Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures. Epileptic seizures are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable periods to long periods of vigorous shaking; these episodes can result in physical injuries, including broken bones. In epilepsy, seizures have a tendency to recur and, as a rule, have no immediate underlying cause. Isolated seizures that are provoked by a specific cause such as poisoning are not deemed to represent epilepsy. People with epilepsy may be treated differently in various areas of the world and experience varying degrees of social stigma due to their condition; the cause of most cases of epilepsy is unknown. Some cases occur as the result of brain injury, brain tumors, infections of the brain, or birth defects through a process known as epileptogenesis. Known genetic mutations are directly linked to a small proportion of cases. Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal neuronal activity in the cortex of the brain.
The diagnosis involves ruling out other conditions that might cause similar symptoms, such as fainting, determining if another cause of seizures is present, such as alcohol withdrawal or electrolyte problems. This may be done by imaging the brain and performing blood tests. Epilepsy can be confirmed with an electroencephalogram, but a normal test does not rule out the condition. Epilepsy that occurs as a result of other issues may be preventable. Seizures are controllable with medication in about 70% of cases. In those whose seizures do not respond to medication, neurostimulation or dietary changes may be considered. Not all cases of epilepsy are lifelong, many people improve to the point that treatment is no longer needed; as of 2015, about 39 million people have epilepsy. Nearly 80% of cases occur in the developing world. In 2015, it resulted in 125,000 deaths, an increase from 112,000 in 1990. Epilepsy is more common in older people. In the developed world, onset of new cases occurs most in babies and the elderly.
In the developing world, onset is more common in older children and young adults due to differences in the frequency of the underlying causes. About 5–10% of people will have an unprovoked seizure by the age of 80, the chance of experiencing a second seizure is between 40 and 50%. In many areas of the world, those with epilepsy either have restrictions placed on their ability to drive or are not permitted to drive until they are free of seizures for a specific length of time; the word epilepsy is from Ancient Greek ἐπιλαμβάνειν, "to seize, possess, or afflict". Epilepsy is characterized by a long-term risk of recurrent seizures; these seizures may present in several ways depending on the part of the brain involved and the person's age. The most common type of seizures are convulsive. Of these, one-third begin as generalized seizures from the start, affecting both hemispheres of the brain. Two-thirds begin as focal seizures which may progress to generalized seizures; the remaining 40% of seizures are non-convulsive.
An example of this type is the absence seizure, which presents as a decreased level of consciousness and lasts about 10 seconds. Focal seizures are preceded by certain experiences, known as auras, they include sensory, psychic and motor phenomena. Jerking activity may start in a specific muscle group and spread to surrounding muscle groups in which case it is known as a Jacksonian march. Automatisms may occur, which are non-consciously-generated activities and simple repetitive movements like smacking of the lips or more complex activities such as attempts to pick up something. There are six main types of generalized seizures: tonic-clonic, clonic, myoclonic and atonic seizures, they all involve loss of consciousness and happen without warning. Tonic-clonic seizures occur with a contraction of the limbs followed by their extension along with arching of the back which lasts 10–30 seconds. A cry may be heard due to contraction of the chest muscles, followed by a shaking of the limbs in unison. Tonic seizures produce constant contractions of the muscles.
A person turns blue as breathing is stopped. In clonic seizures there is shaking of the limbs in unison. After the shaking has stopped it may take 10–30 minutes for the person to return to normal. Loss of bowel or bladder control may occur during a seizure; the tongue may be bitten on the sides during a seizure. In tonic-clonic seizure, bites to the sides are more common. Tongue bites are relatively common in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. Myoclonic seizures involve spasms of muscles in either all over. Absence seizures can be subtle with only a slight turn of the eye blinking; the person returns to normal right after it ends. Atonic seizures involve the loss of muscle activity for greater than one second; this occurs on both sides of the body. About 6% of those with epilepsy have seizures that are triggered by specific events and are known as reflex seizures; those with reflex epilepsy have seizures. Common triggers include flashing sudden noises. In certain types of epilepsy, seizures happen more during sleep, in other types they occur only when sleeping.
After the active portion of a seizure there is a period of recovery during which there is confusion, referred to as the postictal period before a normal level of consciousness returns. It l
SELCO Solar Light Pvt. Ltd. is a for-profit social enterprise based in Bangalore, India. SELCO has played an instrumental role in improving living standards of poor households in rural India in the state of Karnataka through solar energy based interventions and low smoke cook stoves. In recognition of the services towards reduction of the gap in access to energy, SELCO has been awarded the prestigious Ashden Awards twice, in years 2005 and 2007. SELCO India was founded in 1995 by Dr. Harish Hande an alumnus of IIT Kharagpur with INR 15,000 funding from its co-founder Mr. Neville Williams. SELCO India has installed solar light systems in 350,000 houses till date. Selco Foundation's e-shala project takes education to children in rural areas in areas where power supply doesn't exist by using a solar-powered power storage device, LED projector and tablet loaded with content. In 1995, the two partnered to found SELCO as an energy services company focused on meeting the needs of people lacking adequate access to energy.
SELF took a majority stake in the new company, with Williams as Chairman, while Hande retained a minority shareholding position and the role of Managing Director. SELCO India came into being in 1995 under the leadership of Hande and Neville Williams, president of Solar Electric Light Fund. Financial backing was received in December 1996 from Winrock International which released a conditional loan of $150,000 under the USAID Renewable energy commercialization project; this was however on a condition that SELCO INDIA created couple of solar service centers and install a minimum number of systems. SELCO started with a financial model in which each customer would pay 25% of the cost upfront as down payment and will further pay a monthly installment, affordable and within the average monthly budget of a family in the region. Along with this, the SELCO INDIA provided a year's guarantee to the warranty of the manufacturer along with free service for a year and a 90-day money back guarantee; the loan to Winrock was paid back by 2000.
Off-the-grid Selco India Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy
"Best Prom Ever" is the 20th episode in the first season of the television series How I Met Your Mother. It aired in the United States on May 1, 2006, it had the lowest recorded viewership for season 1. At the beginning of the episode, Marshall discovers that the location where he and Lily would like to have their wedding, the Van Smoot House, has an unexpected opening, they hurriedly book the available date. Lily becomes stressed due to the shortened timeframe and obsesses over the details, becoming somewhat of a bridezilla. Marshall finds a possible band for the wedding, The 88, but Lily will not approve the booking until she hears them play "their" song; the only way Lily can hear. Lily thus decides to sneak in with Barney. Robin is excited, because she never had the chance to attend her prom in high school, having been too busy with field hockey tournaments; when they arrive, they find tight security, so Lily and Robin offer to be the dates of two nerdy high school seniors, while Barney decides to find another way in.
Meanwhile and Marshall are stuffing wedding invitations on their "Guys' Night Out" until Robin calls Marshall and asks him to bring the sheet music of "Good Feeling" to Lily. Lily remembers her senior prom and all she had thought she'd experience but never did, she begins to have doubts about getting married. She tells this to Robin, who convinces her that she is marrying her best friend in the world, that she could be an artist and live an artist's lifestyle in life, she kisses her on the lips, giving Lily the "lesbian experience" she never had. Ted and Marshall sneak in the back, find Barney dressed as a turtle mascot. Marshall asks the senior who's Lily's date for the night where she is, who pulls out a pair of Nunchaku and hits Marshall with them. Ted tackles the senior to show Marshall that he will always have his back in a fight; the two seniors, Marshall and Barney are taken outside for trespassing, but Marshall and Ted sneak back in when Barney grabs the head of the turtle mascot suit and runs off.
Marshall and Lily dance together, agree to have The 88 play at the wedding, while Ted dances with Robin, who now wants to try restoring their relationship. Ryan Budke of TV Squad wrote how the flashbacks in the episode lent some real credibility to Lily's doubts about getting married, going on to say how he loved the line about how her doubts weren't in him, they were in her; the truth of this line he says shows "why this show isn't just a Friends clone". "Best Prom Ever" on IMDb "Best Prom Ever" at TV.com