Ernst Curtius was a German archaeologist and historian. He was born in Lübeck. On completing his university studies he was chosen by C. A. Brandis to accompany him on a journey to Greece for the prosecution of archaeological researches. Curtius became Otfried Müller's companion in his exploration of the Peloponnese, on Müller's death in 1840 he returned to Germany. In 1844 he became an extraordinary professor at the University of Berlin, in the same year he was appointed tutor to Prince Frederick William, a post which he held till 1850. After holding a professorship at Göttingen and undertaking a further journey to Greece in 1862, Curtius was appointed ordinary professor at Berlin. In 1874 he was sent to Athens by the German government and there concluded an agreement by which the excavations at Olympia were entrusted to Germany. In 1891 Curtius was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society. Curtius died in Berlin on 11 July 1896, his best-known work is his History of Greece. It presented in an attractive style what were the latest results of scholarly research, but it was criticized as wanting in erudition.
It is now superseded. His other writings are chiefly archaeological; the most important are: Die Akropolis von Athen Naxos Peloponnesos, eine historisch-geographische Beschreibung der Halbinsel Olympia Die Ionier vor der ionischen Wanderung Attische Studien Ephesos Die Ausgrabungen zu Olympia Olympia und Umgegend Olympia. Die Ergebnisse der von dem deutschen Reich veranstalteten Ausgrabung Die Stadtgeschichte von Athen Gesammelte Abhandlungen His collected speeches and lectures were published under the title of Altertum und Gegenwart, to which a third volume was added under the title of Unter drei Kaisern, his brother, Georg Curtius, was a noted philologist. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Curtius, Ernst". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this work in turn cites: L. Gurlitt, Erinnerungen an Ernst Curtius This work has a full list of his writings. Otto Kern, "Curtius, Ernst", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 47, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 580–597 F. Curtius, Ernst Curtius.
Ein Lebensbild in Briefen T. Hodgkin, Ernest Curtius An Olympic Excavation, a description of Curtius' excavations at Olympia. Beach, Chandler B. ed.. "Curtius, Ernst". The New Student's Reference Work. Chicago: F. E. Compton and Co. Media related to Ernst Curtius at Wikimedia Commons
Public speaking is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience. Public speaking is understood as formal, face-to-face speaking of a single person to a group of listeners. Traditionally, public speaking is considered to be apart of the art of persuasion; the act can accomplish particular purposes including to inform, to persuade, to entertain. Additionally, differing methods and rules can be utilized according to the speaking situation. Public speaking developed in Rome and Latin America. Prominent thinkers in these countries influenced the development and evolutionary history of public speaking; this art form has been impacted by the contributions of women. Technology continues to transform the art of public speaking through new available technology such as videoconferencing, multimedia presentations, other nontraditional forms. Public speaking can serve the purpose of transmitting information, telling a story, motivating people to act or some combination of those; this type of speech is deliberately structured with three general purposes: to inform, to persuade and to entertain.
Knowing when public speaking is most effective and how it is done properly is a key part in understanding the importance of it. Public speaking for business and commercial events is done by professionals; these speakers can be contracted independently, through representation by a speakers bureau, or by other means. Public speaking plays a large role in the professional world. Although there is evidence of public speech training in ancient Egypt, the first known piece on oratory, written over 2,000 years ago, came from ancient Greece; this work elaborated on principles drawn from the practices and experiences of ancient Greek orators. Aristotle was one of the first recorded teachers of oratory to use definitive models, his emphasis on oratory led to oration becoming an essential part of a liberal arts education during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The classical antiquity works written by the ancient Greeks capture the ways they taught and developed the art of public speaking thousands of years ago.
In classical Greece and Rome, rhetoric was the main component of composition and speech delivery, both of which were critical skills for citizens to use in public and private life. In ancient Greece, citizens spoke on their own behalf rather than having professionals, like modern lawyers, speak for them. Any citizen who wished to succeed in court, in politics or in social life had to learn techniques of public speaking. Rhetorical tools were first taught by a group of rhetoric teachers called Sophists who are notable for teaching paying students how to speak using the methods they developed. Separately from the Sophists, Socrates and Aristotle all developed their own theories of public speaking and taught these principles to students who wanted to learn skills in rhetoric. Plato and Aristotle taught these principles in schools that they founded, The Academy and The Lyceum, respectively. Although Greece lost political sovereignty, the Greek culture of training in public speaking was adopted identically by the Romans.
In the political rise of the Roman Republic, Roman orators copied and modified the ancient Greek techniques of public speaking. Instruction in rhetoric developed into a full curriculum, including instruction in grammar, preliminary exercises, preparation of public speeches in both forensic and deliberative genres; the Latin style of rhetoric was influenced by Cicero and involved a strong emphasis on a broad education in all areas of humanistic study in the liberal arts, including philosophy. Other areas of study included the use of wit and humor, the appeal to the listener's emotions, the use of digressions. Oratory in the Roman empire, though less central to political life than in the days of the Republic, remained significant in law and became a big form of entertainment. Famous orators became like celebrities in ancient Rome—very wealthy and prominent members of society; the Latin style was the primary form of oration until the beginning of the 20th century. After World War II, the Latin style of oration began to grow out of style as the trend of ornate speaking became seen as impractical.
This cultural change had to do with the rise of the scientific method and the emphasis on a "plain" style of speaking and writing. Formal oratory is much less ornate today than it was in the Classical Era. Despite the shift in style, the best-known examples of strong public speaking are still studied years after their delivery. Among these examples are: Pericles' Funeral Oration in 427 BCE addressing those who died during the Peloponnesian War Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address in 1863 Sojourner Truth's identification of racial issues in "Ain't I a Woman? Mahatma Gandhi's message of nonviolent resistance in India, which in turn inspired Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech at the Washington Monument in 1963. Throughout the 18th and 19th century, women were banned to speak publicly in the courtroom, the senate floor, the pulpit, it was improper for women to be heard in a public setting. An exception to this custom was the Quaker religion that allowed women to public speak in meetings of the church.
Frances Wright was known as one of the first female public speakers of the united states. She advocated for equal education for women and men through the press. African American Maria Stewart said to be the second female speaker of the United States, lectured in Boston in front of both men and women just 4 years after Wri
A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college; some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, formal teaching of students is carried out by paid professional teachers; this article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, civics, community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, assessing pupil progress. A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching.
Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline. Teaching is a complex activity; this is in part because teaching is a social practice, that takes place in a specific context and therefore reflects the values of that specific context. Factors that influence what is expected of teachers include history and tradition, social views about the purpose of education, accepted theories about learning, etc; the competencies required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models: the teacher as manager of instruction; the OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers' career-long education and professional development.
Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require: Working with others Working with knowledge and information, Working in and with society. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge craft skills and dispositions, it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. These teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis. One of the challenges facing teachers is that they may have covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject, their attitude may in turn bore the students. Students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who didn't show much enthusiasm for the course materials. Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm can lead to students who are more to be engaged, interested and curious about learning the subject matter.
Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students' intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. Controlled, experimental studies exploring intrinsic motivation of college students has shown that nonverbal expressions of enthusiasm, such as demonstrative gesturing, dramatic movements which are varied, emotional facial expressions, result in college students reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation to learn, but while a teacher's enthusiasm has been shown to improve motivation and increase task engagement, it does not improve learning outcomes or memory for the material. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere of energy and enthusiasm which feeds student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter. Enthusiastic teachers may lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process; the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher's enthusiasm may contribute to the student's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Enthusiasm may act as a "motivational embellishment", increasing a student's interest by the variety and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher's presentation of the material. The concept of emotional contagion, may apply. Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are good at creating beneficial relations with their students, their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students. Useful teacher-to-studen
Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language. While this last term comprises Classical Chinese, Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, Yue Chinese, other historical and vernacular forms of the language, its poetry falls into one of two primary types, Classical Chinese poetry and Modern Chinese poetry. Poetry has been held in high regard in China incorporating expressive folk influences filtered through the minds of Chinese literati. In Chinese culture, poetry has provided a format and a forum for both public and private expressions of deep emotion, offering an audience of peers and scholars insight into the inner life of Chinese writers across more than two millennia. Westerners have found in it an interesting and pleasurable field of study, in its exemplification of essential contrasts between the Western world and Chinese civilization, on its own terms. Classical Chinese poetry includes first and foremost shi, other major types such as ci and qu. There is a traditional Chinese literary form called fu, which defies categorization into English more than the other terms, but can best be described as a kind of prose-poem.
During the modern period, there has developed free verse in Western style. Traditional forms of Chinese poetry are rhymed, however the mere rhyming of text may not qualify literature as being poetry. For example, lines from I Ching are rhymed, but may not be considered to be poetry, whereas modern verse may be considered to be poetry without rhyme. A cross-cultural comparison to this might be the Pre-Socratic philosophical works in ancient Greece which were written in verse versus free verse; the earliest extant anthologies are the Shi Jing. Both of these have had a great impact on the subsequent poetic tradition. Earlier examples of ancient Chinese poetry may have been lost because of the vicissitudes of history, such as the burning of books and burying of scholars ( 焚书坑儒） by Qin Shi Huang, although one of the targets of this last event was the Shi Jing, which has survived; the elder of these two works, the Shijing is a preserved collection of Classical Chinese poetry from over two millennia ago.
Its content divided into 3 parts: feng, ya(雅,Imperial court songs,subdiviede in daya and xiaoya,105 songs in total）and song(颂,singing in ancestral worship, 40 songs in total）. This anthology received its final compilation sometime in the 7th century BCE; the collection contains both aristocratic poems regarding life at the royal court and more rustic poetry and images of natural settings, derived at least to some extent from folk songs. The Shijing poems are predominantly composed of four-character lines, rather than the five and seven character lines typical of Classical Chinese poetry; the main techniques of espression are fu ， xing. In contrast to the classic Shijing, the Chu Ci anthology consists of verses more emphasizing lyric and romantic features, as well as irregular line-lengths and other influences from the poetry typical of the state of Chu; the Chuci collection consists of poems ascribed to Qu Yuan(屈原） and his follower Song Yu, although in its present form the anthology dates to Wang I's 158 CE compilation and notes, which are the only reliable source of both the text and information regarding its composition.
During the Han dynasty, the Chu Ci style of poetry contributed to the evolution of the fu style, typified by a mixture of verse and prose passages. The fu form remained popular during the subsequent Six Dynasties period, although it became shorter and more personal; the fu form of poetry remains as one of the generic pillars of Chinese poetry. During the Han dynasty, a folk-song style of poetry became popular, known as yuefu "Music Bureau" poems, so named because of the government's role in collecting such poems, although in time some poets began composing original works in yuefu style. Many yuefu poems are composed of five-character or seven-character lines, in contrast to the four-character lines of earlier times. A characteristic form of Han Dynasty literature is the fu; the poetic period of the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Six Dynasties era is known as Jian'an poetry. An important collection of Han poetry is the Nineteen Old Poems. Between and over-lapping the poetry of the latter days of the Han and the beginning period of the Six Dynasties was Jian'an poetry.
Examples of surviving poetry from this period include the works of the "Three Caos": Cao Cao, Cao Pi, Cao Zhi. The Six Dynasties era was one of various developments in poetry, both continuing and building on the traditions developed and handed down from previous eras and leading up to further developments of poetry in the future. Major examples of poetry surviving from this dynamic era include the works of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, the poems of the Orchid
Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. Along with grammar and logic, it is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the capacities of writers or speakers needed to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. Aristotle defines rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion" and since mastery of the art was necessary for victory in a case at law or for passage of proposals in the assembly or for fame as a speaker in civic ceremonies, calls it "a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics". Rhetoric provides heuristics for understanding and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals: logos and ethos; the five canons of rhetoric or phases of developing a persuasive speech were first codified in classical Rome: invention, style and delivery. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, rhetoric played a central role in Western education in training orators, counsellors, historians and poets.
Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a much more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times. While classical rhetoric trained speakers to be effective persuaders in public forums and institutions such as courtrooms and assemblies, contemporary rhetoric investigates human discourse writ large. Rhetoricians have studied the discourses of a wide variety of domains, including the natural and social sciences, fine art, journalism, digital media, history and architecture, along with the more traditional domains of politics and the law; because the ancient Greeks valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics. Rhetoric remains associated with its political origins; however the original instructors of Western speech—the Sophists—disputed this limited view of rhetoric.
According to the Sophists, such as Gorgias, a successful rhetorician could speak convincingly on any topic, regardless of his experience in that field. This method suggested. In his Encomium to Helen, Gorgias applied rhetoric to fiction by seeking for his own pleasure to prove the blamelessness of the mythical Helen of Troy in starting the Trojan War. Looking to another key rhetorical theorist, Plato defined the scope of rhetoric according to his negative opinions of the art, he criticized the Sophists for using rhetoric as a means of deceit instead of discovering truth. In "Gorgias", one of his Socratic Dialogues, Plato defines rhetoric as the persuasion of ignorant masses within the courts and assemblies. Rhetoric, in Plato's opinion, is a form of flattery and functions to cookery, which masks the undesirability of unhealthy food by making it taste good. Thus, Plato considered any speech of lengthy prose aimed at flattery as within the scope of rhetoric. Aristotle both redeemed rhetoric from his teacher and narrowed its focus by defining three genres of rhetoric—deliberative, forensic or judicial, epideictic.
Yet as he provided order to existing rhetorical theories, Aristotle extended the definition of rhetoric, calling it the ability to identify the appropriate means of persuasion in a given situation, thereby making rhetoric applicable to all fields, not just politics. When one considers that rhetoric included torture, it is clear that rhetoric cannot be viewed only in academic terms. However, the enthymeme based upon logic was viewed as the basis of rhetoric. However, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed. For example, Modal logic has undergone a major development that modifies rhetoric. Yet, Aristotle outlined generic constraints that focused the rhetorical art squarely within the domain of public political practice, he restricted rhetoric to the domain of the contingent or probable: those matters that admit multiple legitimate opinions or arguments. The contemporary neo-Aristotelian and neo-Sophistic positions on rhetoric mirror the division between the Sophists and Aristotle. Neo-Aristotelians study rhetoric as political discourse, while the neo-Sophistic view contends that rhetoric cannot be so limited.
Rhetorical scholar Michael Leff characterizes the conflict between these positions as viewing rhetoric as a "thing contained" versus a "container". The neo-Aristotelian view threatens the study of rhetoric by restraining it to such a limited field, ignoring many critical applications of rhetorical theory and practice; the neo-Sophists threaten to expand rhetoric beyond a point of coherent theoretical value. Over the past century, people studying rhetoric have tended to enlarge its object domain beyond speech texts. Kenneth Burke asserted humans use rhetoric to resolve conflicts by identifying shared characteristics and interests in symbols. By nature, humans engage in identification, either to identify themselves or another individual with a group; this definition of rhetoric as identification broadened the scope from strategic and overt political persuasion to the more implicit tactics of identification found in an immense range of sources. Among the many scholars who have since pursued Burke's line of thought, James Boyd White sees rhetoric as a broader domain of social experience in his notion of constitutive rhet
Gratitude, thankfulness, or gratefulness, from the Latin word gratus ‘pleasing, thankful’, is a feeling of appreciation felt by and/or similar positive response shown by the recipient of kindness, help, favors, or other types of generosity, towards the giver of such gifts. The experience of gratitude has been a focus of several world religions, it has been a topic of interest to ancient and modern philosophers, continues to engage contemporary philosophers. The systematic study of gratitude within psychology only began around the year 2000 because psychology traditionally focused more on understanding distress than on understanding positive emotions; the study of gratitude within psychology has focused on the understanding of the short term experience of the emotion of gratitude, individual differences in how people feel gratitude, the relationship between these two aspects. Gratitude is not the same as indebtedness. While both emotions occur following help, indebtedness occurs when a person perceives that they are under an obligation to make some repayment of compensation for the aid.
The emotions lead to different actions. Gratitude may serve to reinforce future prosocial behavior in benefactors. For example, one experiment found that customers of a jewelry store who were called and thanked showed a subsequent 70% increase in purchases. In comparison, customers who were called and told about a sale showed only a 30% increase in purchases, customers who were not called at all did not show an increase. In another study, regular patrons of a restaurant gave bigger tips when servers wrote "Thank you" on their checks; the link between spirituality and gratitude has become a popular subject of study. While these two characteristics are not dependent on each other, studies have found that spirituality is capable of enhancing a person’s ability to be grateful and therefore, those who attend religious services or engage in religious activities are more to have a greater sense of gratitude in all areas of life. Gratitude is viewed as a prized human propensity in the Christian, Muslim, Baha'i, Hindu traditions.
Worship with gratitude to God is a common theme in such religions and therefore, the concept of gratitude permeates religious texts and traditions. For this reason, it is one of the most common emotions that religions aim to provoke and maintain in followers and is regarded as a universal religious sentiment. In Judaism, gratitude is an essential part of the act of worship and a part of every aspect of a worshiper’s life. According to the Hebrew worldview, all things come from God and because of this, gratitude is important to the followers of Judaism; the Hebrew Scriptures are filled with the idea of gratitude. Two examples included in the psalms are "O Lord my God, I will give thanks to you forever," and "I will give thanks to the Lord with my whole heart"; the Jewish prayers often incorporate gratitude beginning with the Shema, where the worshiper states that out of gratitude, "You shall love the Eternal, your God, with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your might". One of the crucial blessings in the central thrice-daily prayer, the "Amidah", is called "Modim" - "We give thanks to You".
The concluding prayer, the Alenu speaks of gratitude by thanking God for the particular destiny of the Jewish people. Along with these prayers, faithful worshipers recite more than one hundred blessings called berachot throughout the day. In Judaism there is a major emphasis on gratitude for acts of human kindness and goodness. Gratitude has been said to shape the entire Christian life. Martin Luther referred to gratitude as "The basic Christian attitude" and today it is still referred to as "the heart of the gospel." Christians are encouraged to praise and give gratitude to their creator. In Christian gratitude, God is seen as the selfless giver of all good things and because of this, there is a deep sense of gratefulness which enables Christians to share a common bond, shaping all aspects of a follower’s life. Gratitude in Christianity is an acknowledgment of God’s generosity that inspires Christians to shape their own thoughts and actions around such ideals. Instead of a sentimental feeling, Christian gratitude is regarded as a virtue that shapes not only emotions and thoughts but actions and deeds.
Jonathan Edwards writes in his A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections that gratitude and thankfulness toward God are among the signs of true religion. Because of this interpretation, modern measures of religious spirituality include assessments of thankfulness and gratitude towards God. Allport suggested that mature religious intentions come from feelings of profound gratitude and Edwards claimed that the "affection" of gratitude is one of the most accurate ways of finding the presence of God in a person’s life. In a study done by Samuels and Lester it was contended that in a small sample of Catholic nuns and priests, out of 50 emotions and gratitude were the most experienced emotion towards God. In the Orthodox and Anglican churches, the most important rite is called the Eucharist; the Islamic sacred text, The Quran, is filled with the idea of gratitude. Islam encourages its follo
Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages. The literature of this time was composed of religious writings as well as secular works. Just as in modern literature, it is a complex and rich field of study, from the utterly sacred to the exuberantly profane, touching all points in-between. Works of literature are grouped by place of origin and genre. Since Latin was the language of the Roman Catholic Church, which dominated Western and Central Europe, since the Church was the only source of education, Latin was a common language for medieval writings in some parts of Europe that were never Romanized. However, in Eastern Europe, the influence of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox Church made Greek and Old Church Slavonic the dominant written languages; the common people continued to use their respective vernaculars. A few examples, such as the Old English Beowulf, the Middle High German Nibelungenlied, the Medieval Greek Digenis Acritas, the Old East Slavic Tale of Igor's Campaign, the Old French Chanson de Roland, are well known to this day.
Although the extant versions of these epics are considered the works of individual poets, there is no doubt that they are based on their peoples' older oral traditions. Celtic traditions have survived in the lais of Marie de France, the Mabinogion and the Arthurian cycles. Another host of vernacular literature has survived in the Old Norse literature and more in the Saga literature of Iceland. A notable amount of medieval literature is anonymous; this is not only due to the lack of documents from a period, but due to an interpretation of the author's role that differs from the romantic interpretation of the term in use today. Medieval authors deeply respected the classical writers and the Church Fathers and tended to re-tell and embellish stories they had heard or read rather than invent new stories, and when they did, they claimed to be handing down something from an auctor instead. From this point of view, the names of the individual authors seemed much less important, therefore many important works were never attributed to any specific person.
Theological works were the dominant form of literature found in libraries during the Middle Ages. Catholic clerics were the intellectual center of society in the Middle Ages, it is their literature, produced in the greatest quantity. Countless hymns survive from this time period; the liturgy itself was not in fixed form, numerous competing missals set out individual conceptions of the order of the mass. Religious scholars such as Anselm of Canterbury, Thomas Aquinas, Pierre Abélard wrote lengthy theological and philosophical treatises attempting to reconcile the teachings of the Greek and Roman pagan authors with the doctrines of the Church. Hagiographies, or "lives of the saints", were frequently written, as an encouragement to the devout and a warning to others; the Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine reached such popularity that, in its time, it was read more than the Bible. Francis of Assisi was a prolific poet, his Franciscan followers wrote poetry themselves as an expression of their piety.
Dies Irae and Stabat Mater are two of the most powerful Latin poems on religious subjects. Goliardic poetry was an art form used by some clerics to express dissent; the only widespread religious writing, not produced by clerics were the mystery plays: growing out of simple tableaux re-enactments of a single Biblical scene, each mystery play became its village's expression of the key events in the Bible. The text of these plays was controlled by local guilds, mystery plays would be performed on set feast-days lasting all day long and into the night. During the Middle Ages, the Jewish population of Europe produced a number of outstanding writers. Maimonides, born in Cordoba and Rashi, born in Troyes, are two of the best-known and most influential of these Jewish authors. Secular literature in this period was not produced in equal quantity as religious literature; the earliest tales are based on oral traditions: the British Y Goddoddin and Preiddeu Annwfn, along with the Germanic Beowulf and Nibelungenlied.
They relate to myths or certain 6th-century events, but the surviving manuscripts date from centuries later—Y Goddoddin from the late 13th century, Preiddu Annwfn from the early 14th century, Beowulf from c. 1000, the Nibelungenlied from the 13th century. The makers and performers were bards and scops, elite professionals attached to royal or noble courts to praise the heroes of legendary history. Prose tales first emerged in Britain: the intricate Mabinogi quartet about princely families, notably anti-war in theme, the romantic adventure Culhwch and Olwen, famous for the earliest mention of King Arthur; these works were compiled from earlier oral tradition c. 1100. At about the same time a new poetry of "courtly love" became fashionable in Europe. Traveling singers—troubadours and trouvères—made a living from their love songs in French, Galician-Portuguese, Provençal, Greek. Germanic culture had its Minnesänger tradition; the songs of courtly love express unrequited longing for an ideal woman, but there