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Epode, in verse, is the third part of an ode, which followed the strophe and the antistrophe, completed the movement. At a certain point in time the choirs, which had chanted to right of the altar or stage, to left of it, combined and sang in unison, or permitted the coryphaeus to sing for them all, while standing in the centre. With the appearance of Stesichorus and the evolution of choral lyric, a learned and artificial kind of poetry began to be cultivated in Greece, a new form, the epode-song, came into existence, it consisted of a verse of iambic trimeter, followed by a verse of iambic dimeter, it is reported that, although the epode was carried to its highest perfection by Stesichorus, an earlier poet, was the inventor of this form. The epode soon took a firm place in choral poetry, which it lost when that branch of literature declined, but it extended beyond the ode, in the early dramatists we find numerous examples of monologues and dialogues framed on the epodical system. In Latin poetry the epode was cultivated, in conscious archaism, both as a part of the ode and as an independent branch of poetry.

Of the former class, the epithalamia of Catullus, founded on an imitation of Pindar, present us with examples of strophe and epode. The word is now familiar from an experiment of Horace in the second class, for he entitled his fifth book of odes Epodon liber or the Book of Epodes, he says in the course of these poems, that in composing them he was introducing a new form, at least in Latin literature, that he was imitating the effect of the iambic distichs invented by Archilochus. Accordingly, we find the first ten of these epodes composed in alternate verses of iambic trimeter and iambic dimeter, as at, for example, Epode 5.1–2: In the seven remaining epodes Horace diversified the measures, while retaining the general character of the distich. This group of poems belongs to the early youth of the poet, displays a truculence and a controversial heat which are absent from his more mature writings; as he was imitating Archilochus in form, he believed himself justified, no doubt, in repeating the sarcastic violence of his fierce model.

The curious thing is that these particular poems of Horace, which are short lyrical satires, have appropriated exclusively the name of epodes, although they bear little enough resemblance to the epode of early Greek literature. Prosody Latin Wikisource has original text related to this article: Epodi

Dayton, Alabama

Dayton is a town in Marengo County, United States. The population was 52 at the 2010 census, down from 60 in 2000. Dayton began to be settled in the early 19th century, with a town survey done and a "public well" established in 1832; the post office was established in 1837. It was incorporated on January 13, 1844. A devastating tornado hit the town in 1852. By 1860 the town had male and female academies, a hotel, cotton gin, oil mill, blacksmith shop, cabinet shop, drug store, several general merchandise stores; the town had several large homes, though most are now gone. One of the survivors, the William Poole House, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the decrease in agricultural activity over the last century has reduced the population to a fraction of what it once was. Dayton is located at 32°20′59″N 87°38′28″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 60 people, 20 households, 15 families residing in the town.

There were 28 housing units. The racial makeup of the town was 35 % White. There were 20 households out of which 20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50% were married couples living together, 20% had a female householder with no husband present, 25% were non-families. 25% of all households were made up of individuals and 15% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.27. In the town, the population was spread out with 36.7% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 18 to 24, 13.3% from 25 to 44, 26.7% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 76.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 58.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $12,500, the median income for a family was $6,250. Males had a median income of $32,917 versus $30,417 for females; the per capita income for the town was $10,235. There were 66.7% of families and 58.7% of the population living below the poverty line, including 50.0% of under eighteens and 50.0% of those over 64.

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Dayton has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Sarah Byrd Askew, public librarian who pioneered the establishment of county libraries in the U. S. A. Bill Poole, politician


Sudhans is one of the major tribes from the districts of Poonch, Sudhanoti and Kotli in Azad Kashmir originating from Pashtun areas. The tribe claims an Afghan ancestry. According to Syed Ali, Sudhans have a Pashtun descent and moved to the Poonch district of Kashmir region some centuries ago. Sudhans from Poonch considered themselves to be SudhozaiPathans. Scholar Iffat Malik of the Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad writes: The Sudhans claim their origin from Afghanistan and they consider themselves to be descendants of a common ancestor Jassi Khan, an Afghan chief and had earned the name of Sudhan as a compliment to his valour as he 500 years or so ago landed in Western parts of Poonch and fought for their existence, but the local people dominated them In this period, they multiplied and emerged into a strong and powerful tribe. According to them, they are same as the Sudhazai tribe of high class Afghans. In social habits and customs they are akin to Sudhazais of Afghanstan. Among Afghans, Sudhazai are a respected clan with long good history behind them.

Sikhs and Dogras had to fight the Sudhans in wars spread over a long time as they had never been reconciled to their rule by them, there was first rebellion in 1837, after Sudhan people went in revolt against Sikh Empire, had captured hills from Sikhs, however Sudhans were defeated by Sikhs but survived as a strong tribe. In 1947, Sudhans were first to challenge Dogras. About 40,000–60,000 Sudhans were recruited and served in the British Indian Army during the First and Second World Wars; the 1911 Census of India documented the Sudhans as being a subcaste tribe of hill Brahmans. The Sudhan tribe has been described as "a main and martial tribe of dissident Poonch" by Christopher Snedden, a political analyst. Sardar Ibrahim Khan, a barrister, politician of the Muslim Conference party, was among the Sudhan people who rose to significance in 1947 as a result of the campaign and rebellion against the Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Khan led a significant faction of the Muslim Conference activists in their demands that Singh should join Pakistan rather than accede to India.

Together with the Muslims from Bagh, it was the Sudhans. The rebels were directed by the Pakistan Army, with the support of Pashtun tribal lashkars sent in from the Khyber and Waziristan tribal agencies, they were able to'liberate' a portion of the state, called Azad Kashmir. Azad Kashmir has been under the control Pakistan since. Together with the Rajputs, it is the Sudhans who dominate the politics of Azad Kashmir in the present day, although the Gujjar community is the largest among the population. Kapur, Manohar Lal. History of Jammu and Kashmir State: The making of the State. Kashmir History Publications. P. 51

Charles Aznavour Square, Gyumri

Not to be confused with Charles Aznavour Square, YerevanCharles Aznavour Square is a large square at the northern part of Gyumri city, Armenia. It is considered the 3rd square of the city after the Independence Square; the square is intersected by the following streets: Vazgen Sargsyan street from the northwest. Missak Manouchian street from the northeast. Khanjyan street from the east. Garegin Nzhdeh street from the south. Ilya Repin street from the west; the rectangular-shaped square was restored in 2000 and the statue of the renowned French-Armenian singer Charles Aznavour was erected. The sculptor of the statue was Samvel Petrosyan; the square is surrounded with many commercial and residential buildings

Vandenboschia boschiana

Vandenboschia boschiana, synonym Trichomanes boschianum, the Appalachian bristle fern or Appalachian filmy fern, is a small delicate perennial leptosporangiate fern which forms colonies with long, black creeping rhizomes. The evergreen fronds are bipinnatifid and irregularly dissected, about 4 to 20 cm long, 1 to 4 cm across with winged stipes 1 to 7 cm long and light green in colour; the common name derives from the leaves which are thin, only a single cell thick, missing an epidermis and translucent, giving the appearance of a wet film. Sori, the spore-producing organs are formed along the margins of the frond segments; the indusium forms a funnel around the sorus, sunken in the leaf tissue. A bristle-like receptacle protrudes from the indusium as in all Trichomanes species. Spore production occurs between September. In common with all ferns, V. boschiana exhibits a gametophyte stage in its life cycle and develops a haploid reproductive prothallus as an independent plant. In contrast to the typical heart-shaped fern prothallus, V. boschiana gametophytes are filamentous and resemble colonies of green algae or moss protonemata.

According to the Flora of North America ploidy is rather variable. The western colonies tend to be diploid whilst the eastern ones are tetraploid. Sterile triploids have been recorded, it has been hypothesized that most of the populations of V. boschiana are genetically identical clones of great age. Endemic to eastern North America. A single disjunct population has been found in Mexico. Populations are found in the eastern United States from southern Ohio in the north to Alabama in the south and from Arkansas and southern Illinois in the west to South Carolina in the east. In all areas the populations are scattered and reflect the distribution of an uncommon habitat. Vandenboschia boschiana is found in deep shade on damp acid rocks sandstone, of sheltered canyons and rock shelters at an altitude of 150 to 800 m; the rock outcrops are found within mesic upland forests. This fern is dependent upon a high air humidity which places severe restrictions on its distribution in the current climate of eastern North America.

In fact V. boschiana is believed to be a relict of milder pre-glacial conditions. The current distribution of V. boschiana is considered to reflect historical lack of glaciation, type of bedrock, lack of disturbance in the surrounding forest and micro-climate. Temperature is less important than these factors though extreme cold weather can cause mortality. Periodic droughts do cause heavy mortality and have reduced many population sizes over the last few decades; the species is more at risk than its G4 grading would suggest and state NatureServe conservation rankings are Vulnerable to Critically imperiled. Hazards include drying of the habitat, removal of forest canopy shading the rock exposures and over-collecting; the plant is not known to be cultivated. From its large-scale distribution the plant may be hardy to USDA Zone 6, although this may not reflect the micro-climate of its sheltered habitat. Media related to Trichomanes boschianum at Wikimedia Commons Flora of North America: Trichomanes boschianum Global Biodiversity Information Facility Data Portal: Trichomanes boschianum Ohio DNR: Trichomanes boschianum University of Tennessee Herbarium: Trichomanes boschianum Conservation Assessment for Appalachian Bristle Fern Cobb, B..

A Field Guide to Ferns and their Related Families of Northeastern and Central North America. Peterson Field Guides. Gleason, H. A. and Cronquist, A.. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Van Nostrand, New York. Hill, S. R.. Conservation Assessment for Appalachian Bristle Fern Sturm. USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region


The COMX-35 was a home computer, one of the few systems to use the RCA 1802 microprocessor, the same microprocessor, used in some space probes. The COMX-35 had a keyboard with an integrated joystick in place of cursor keys, it was inexpensive and came with a large collection of software. COMX-35 was manufactured in Hong Kong by COMX World Operations Ltd and was released in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Finland, Italy, Singapore and the People's Republic of China. CPU: CDP 1802 at 2.813 MHz or 2.835 MHz Random-access memory: 35 kB ROM: 16 kB with Basic interpreter VIS: CDP1869/CDP1870 Text modes: 40 columns x 24 lines. Alternative 20 x 24, 40 x 12 and 20 x 12 Character set: 128 Programmable characters, the default character set displayed only uppercase characters Character size: 6x9 or 6x8 pixels, alternative up to 6x16 Graphics modes: None, but the character-set was re programmable to simulate a 240 x 216 High Resolution display Colours: A total of 8 foreground colours are available and 8 background colours.

Sound: 2 channels: one for tone generation with a span of 8 octaves, 1 for special effect/white noise. Volume programmable in 16 steps. The'COMX 35' was called'35' due to the 35 kB RAM in the machine, this included 32 kB actual User RAM of which 30 kB was available for actual BASIC and the rest was used for system parameters and reserved for use by the BASIC System ROM. An additional 3 kB was included as video RAM; the COMX used the RCA CDP1869 and CDP1870 Video Interface System, consisting of the CDP1869 address and sound generator and the CDP1870 colour video generator. The COMX automatically selected operation in PAL or NTSC, this was done via the PAL/NTSC input on the VIS. During start-up the system ROM detected PAL/NTSC by checking EF2. EF2 gave PAL/NTSC information before the first pulse on the Q line, after this EF2 was used for keyboard handling; the VIS ran on 5.626 MHz for a 5.67 MHz for an NTSC machine. This frequency was divided by 2 and output via CPUCLK to the CDP 1802 for timing of the CPU.

The VIS was responsible for the timing of the interrupt S and timing of the non display period via PREDISPLAY. Video memory could only be accessed during the non display period which allowed for execution of 2160 machine cycles on a PAL and 1574 on an NTSC machine. Provided that not more instructions were executed than the indicated maximum number of machine cycles video memory could be accessed during the interrupt routine. Alternatively the program could be paused by waiting for a non display period by checking EF1; the Video memory consisted of 1 kB RAM page memory and 2 kB RAM character memory. The page memory stored the ASCII code for each character position on the screen; the screen had 960 characters where position 0 could be accessed by memory location @F800. The character memory stored the character definition of each ASCII character and could be accessed by memory location @F400-@F7FF. Character memory could be accessed via different methods see the VIS data sheet; the COMX 35 came in a white or black keyboard.

Models included a monitor connection. The second COMX home computer was called the COMX PC1, the same hardware as the COMX-35 with a better keyboard and a joystick connection. There was a clone of the COMX PC1 known as the Savla PC1, sold in India; the COMX 35 had one 44-pin external connector for additional expansion options in the form of interface cards. Memory location @C000-DFFF was reserved for use by any interface card, either to connect ROM, additional RAM or for other purposes; the following hardware was available: Expansion box The expansion box allowed up to 4 interface cards to be connected to the COMX 35. The expansion box included a firmware ROM connected to memory location @E000-@EFFF which extended basic with commands and logic to switch between different interface cards. Next to the standard firmware ROM there was an adaptation made by F&M this ROM added a screen editor feature to COMX basic. Floppy disk controller The COMX Floppy disk controller allowed connection of 5.25" disk drives.

The controller used the WD1770 clocked at 8 MHz. The DOS ROM was selected between address C000-DFFF and was mapped over address DD0-DDF of the basic ROM. COMX DOS supports 35 tracks for both single and double sided disks and 70 tracks on single sided disks; every track consisted of 16 sectors and every sector of 128 bytes, resulting in disk files of max 140 kB. Printer card The COMX Printer card allowed connection of serial printers. Depending on what type of printer was connected the firmware ROM was selected either with the parallel firmware between memory location @C000-@CFFF and the serial firmware between memory location @D000-@DFFF or the other way around. Thermal printer and card The COMX Thermal Printer came including a dedicated interface card, printing was done on thermal paper by using a head that with 9 pins which could heat the paper and as such print both text and images. You needed to be careful when writing your own printer drivers, needed for graphic printing, as it was easy to'burn' the printer head.

32K RAM card The COMX 32 kB RAM card placed additional RAM from address @C000 to @DFFF, i.e. only one 8 kB bank of the available 32 kB at a time. To sw