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Episcopal Church (United States)

The Episcopal Church is a member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and is based in the United States with additional dioceses elsewhere. It is a mainline Christian denomination divided into nine provinces; the presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church is Michael Bruce Curry, the first African-American bishop to serve in that position. In 2018, the Episcopal Church had 1,835,931 baptized members, of whom 1,676,349 were in the United States. In 2011, it was the nation's 14th largest denomination. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 1.2 percent of the adult population in the United States, or 3 million people, self-identify as mainline Episcopalians. The church was organized after the American Revolution, when it became separate from the Church of England, whose clergy are required to swear allegiance to the British monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England; the Episcopal Church describes itself as "Protestant, yet Catholic". The Episcopal Church claims apostolic succession, tracing its bishops back to the apostles via holy orders.

The Book of Common Prayer, a collection of traditional rites, blessings and prayers used throughout the Anglican Communion, is central to Episcopal worship. The Episcopal Church was active in the Social Gospel movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since the 1960s and 1970s, the church has pursued a decidedly more liberal course, it has supported the civil rights movement and affirmative action. Some of its leaders and priests are known for marching with influential civil rights demonstrators such as Martin Luther King Jr; the church calls for the full legal equality of LGBT people. In 2015, the church's 78th triennial General Convention passed resolutions allowing the blessing of same-sex marriages and approved two official liturgies to bless such unions; the Episcopal Church ordains women and LGBT people to the priesthood, the diaconate, the episcopate, despite opposition from a number of other member churches of the Anglican Communion. In 2003, Gene Robinson became the first gay person ordained as a bishop.

The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America and "The Episcopal Church" are both official names specified in the church's constitution. The latter is much more used. In other languages, an equivalent is used. For example, in Spanish, the church is called La Iglesia Episcopal Protestante de los Estados Unidos de América or La Iglesia Episcopal. and in French L'Église protestante épiscopale des États-Unis d'Amérique or L'Église épiscopale. Until 1964, "The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America" was the only official name in use. In the 19th century, High Church members advocated changing the name, which they felt did not acknowledge the church's Catholic heritage, they were opposed by the church's evangelical wing, which felt that the "Protestant Episcopal" label reflected the Reformed character of Anglicanism. After 1877, alternative names were proposed and rejected by the General Convention. One proposed alternative was "the American Catholic Church". By the 1960s, opposition to dropping the word "Protestant" had subsided.

In a 1964 General Convention compromise and lay delegates suggested adding a preamble to the church's constitution, recognizing "The Episcopal Church" as a lawful alternate designation while still retaining the earlier name. The 66th General Convention voted in 1979 to use the name "The Episcopal Church" in the Oath of Conformity of the Declaration for Ordination; the evolution of the name can be seen in the church's Book of Common Prayer. In the 1928 BCP, the title page read, "According to the use of The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", whereas on the title page of the 1979 BCP it states, "'According to the use of The Episcopal Church"; the Episcopal Church in the United States of America has never been an official name of the church but is an alternative seen in English. Since several other churches in the Anglican Communion use the name "Episcopal", including Scotland and the Philippines, for example Anglicans Online, add the phrase "in the United States of America".

The full legal name of the national church corporate body is the "Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", incorporated by the legislature of New York and established in 1821. The membership of the corporation "shall be considered as comprehending all persons who are members of the Church"; this should not be confused with the name of the church itself, as it is a distinct body relating to church governance. The Episcopal Church has its origins in the Church of England in the American colonies, it stresses continuity with the early universal Western Church and claims to maintain apostolic succession; the first parish was founded in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, under the charter of the Virginia Company of London. The tower of Jamestown Church is one of the oldest surviving Anglican church structures in the United States; the Jamestown church building itself is a modern reconstruction. Although no American Anglican bishops existed in the colonial era, the Church of England had an official status in several colonies, which meant that local governments paid tax money to local parishes, the parishes handled some civic functions.

The Church of England was designated the established church in Virginia in 1609, in New York in 1693, in Maryland in 1702, in South Carolina in 1706, in North Carolina in 1730, in Georgia in 1758. From 1635 the vestries and the clergy came loosely under the diocesan authority of the Bishop of London. After 1702, the Society for the Propagatio

Katiba al-Bittar al-Libi

Katiba al-Bittar al-Libi is an armed Islamist group operating in Iraq and Libya. The group is composed of Libyan fighters who entered Syria in the wake of the Arab Spring and early post-civil uprising stage of the Syrian Civil War. Though the group is composed of Libyans, the group has large amounts of Tunisians and Francophone Maghrebis from Europe the perpetrators of the November 2015 Paris attacks and Manchester Arena bombing, including Abdelhamid Abaaoud, suspected to be a leader of the group, were members of the group or affiliated with it, the group pioneered the Inghimasi tactic used in the attack, its fighters have employed the tactic on the battlefield; the group maintained close ties to Ansar al-Sharia in Tunisia through networks in Libya and has established multiple training camps across Libya and has recruited Tunisians to these camps, which were located around Sirte and Tripoli. During beginning of the infighting between ISIL and its former allies such as Jabhat al-Nusra and Ahrar al-Sham fighters from Katiba al-Bittar took part in open fighting against ISIL's opponents in Markada and Atarib, in the process losing several fighters.

In June 2014 after Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi declared that ISIL had restored the Caliphate in Mosul the group pledged allegiance to ISIL. In 2014, the group sent a delegation from al-Raqqah to Libya and established the Islamic Youth Shura Council in the city of Derna, which would go on to become ISIL's Cyrenaica Province

Woolston Floating Bridge

The Woolston Floating Bridge was a cable ferry that crossed the River Itchen in England between hards at Woolston and Southampton from 23 November 1836 until 11 June 1977. It was taken out of service. There was one ferry and owned by the Floating Bridge Company, increased to two in 1881. In 1934 they were sold to Southampton Corporation. In the 1970s two diesel ferries operated side by side during the day with a single ferry late in the evening. There was a bus terminus at both hards on either side of the crossing, connecting foot passengers with the centre of Southampton and the road to Portsmouth. A maintenance slipway and cradle were built to the North of the Woolston hard to enable the ferries to be hauled out of the water; the third diesel ferry was to be found moored off the wires on the Southampton side of the river to the North of the hard in years. The original plans were introduced in 1833 for a conventional bridge with a swivelling section in the middle. Opposition came from a number of sources including the Northam Bridge Company.

An attempt to obtain an article of parliament for the bridge's construction was made in early 1834 but at this point the Admiralty voiced its objection arguing that the bridge would interfere with the navigation of the Itchen. The Admiralty suggested a steam driven floating bridge as an alternative and a revised bill was passed on the 25 July 1834 despite further opposition from the Northam Bridge Company; the bridge began operation on 23 November 1836. The floating bridge company suffered from poor financial performance and a new Act of Parliament was obtained in 1839 allowing the company to raise raise tolls and borrow 12,000. Competition from railways resulted resulted in the company going bankrupt at the end of 1849 and bridge operations ceased. A further act of parliament in 1851 allowing the tolls to again be raised and the exemptions to be reduced resulted in the bridge returning to service. New railway lines resulted in further difficulties in the 1860s but these were resolved by an 1886 act of Parliament that removed most of the remaining toll exemptions.

In 1934 Southampton council, having gained compulsory purchase powers from parliament, purchased the company at a price of £23,013 set at arbitration. During World War two the bridges were under orders to cease operations during air raids but in practice they continued operating in some cases; the council stopped charging tolls for pedestrians and cyclists using the bridge in October 1946. In 1970 a report prepared as part of the planning for the Itchen bridge it was noted that all the floating bridges would need to be replaced or undergo significant refits by 1980 in order to remain seaworthy; this among other factors pushed the city council to move towards constructing a fixed bridge. During the construction of the bridge the building works blocked the view of the ferry up the river so a watchtower had to be placed on the construction jetties to signal when ships were approaching from upstream; the final public crossing by the ferries was a return trip on the 11 of June 1977 starting at 22:00.

500 passengers were carried on each ferry with special tickets including a glass of wine in specially inscribed glasses. After the return crossings had been completed fireworks were launched from the west bank of the Itchen. On the 12 June a further crossing was made carrying Princess Alexandra as part of the naming ceremony for the new Itchen bridge When introduced in 1838, it was a wooden-hulled chain ferry designed by engineer James Meadows Rendel. There was one pair of chains across the river, both being used for propulsion. With the introduction of the lighter iron-hulled ferry No 2 in 1854, only the north chain was used for propulsion, the second chain being for guidance only. In 1879 a pedestrian-only ferry was introduced, followed by a second in 1881 to service the growing workmen traffic heading for the Thornycroft shipyard just downstream from the crossing; this necessitated the installation of a second set of chains to allow both types of ferry to operate simultaneously. In 1880 the ferry was still using chains, replaced by cables between 1878 and 1887.

They are first seen in pictures of Floating Bridge No. 7, built in 1892 by Day, Summers and Co. Each rope had an average life of nine months in normal use; each end was attached to a short length of chain, connected to counterbalance weights housed in chain wells to maintain tension. As the ropes stretched with use, chain links were removed to compensate; the periodical "Engineering" carried a full description, including drawings and sections, for Bridge Number 8 in the issue dated 26th November 1897. Floating Bridge No. 11 and the two subsequent ferries were powered by diesel engines. The ferries were lit by oil lamps. Ferry No 3 was fitted with gas lamps from new in 1862 but reverted to oil in 1869. In the early 20th century, electric lights were fitted to No 8, powered by a steam-driven dynamo, replaced by a Lister diesel in 1949; the Floating Bridge was technically called the Woolston ferry. Floating bridge is an affectionate description of the technology rather than the name of the crossing.

The term was first used by the engineer James Meadows Rendel, who had implemented a similar design of chain ferry at Torpoint in Cornwall and at Dartmouth in Devon. The same technology was applied to the Gosport Ferry in 1840 No variant of the ferry took the form of a pontoon bridge spanning the whole width of the crossing, to which the term Floating Bridge is more applied and thought of today; the term Floating Bridge has been used in Southampton and it is still in use, more than 30 years after the ferry was taken out of service