Epigallocatechin gallate known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is the ester of epigallocatechin and gallic acid, is a type of catechin. EGCG, the most abundant catechin in tea, is a polyphenol under basic research for its potential to affect human health and disease. EGCG is used in many dietary supplements. EGCG is a second-order modulator of the GABAA receptor, it is found in high content in the dried leaves of green tea, white tea, in smaller quantities, black tea. During black tea production, the catechins are converted to theaflavins and thearubigins via polyphenol oxidases. Trace amounts are found in apple skin, onions, hazelnuts and carob powder; when taken orally, EGCG has poor absorption at daily intake equivalent to 8–16 cups of green tea, an amount causing adverse effects such as nausea or heartburn. After consumption, EGCG blood levels peak within 1.7 hours. The absorbed plasma half-life is ~5 hours, but with majority of unchanged EGCG excreted into urine over 0 to 8 hours. Methylated metabolites appear to have longer half-lives and occur at 8-25 times the plasma levels of unmetabolized EGCG.
Well-studied in basic research, EGCG has various biological effects in laboratory studies. A 2011 analysis by the European Food Safety Authority found that a cause and effect relationship could not be shown for a link between tea catechins and the maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration. A 2016 review found that high daily doses taken by human subjects over four to 14 weeks produced a small reduction of LDL cholesterol. A 2018 review showed. In 2018, the European Food Safety Authority stated that daily intake of 800 mg or more could increase risk of liver damage; the degree of toxicity varies by person, suggesting that it is potentiated by genetic predisposition and the diet eaten during the period of ingestion, or other factors. Over 2008 to 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration issued several warning letters to manufacturers of dietary supplements containing EGCG for violations of the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act. Most of these letters informed the companies that their promotional materials promoted EGCG-based dietary supplements the treatment or prevention of diseases or conditions that cause them to be classified as drugs under the United States code, while another focused on inadequate quality assurance procedures and labeling violations.
The warnings were issued because the products had not been established as safe and effective for their marketed uses and were promoted as "new drugs", without approval as required under the Act. Epigallocatechin Health benefits of tea Theaflavin Tannin Phenolic content in tea Green tea extract List of phytochemicals in food
Nicosia International Airport is a disused airport located 8.2 km west of the Cypriot capital city of Nicosia in the Lakatamia suburb. It was the main airport for the island, but commercial activity ceased following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974; the airport site is now used as the headquarters of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus. Nicosia International Airport was the principal airport for Cyprus from its initial construction in the 1930s as the Royal Air Force station RAF Nicosia until 1974. At first it acted principally as a military airport, it is still owned by the British Ministry of Defence; the landing strip was constructed in 1939 by Pierides & Michaelides Ltd.. Services were provided by Misrair with four-engined DH.86 aircraft. During the Second World War the airport's facilities and runway were extended by local contractors Stelios Joannou and George Paraskevaides. American bombers used the runway in 1943–44 when returning from the allied bombings of the Romanian Ploieşti oil fields.
After the war commercial services were reintroduced, by 1948 Misrair, BOAC, Cyprus Airways and MEA were providing regular services. The facilities provided were limited, with three Nissen huts used as a terminal building housing Customs, Civil Aviation, Signals and Operational Services. Restaurant services were provided by the NAAFI. In 1949 the first terminal building was designed and built by the Public Works Department at a cost of £50,000 and was opened in May of that year; the building was extended together with the aircraft apron in 1959. The building was vacated in 1968 with the opening of the new terminal; the Nicosia Flying Club and other flying organisations continued to use the old building. The RAF withdrew from the airfield in 1966 due to limited space brought on by vastly increasing civilian aircraft movements. On 27 March 1968 a modern new terminal, designed by a West German company Dorsch und Gehrmann from Wiesbaden, built by Cybarco, was opened, at a cost of £1,100,000, of which £500,000 was contributed by Britain.
The new terminal could accommodate 800 passengers at the parking apron eleven aircraft. In June 1974 plans were in place for the terminal to be extended and the apron to be enlarged to 16 aircraft of which two places were to be for widebodied aircraft, but this was never to happen: on 15 July 1974 right wing Greek nationalists overthrew the democratically elected president of Cyprus, Archbishop Makarios. Nicosia Airport was closed by the coupists used on 17 July 1974 to ferry troops from Greece to Cyprus to support the coup against Makarios. Only on 18 July was it allowed to reopen to civilian traffic, becoming a site of chaotic scenes as holidaymakers and other foreign nationals tried to leave the island. On 20 July 1974, Turkey invaded Cyprus, bombing the airport and forcing its permanent closure; the leaders of the Greek Cypriot Community and Turkish Cypriot Community discussed reopening Nicosia International Airport at the beginning of 1975. After the leader of the Greek Cypriot community, Archbishop Makarios, had rejected the Turkish Cypriot proposal to reopen the airport to international traffic under joint control, agreement to reopen it was'in principle' reached during the negotiations in Vienna from 28 April to 3 May 1975.
However, discussions by a joint committee set up for that purpose were unproductive. The last commercial airline flights out of Nicosia Airport took place in 1977 under UN Special Authorisation, when three of the remaining Cyprus Airways aircraft stranded there since the 1974 invasion were retrieved by British Airways engineers and flown to London. One of these, a Hawker Siddeley Trident 2E, is now on show at the Imperial War Museum Duxford. With the Turkish invasion the airport was the scene of some of the heaviest fighting between Cypriot and Turkish forces, which led the United Nations Security Council to declare it a United Nations Protected Area during the conflict; this required both sides to withdraw at least 500 metres from the perimeter of the airport. With the ceasefire signed on 16 August 1974 Nicosia Airport became part of the United Nations controlled Buffer Zone separating the two communities on the island, it has been inoperable as a functioning airport since. However, active United Nations helicopters are based at the site, it is the location of Blue Beret Camp, used as the headquarters for the UN peace keeping mission in Cyprus UNFICYP and it is used as one of the sites for intercommunal peace talks.
It is the home to a number of recreational facilities for UN personnel. Following the closure of Nicosia Airport, a new airport in Larnaca was opened in the Republic of Cyprus in 1975, while Northern Cyprus established Ercan International Airport and was opened in 2004, both on former RAF airfields. Ercan is not considered by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus as a legal entry or exit point, thus flights from it go only to Turkey. Paphos International Airport was opened in the Republic of Cyprus in 1983. There have been some plans for Nicosia Airport to be reopened under United Nations control as a goodwill measure, but so far neither the Greek Cypriots nor the Turkish Cypriots have pursued this option. In 2013 Michael Paraskos of the Cornaro Institute in Cyprus argued that with three other functioning airports in Cyprus the old Nicosia Airport would no longer be needed in the event of a political settlement on the island. Instead he suggested it should be turned into a tax-free industrial zone, designed to attract foreign high tech firms, employing Cypriots from both the Greek and Tu
Community One Foundation the Lesbian & Gay Community Appeal, is a non-profit foundation based in Toronto, Canada, that builds and supports individuals and groups that enhance the development of the LGBTTIQQ2S communities in the Greater Toronto Area, including Durham, Halton and York Regions. In 1980, the Lesbian & Gay Community Appeal of Toronto was founded by a group of Toronto activists led by Harvey Hamburg, Tom Beechy, Rosemary Barnes and others; the LGCA was a response to the lack of financial support for community organizations. The appeal raised funds by holding special initiatives, their mandate includes funding for projects and programs in the areas of education, human rights, arts and culture. In 2008, the LGCA became the Community One Foundation to recognize the ever-evolving and diverse community that the foundation serves and to promote the need for unity and philanthropy in the community. Since its inception, the Community One Foundation's volunteers and donors have raised funds to support projects that have strengthened the LGBTTIQQ2S community through the annual Rainbow Grants program.
The foundation is a public foundation and registered charity, operating through individual donations, with the exception of the RBC Community Rainbow Grant and the Steinert & Ferreiro Award. Community One