Epinephelus labriformis

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Starry grouper
Epinephelus labriformis.jpg
Starry grouper at the Galápagos Islands
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Serranidae
Genus: Epinephelus
Species: E. labriformis
Binomial name
Epinephelus labriformis
(Jenyns, 1840)

Epinephelus labriformis, commonly called starry grouper or flag cabrilla among various other vernacular names, is a species of marine fish in the family Serranidae.[2]

Description[edit]

The starry grouper is medium-sized fish which grows up to 60 cm.[3] From:[4] "The body of the starry grouper is robust and compressed. The end of the top jaw is exposed. The operculum edge has 3 flat spines; the pre-operculum is without spines. The caudal fin is rounded. The lateral line is complete, it ends at the caudal fin base and is smoothly arched. The scales are rough and relatively small."

The starry grouper is generally olive-green to red-brown with scattered irregular white spots and blotches. Tips of each spine from the dorsal fin is bright white. The inside of the mouth is reddish.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The starry grouper is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean from Mexico to Peru including offshore islands Galápagos, Cocos Island, Malpelo and Revillagigedo.[5][6]

Adults are most abundant in shallow water but also occur to a depth of 30 m. They inhabit rocky and coral reefs of coastal waters within the continental shelf.[7]

Biology[edit]

The starry grouper is a solitary predator that seems to feed on smaller fishes by day and crustaceans after dark.[8] Spawning occurs in late summer.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Craig, M.T., Rocha, L., Choat, J.H., Ferreira, B. & Bertoncini, A.A. 2008. Epinephelus labriformis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 October 2013.
  2. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/comnames/CommonNamesList.php?ID=8196&GenusName=Epinephelus&SpeciesName=labriformis&StockCode=8509
  3. ^ CENAIM, 1992. A field guide to the edible fishes and shellfishes in coastal waters of Ecuador. Centro Nacional de Acuicultura e Investigaciones Marinas (CENAIM), Ecuador. 95 p.
  4. ^ http://eol.org/pages/213460/details#comprehensive_description
  5. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/summary/8196
  6. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/132750/0
  7. ^ ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/t0540e/t0540e26.pdf
  8. ^ Thomson, D.A., 1987. Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 302 p.
  9. ^ Encyclopedia of Life. "Details for: Starry Grouper". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2013-07-15. 

External links[edit]