deck.
Meanwhile, Annie sees the skyscraper from the Rainbow Room where she is dining with Walter and confesses her doubts to him, amicably ending their engagement. She rushes to the Empire State Building and arrives on the observation deck just moments after the doors to the down elevator close with Sam and Jonah inside; the observation deck is deserted. As she pulls out Jonah's teddy bear from the backpack and Jonah emerge from the elevator having returned to fetch it, the three meet. After Sam and Annie stare at each other in recognition, Sam says they should go and offers his hand to Annie; the three enter the elevator together and the doors close. The film was to have been scored by John Barry, but when given a list of twenty songs he had to put in the film, he quit. "As Time Goes By" by Jimmy Durante – 2:28 "A Kiss to Build a Dream On" by Louis Armstrong – 3:01 "Stardust" by Nat King Cole – 3:15 "Makin' Whoopee" by Dr. John featuring Rickie Lee Jones – 4:09 "In the Wee Small Hours of the Morning" by Carly Simon – 3:16 "Back in the Saddle Again" by Gene Autry – 2:36 "Bye Bye Blackbird" by Joe Cocker – 3:30 "A Wink and a Smile" by Harry Connick, Jr. – 4:08 "Stand by Your Man" by Tammy Wynette – 2:41 "An Affair to Remember" by Marc Shaiman – 2:31 "Make Someone Happy" by Jimmy Durante – 1:52 "When I Fall in Love" by Celine Dion and Clive Griffin – 4:21 Sleepless in Seattle opened theatrically on June 25, 1993, in 1,579 venues, earning $17,253,733 in its opening weekend, ranking second in the North American box office behind the third weekend of Jurassic Park.
At the end of its run, the film grossed $126,680,884 in the United States and Canada, as well as $101,119,000 internationally, for a worldwide total of $227,799,884. The film received positive reviews from critics. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 73% out of 56 professional critics gave the film a positive review, with a rating average of 6.61/10. The consensus states, "Sleepless in Seattle is a cute classic with a light touch and real chemistry between the two leads -- when spending an entire movie apart." On Metacritic, the film has a 72 out of 100 rating, based on 17 critics, indicating "generally positive reviews". Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times said the film was "as ephemeral as a talk show, as contrived as the late show, yet so warm and gentle I smiled the whole way through." He added:The actors are well-suited to this material. Tom Hanks keeps a certain detached edge to his character, which keeps him from being a fall guy. Meg Ryan, one of the most likable actresses around and has a certain ineffable Doris Day innocence, is able to convince us of the magical quality of her sudden love for a radio voice, without letting the device seem like the gimmick it assuredly is.
Vincent Canby of The New York Times called it "a feather-light romantic comedy" and wrote, "It's a stunt, but it's a stunt that works far more than anybody in his right mind has reason to expect. Not since Love Story has there been a movie that so shrewdly and predictably manipulated the emotions for such entertaining effect." The film received two nominations for awards in the 66th Academy Awards. It lost out to The Piano for Best Original Screenplay while the song "A Wink and a Smile" lost out to "Streets of Philadelphia" for Best Original Song; the film was nominated for three Golden Globe Awards: one for Best Actor – Musical or Comedy another for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or C
Judgment Night (soundtrack)
Judgment Night is the soundtrack to the 1993 film of the same name. It was released on September 14, 1993 through Immortal Records and Epic Soundtrax and was produced by many of the album's performers; every song on the soundtrack was a collaboration between hip-hop artists and rock artists. The album peaked at #17 on the Billboard 200 and spawned four singles, "Fallin'" by Teenage Fanclub and De La Soul, "Another Body Murdered" by Faith No More and Boo-Yaa T. R. I. B. E. "Just Another Victim" by Helmet and House of Pain, "Judgment Night" by Biohazard and Onyx. Billboard explains that the soundtrack album "paired hip-hop artists with modern rock acts," and The A. V. Club wrote that its musical pairings were "designed to capitalize on the burgeoning popularity of rap-rock." A. V. Club further opines that although there had been "sporadic successful mergers" between individual artists in the metal and rap genres by 1993, "no one had yet thought to do an entire album based on getting established rap and rock artists in the same studio to hash something out.
That revolutionary concept in doubling your market share fell to Happy Walters." According to Rolling Stone, "it is due to the initiative of Happy Walters... that so many leading hip-hop and alternative rock artists were assembled for the soundtrack," with Walters bringing in groups such as Pearl Jam, Boo-Yaa T. R. I. B. E. Sonic Youth, Cypress Hill, Faith No More as collaborators on new material; the Judgement Night soundtrack album was released by Immortal Records with distribution by Epic Records. A collaboration between Tool and Rage Against the Machine on the song "Can't Kill the Revolution" was attempted for the album, but neither band was happy with the results; the song has never been released, but has spread through fan bootleg networks. Rolling Stone said of the soundtrack, "Judgment Night's bracing rap rock is like the wedding of hillbilly and'race' music that started the whole thing in the first place.... It's an aspiring re-birth". Entertainment Weekly said they "can't vouch for the film, but the album is a MUST".
Q Magazine said the soundtrack "suggests that the future for both metal and rap as a kind of agit prop soapbox style is secure". Intrada released a CD of Alan Silvestri's score for the film. Musician said of the score, "Tear down a few walls and it's amazing what tumbles out". Oral History of the ‘Judgment Night’ Soundtrack: 1993’s Rap-Rock Utopia from Rolling Stone
Epic (2013 film)
Epic is a 2013 American 3D computer-animated action-adventure film based loosely on William Joyce's 1996 children's book The Leaf Men and the Brave Good Bugs. It was produced by Blue Sky Studios; the film stars the voices of Colin Farrell, Josh Hutcherson, Amanda Seyfried, Christoph Waltz, Aziz Ansari, Chris O'Dowd, Jason Sudeikis, Steven Tyler, Beyoncé. Epic was released on May 2013, by 20th Century Fox; the film received mixed reviews from critics, but it still earned $268 million on a $93 million budget. 17 year old Mary Katherine, or M. K. moves in with her eccentric scientist father Professor Bomba, searching for tiny humanoid soldiers called Leafmen. They protect the forest that Bomba lives near from wicked creatures called Boggans and their malevolent leader Mandrake. An independent young soldier named Nod decides to quit, much to the ire of the no-nonsense Leafmen leader Ronin; the queen of the forest, Queen Tara, must choose an heir to her throne and goes out to a field of leaf pods, guarded by a laid-back slug named Mub and a wannabe Leafman snail named Grub.
After she chooses a pod, the Boggans attack. Tara flees the area with the pod, though her bodyguards do their best to protect her, they are soon overwhelmed by the sheer number of Boggans. Ronin arrives for her and the pair fly off on his hummingbird mount, they are attacked by Mandrake and his son Dagda. Dagda is killed by Ronin. Meanwhile, M. K. decides to leave after having an argument with Bomba about his research. Before she can leave, Bomba's dog Ozzy runs into the woods. While looking for Ozzy, M. K. sees Tara falling. Dying, Tara uses her magic to shrink her, she tells M. K. to take the pod to Nim Galuu, a glowworm wizard, a con-artist, before she dies, M. K. joins the Leafmen, along with Mub and Grub. Ronin discovers that Nod has entered a race against other bugs on birds. Nod goes back on a deal with a short-tempered toad named Bufo to throw the race. Before Bufo and his two henchmen can feed Nod to a snake, Ronin intervenes and orders them to leave. A reluctant Nod joins him, M. K. Mub, Grub after hearing about Queen Tara's death, which Bufo overhears.
Ronin, Nod, M. K. Mub, Grub track down Nim Galuu, he leads them down to the scroll library, where M. K. discovers Tara's brief message before shrinking her, a message that will get her back to normal size. When Ronin leaves, Nod takes M. K. on a deer ride and they begin to fall in love. Meanwhile, Mandrake has had the Boggans bring Bufo to him. Mandrake goes to Nim Galuu's place to steal the pod, which, if it blooms in darkness, will help Mandrake destroy the forest, he kidnaps Mub and Grub. Ronin scolds Nod for not being there to protect the pod. To get into Boggan territory undiscovered, M. K. Nod, Ronin set out to Bomba's house to get some disguises, where M. K. learns. Bomba sees that he has visitors and captures M. K. fainting. M. K. marks the location of Moonhaven on a map Bomba has made of the forest before rejoining Nod and Ronin. When they reach the Boggan land Ronin distracts the Boggans while M. K. and Nod rescue Mub and the pod. Mandrake discovers them and orders the Boggans to stop them. M. K. Nod and Grub escape alive, but Ronin sacrifices himself to ensure their escape.
Before the full moon can sprout the pod at Moonhaven, Mandrake's bats block the light, causing the pod to begin sprouting in darkness. The Leafmen set out to fight the Boggans. K. tries to get help from her father by visiting his various cameras he had set in the forest. However, upon regaining consciousness, Bomba believes that he didn't see M. K. and that he has been insane all these years, shuts down all his cameras. He changes his mind when he sees the red push-pin that M. K. had put on his map. Bomba is overjoyed to see that he has been right and he follows M. K. to Moonhaven. M. K. uses Bomba's iPod luring Mandrake's bats away. Meanwhile and Nim Galuu try to stop Mandrake from reaching the pod, but are unsuccessful. Just Ronin appears, bearing scars and bruises from the Boggans. Mandrake manages to outdo him, but is defended by Nod, who realizes the importance of teamwork. Before Mandrake can obtain his victory, the pod blooms in moonlight, defeating the Boggans, sealing Mandrake into the burl of a nearby tree.
The chosen heir is the flower child. Grub becomes a Leafman and Ronin reconcile, Nod and M. K. kiss before M. K. is returned to her original size. After reuniting with Bomba and becoming his assistant, the human family still keeps regular contact with their small friends as they continue the research of their world. Amanda Seyfried as Mary Katherine, Professor Bomba's 17-year-old daughter, she is named after William Joyce's deceased daughter. Josh Hutcherson as Nod, a rookie Leafman warrior. Colin Farrell as Ronin, a seasoned Leafman warrior, leader of the Leafmen, Nod's guardian and teacher, a friend of Nod's late father. Christoph Waltz as Mandrake, the leader of the Boggans. Waltz voiced Mandrake in the German dub of the film since German is his native language. Aziz Ansari as Mub, a slug, Grub's best friend and caretaker of the pods. Chris O'Dowd as Grub, a snail, Mub's best friend and fellow caretaker. Pitbull as Bufo, a toad who works as a race fixer and a businessman. Jason Sudeikis as Professor Radcliffe Bomba, Mary Katherine's
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti