The modern Albanian alphabet is a Latin alphabet, and consists of 36 letters, The vowels are shown in bold. Listen to the pronunciation of the letters, the earliest mention of Albanian writings describes them Licet Albanenses aliam omnino linguam a latina habeant et diversam, tamen litteram latinam habent in uso et in omnibus suis libris. The history of the Albanian alphabet is closely linked with the influence of religion among Albanians, there were attempts for an original Albanian alphabet in the period of 1750–1850. The current alphabet in use among Albanians is one of the two approved in the Congress of Manastir held by Albanian intellectuals from November 14 to 22 November 1908. A first reference for Latin letters was in a medieval Latin manuscript of 1332, the earliest document discovered so far that is written in Albanian is a manuscript from 1210 by Theodor of Shkodra, presumably written in Latin characters. The first certain document in Albanian Formula e pagëzimit, issued by Pal Engjëlli, was written in Latin characters.
It was a phrase that was supposed to be used by the relatives of a dying person if they couldnt make it to churches during the troubled times of the Ottoman invasion. The Greek intellectual Anastasios Michael, in his speech to the Berlin Academy mentions an Albanian alphabet produced recently by Kosmas from Cyprus and it is assumed that this is the alphabet used for the Gospel of Elbasan. Anastasios calls Kosmas the Cadmus of Albania, in 1857 Kostandin Kristoforidhi, an Albanian scholar and translator, drafted in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire, a Memorandum for the Albanian language. He went to Malta, where he stayed until 1860 in a Protestant seminary, finishing the translation of The New Testament in the Tosk and he was helped by Nikolla Serreqi from Shkodër with the Gheg version of the Testament. In November 1869, a Commission for the Alphabet of the Albanian Language was gathered in Istanbul, one of its members was Kostandin Kristoforidhi and the main purpose of the Commission was the creation of a unique alphabet for all the Albanians.
In January 1870 the Commission ended its work of the standardization of the alphabet, a plan on the creation of textbooks and spread of Albanian schools was drafted. However this plan was not realized, because the Ottoman Government wouldnt finance the expenses for the establishment of such schools, Sami Frashëri, Koto Hoxhi, Pashko Vasa and Jani Vreto created an alphabet. This was based on the principle of one sound one letter and this was called the Istanbul alphabet. In 1905 this alphabet was in use in all Albanian territory and South, including Catholic, Muslim. One year earlier, in 1904 had been published the Albanian dictionary of Kostandin Kristoforidhi, the dictionary had been drafted 25 years before its publication and was written in the Greek alphabet. The so-called Bashkimi alphabet was designed by the Society for the Unity of the Albanian Language for being written on a French typewriter, in 1908, the Congress of Monastir was held by Albanian intellectuals in Bitola, Ottoman Empire, modern-day Republic of Macedonia.
The Congress was hosted by the Bashkimi club, and prominent delegates included Gjergj Fishta, Ndre Mjeda, Mithat Frashëri, Sotir Peçi, Shahin Kolonja, there was much debate and the contending alphabets were Istanbul and Agimi
San was an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet. Its shape was similar to modern M, or to a modern Greek Sigma turned sideways, unlike Sigma, whose position in the alphabet is between Rho and Tau, San appeared between Pi and Qoppa in alphabetic order. In addition to denoting this separate archaic character, the name San was used as a name to denote the standard letter Sigma. Conversely, Greek Xi got its shape and position from Samekh, since voiced and voiceless were not distinct phonemes in Greek and San came to be used in essentially the same function. According to a different theory, San was indeed the name of what is now known as Sigma. This name was also associated with the alternative local letter now known as San. The modern name Sigma, in turn, was a transparent Greek innovation that simply meant hissing, based on a nominalization of a verb σίζω. Moreover, a modern re-interpretation of the values of the sibilants in Proto-Semitic. The use of San became a characteristic of the Doric dialects of Corinth and neighboring Sikyon, San became largely obsolete by the second half of the fifth century BC, when it was generally replaced by Sigma, although in Crete it continued in use for about a century longer.
In Sikyon, it was retained as a mark of the city used on coin inscriptions. San could be written with the outer stems either straight or slanted outwards and it was typically distinguished from the similar-looking Mu by the fact that San tended to be symmetrical, whereas Mu had a longer left stem in its archaic forms. Outside Greece, San was borrowed into the Old Italic alphabets and it initially retained its M-shape in the archaic Etruscan alphabet, but from the 6th century BC changing its aspect to a shape similar to that of the d-rune. The name of San lived on as a name for Sigma even at a time when the letter itself had everywhere been replaced with standard Sigma. Thus, Herodotus in the late 5th century reports that the letter was called San by the Dorians. It appears to have denoted a /ts/ sound and has been labelled Tsan by some modern writers, in the local Arcadian dialect, this sound occurred in words that reflect Proto-Greek */kʷ/. In such words, other Greek dialects usually have /t/, while the related Cypriot dialect has /s/, the letter has been represented in modern scholarly transcriptions of the Mantinea inscription by ⟨ś⟩ or by ⟨σ̱⟩.
Note, that the symbol is used to denote the unrelated letter waw in Pamphylia and was the form of beta used in Melos. The Ionian letter, which gave rise to the numeral symbol Sampi may be a continuation of San
Upsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, Υʹ has a value of 400 and it is derived from the Phoenician waw. The name of the letter was originally just “υ”, but the name changed to “υ ψιλόν”, to distinguish it from οι, in early Greek it was pronounced like English oo. In Classical Greek, it was pronounced like French u or German ü, i. e and this was the case at least until the year 1030AD. In Modern Greek it is pronounced like continental i or English ee, in ancient Greek, it occurred in both long and short versions, but this distinction has been lost in Modern Greek. As an initial letter in Classical Greek it always carried the rough breathing as reflected in the many Greek-derived English words, such as those that begin with hyper- and hypo-. This rough breathing was derived from an older pronunciation that used a sibilant instead, Upsilon participated as the second element in falling diphthongs, which have subsequently developed in various ways, For instance, after alpha or epsilon it is pronounced or in Modern Greek.
The usage of Y in Latin dates back to the first century BC and it was used to transcribe loanwords from Greek, so it was not a native sound of Latin and was usually pronounced /u/ or /i/. The latter pronunciation was the most common in the Classical period and was used mostly by uneducated people, four letters of the Latin alphabet arose from it, V and Y and, much later, U and W. In the Cyrillic script, the letters U and izhitsa arose from it, in some languages, the name upsilon is used to refer to the Latin letter Y as well as the Greek letter. In particle physics the capital Greek letter Υ denotes an Upsilon particle, note that the symbol should always look like Υ in order to avoid confusion with a Latin Y denoting the hypercharge. Automobile manufacturer Lancia has a model called the Ypsilon, in linguistics, the symbol is used to represent a labiodental approximant. In astrophysics and physical cosmology, Υ refers to the mass-to-light ratio, Upsilon is known as Pythagoras letter, or the Samian letter, because Pythagoras used it as an emblem of the path of virtue or vice.
As the Roman writer Persius wrote in Satire III, and the letter which spreads out into Pythagorean branches has pointed out to you the steep path which rises on the right, Greek Upsilon Coptic Ua Latin Upsilon Mathematical Upsilon These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup, brady Haran for the University of Nottingham
E is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is the most commonly used letter in many languages, including Czech, Dutch, French, Hungarian, Latvian, Spanish, the Latin letter E differs little from its source, the Greek letter epsilon, Ε. In Semitic, the letter represented /h/, in Greek, hê became the letter epsilon, the various forms of the Old Italic script and the Latin alphabet followed this usage. Although Middle English spelling used ⟨e⟩ to represent long and short /e/, in other cases, the letter is silent, generally at the end of words. In the orthography of languages it represents either these or /ɛ/, or some variation of these sounds. Less commonly, as in French, German, or Saanich, ⟨e⟩ represents a mid-central vowel /ə/. Digraphs with ⟨e⟩ are common to indicate either diphthongs or monophthongs, such as ⟨ea⟩ or ⟨ee⟩ for /iː/ or /eɪ/ in English, ⟨ei⟩ for /aɪ/ in German, the International Phonetic Alphabet uses ⟨e⟩ for the close-mid front unrounded vowel or the mid front unrounded vowel.
E is the most common letter in the English alphabet and several other European languages, in the story The Gold Bug by Edgar Allan Poe, a character figures out a random character code by remembering that the most used letter in English is E. This makes it a hard and popular letter to use when writing lipograms, ernest Vincent Wrights Gadsby is considered a dreadful novel, and supposedly at least part of Wrights narrative issues were caused by language limitations imposed by the lack of E. Both Georges Perecs novel A Void and its English translation by Gilbert Adair omit e and are considered better works, ∃, existential quantifier in predicate logic. ∈, the symbol for set membership in set theory, ℯ, the base of the natural logarithm. 1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings. In British Sign Language, the e is signed by extending the index finger of the right hand touching the tip of index on the left hand. Media related to E at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of E at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of e at Wiktionary
Digamma, waw, or wau is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet. It originally stood for the sound /w/ but it has remained in use as a Greek numeral for 6. Digamma or wau was part of the original archaic Greek alphabet as initially adopted from Phoenician, like its model, Phoenician waw, it represented the voiced labial-velar approximant /w/ and stood in the 6th position in the alphabet between epsilon and zeta. It is the doublet of the vowel letter upsilon, which was derived from waw but was placed at the end of the Greek alphabet. Digamma or wau is in turn the ancestor of the Latin letter F, as an alphabetic letter, it is attested in archaic and dialectal ancient Greek inscriptions until the classical period. The shape of the letter went through a development from through, to or, in modern Greek, this is often replaced by the digraph στ. The sound /w/ existed in Mycenean Greek, as attested in Linear B and it is confirmed by the Hittite name of Troy, corresponding to the Greek name *Wilion.
The /w/ sound was lost at times in various dialects. In Ionic, /w/ had probably disappeared before Homers epics were written down, further evidence coupled with cognate-analysis shows that οἶνος was earlier ϝοῖνος /wóînos/. Aeolian was the dialect that kept the sound /w/ longest, in discussions by ancient Greek grammarians of the Hellenistic era, the letter is therefore often described as a characteristic Aeolian feature. Loanwords that entered Greek before the loss of /w-/ lost that sound when Greek did, for instance, Oscan Viteliu gave rise to the Greek word Italia. The Adriatic tribe of the Veneti was called in Ancient Greek, in loanwords that entered the Greek language after the drop of /w/, the phoneme was once again registered, compare for example the spelling of Οὐάτεις for vates. In some local alphabets, a variant glyph of the letter digamma existed that resembled modern Cyrillic И, in one local alphabet, that of Pamphylia, this variant form existed side by side with standard digamma as two distinct letters.
It has been surmised that in this dialect the sound /w/ may have changed to labiodental /v/ in some environments, the F-shaped letter may have stood for the new /v/ sound, while the special И-shaped form signified those positions where the old /w/ sound was preserved. Digamma/wau remained in use in the system of Greek numerals attributed to Miletus and it was one of three letters that were kept in this way in addition to the 24 letters of the classical alphabet, the other two being koppa for 90, and sampi for 900. During their history in handwriting in late antiquity and the Byzantine era and it has remained in use as a numeral in Greek to the present day, in contexts such as enumerating chapters in a book or other items in a set. Digamma was derived from Phoenician waw, which was shaped roughly like an Y, of the two Greek reflexes of waw, digamma retained the alphabetic position, but had its shape modified to, while the upsilon retained the original shape but was placed in a new alphabetic position.
Early Crete had a form of digamma somewhat closer to the original Phoenician
Omicron is the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 70 and this letter is derived from the Phoenician letter ayin. In classical Greek, omicron represented the sound in contrast to omega, in modern Greek, omicron represents the mid back rounded vowel /o/. Such stars include Omicron Andromedae, Omicron Ceti, and Omicron Persei, Greek Omicron / Coptic O Mathematical Omicron These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style
Kappa is the 10th letter of the Greek alphabet, used to represent the /k/ sound in Ancient and Modern Greek. In the system of Greek numerals, Kʹ has a value of 20 and it was derived from the Phoenician letter kaph. Letters that arose from kappa include the Roman K and Cyrillic К, Greek proper names and placenames containing kappa are often written in English with c due to the Romans transliterations into the Latin alphabet, Corinth, Crete. All formal modern romanizations of Greek now use the k, Thessaloniki, Kalamata. The cursive form ϰ is generally a simple font variant of lower-case kappa, in mathematics, the kappa curve is named after this letter, the tangents of this curve were first calculated by Isaac Barrow in the 17th century. In graph theory, the connectivity of a graph is given by κ, in differential geometry, the curvature of a curve is given by κ. In Cosmology, the curvature of the universe is described by κ, in physics, the torsional constant of an oscillator is given by κ as well as Einsteins constant of gravitation.
In physics the coupling coefficient in magnetostatics is represented by κ In fluid dynamics, in structural engineering, κ is the ratio of the smaller factored moment to the larger factored moment and is used to calculate the critical elastic moment of an unbraced steel member. κ is used to notate conductivity, the reciprocal of resistivity, in Thermodynamics, the compressibility of a compound is given by κ. In psychology and psychiatry, kappa represents a measure of diagnostic reliability, in biology and kappa prime are important nucleotide motifs for a tertiary interaction of group II introns. In biology, kappa designates a subtype of an antibody component, in pharmacology, kappa represents a type of opioid receptor. Kappa statistics such as Cohens kappa and Fleiss kappa are methods for calculating inter-rater reliability, upper-case letter Κ is used as a symbol for, In textual criticism, the Byzantine text-type. In set theory, kappa is used to denote an ordinal that is a cardinal. In Chemistry, kappa is used to denote the denticity of the compound, mathematical Kappa These characters are used only as mathematical symbols.
Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style
History of the Greek alphabet
The history of the Greek alphabet starts with the adoption of Phoenician letter forms and continues to the present day. This article concentrates on the period, before the codification of the now-standard Greek alphabet. The Greek alphabet was developed by a Greek with first-hand experience of contemporary Phoenician script, almost as quickly as it was established in the Greek mainland, it was rapidly re-exported, eastwards to Phrygia, where a similar script was devised. It was exported westwards with Euboean or West Greek traders, the earliest known fragmentary Greek inscriptions date from this time, 770–750 BC, and they match Phoenician letter forms of c. Some scholars argue for dates, Naveh for the 11th century BC, Stieglitz for the 14th century, Bernal for the 18th–13th century, some for the 9th. He had seen and described the Cadmean writing engraved on certain tripods in the temple of Apollo at Thebes and he estimated that those tripods dated back to the time of Laius, the great-grandson of Cadmus.
On one of the tripods there was this inscription in Cadmean writing, a second tripod bears the inscription in hexameter verse, Σκαῖος πυγμαχέων με ἑκηβόλῳ Ἀπόλλωνι νικήσας ἀνέθηκε τεῒν περικαλλὲς ἄγαλμα. Herodotus estimated that if Scaeus, the son of Hippocoon was the dedicator and not another of the same name, the third tripod bears the inscription again in hexameter verse, Λαοδάμας τρίποδ᾽ αὐτὸς ἐυσκόπῳ Ἀπόλλωνι μουναρχέων ἀνέθηκε τεῒν περικαλλὲς ἄγαλμα. Furthermore, he argues that Gephyraei were Euboeans or Eretrians and he doubts the reliability of Herodotus sources and other ancient Greek writers credited the legendary Palamedes of Nauplion on Euboea with the invention of the supplementary letters not found in the original Phoenician alphabet. The distinction between Eta and Epsilon and between Omega and Omicron, adopted in the Ionian standard, was attributed to Simonides of Ceos. Plutarch goes further back to describe an older Greek writing system, agesilaus sent a transcript to Egypt in order to be translated back into Ancient Greek.
Agetoridas the Spartan travelled to Memphis of Egypt and gave the transcript to Chonouphis the Egyptian priest, some scholars speculate that this plate was written in Linear B. And therefore, as the story goes, the Egyptian priest, having studied the script and translated it, the majority of the letters of the Phoenician alphabet were adopted into Greek with much the same sounds as they had had in Phoenician. However, like other Semitic scripts, has a range of consonants, commonly called gutturals, that did not exist in Greek, ’āleph, hē, ḥēth, and ‘ayin. For example, the two letters wāw and yōdh stood for both the approximant consonants and, and the vowels and in Phoenician. By this point in time, Greek had lost its sound, so Phoenician yōdh was used only for its vocalic value, upsilon was added at the end of the alphabet, perhaps to avoid upsetting the alphabetic order that was used in Greek numerals. All Phoenician letters had been acrophonic, and they remained so in Greek, only the letter ‘ayin for necessitated a change of name.
Phoenician had an emphatic consonant, ṭēth, which did not exist in Greek, Greek had an aspiration distinction that Phoenician lacked, and used ṭēth for the aspirated
Archaic Greek alphabets
The system now familiar as the standard 24-letter Greek alphabet was originally the regional variant of the Ionian cities in Asia Minor. It was officially adopted in Athens in 403 BC and in most of the rest of the Greek world by the middle of the 4th century BC, the green type is the most archaic and closest to the Phoenician. The red type is the one that was transmitted to the West and became the ancestor of the Latin alphabet. The blue type is the one from which the standard Greek alphabet emerged, *Upsilon is derived from waw. The green type uses no additional letters beyond the Phoenician set, the aspirated plosives /pʰ/, /kʰ/ are spelled either simply as Π and Κ respectively, without a distinction from unaspirated /p/, /k/, or as digraphs ΠΗ, ΚΗ. Likewise, the clusters /ps/, /ks/ are simply spelled ΠΣ and this is the system found in Crete and in some other islands in the southern Aegean, notably Thera and Anaphe. The red type lacks Phoenician-derived Ξ for /ks/, but instead introduces a supplementary sign for that sound combination at the end of the alphabet, in addition, the red alphabet introduced letters for the aspirates, Φ = /pʰ/ and Ψ = /kʰ/.
Note that the use of Χ in the red set corresponds to the letter X in Latin, while it differs from the standard Greek alphabet, where Χ stands for /kʰ/, only Φ for /pʰ/ is common to all non-green alphabets. The red type is found in most parts of central mainland Greece, as well as the island of Euboea, the light blue type still lacks Ξ, and adds only letters for /pʰ/ and /kʰ/. Both of these correspond to the standard alphabet. The light blue system thus still has no letters for the clusters /ps/, /ks/. In this system, these are typically spelled ΦΣ and ΧΣ and this is the system found in Athens and several Aegean islands. The dark blue type, finally, is the one that has all the consonant symbols of the standard alphabet, in addition to Φ and Χ, it adds Ψ. This system is found in the cities of the Ionian dodecapolis, Knidos in Asia Minor, in the psilotic dialects of Anatolia and adjacent eastern Aegean islands, as well as Crete, vocalic Η was used only for /ɛː/. In a number of Aegean islands, notably Rhodes, Milos and Paros, in Knidos, a variant letter was invented to distinguish the two functions, Η was used for /h/, and for /ɛː/.
In south Italian colonies, especially Taranto, after c.400 BC and this latter symbol was turned into the diacritic sign for rough breathing by the Alexandrine grammarians. The normal letter epsilon was used exclusively for the latter, while a new special symbol stood both for short /e/ and for /ɛː/, the letter Digamma for the sound /w/ was generally used only in those local scripts where the sound was still in use in the spoken dialect. During the archaic period, this includes most of mainland Greece, as well as Euboea, in Athens and in Naxos it was apparently used only in the register of poetry
He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Hē, Hebrew Hē ה, Aramaic Hē, Syriac Hē ܗ, and Arabic Hāʾ ﻫ. Its sound value is a glottal fricative. The proto-Canaanite letter gave rise to the Greek Epsilon, Etruscan
Epsilon is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid front unrounded vowel /e/. In the system of Greek numerals it has the value five and it was derived from the Phoenician letter He. Letters that arose from epsilon include the Roman E, Ë and Ɛ, in essence, the uppercase form of epsilon looks identical to Latin E. The lowercase version has two variants, both inherited from medieval Greek handwriting. One, the most common in typography and inherited from medieval minuscule. The other, known as lunate or uncial epsilon and inherited from earlier uncial writing, while in normal typography these are just alternative font variants, they may have different meanings as mathematical symbols. Computer systems therefore offer distinct encodings for them, in Unicode, the character U+0一3F5 Greek lunate epsilon symbol is provided specifically for the lunate form. In TeX, \epsilon denotes the lunate form, while \varepsilon denotes the reversed-3 form, there is a Latin epsilon or open e, which looks similar to the Greek lowercase epsilon.
It is encoded in Unicode as U+025B and U+0190 and is used as an IPA phonetic symbol, the lunate or uncial epsilon has provided inspiration for the euro sign. The lunate epsilon is not to be confused with the set membership symbol, in addition, mathematicians have read the symbol ∈ as element of, as in 1 is an element of the natural numbers for 1 ∈ N, for example. As late as 1960, ϵ itself was used for set membership, Only gradually did a fully separate stylized symbol take the place of epsilon. In a related context, Peano introduced the use of a backwards epsilon, ∍, for the phrase such that, the letter Ε was taken over from the Phoenician letter He when Greeks first adopted alphabetic writing. In archaic Greek writing, its shape is often identical to that of the Phoenician letter. Archaic writing often preserves the Phoenician form with a stem extending slightly below the lowest horizontal bar. In the classical era, through the influence of cursive writing styles. Besides its classical Greek sound value, the short /e/ phoneme, for instance, in early Attic before c.500 B. C. it was used both for the long, open /ɛː/, and for the long close /eː/.
In the former role, it was replaced in the classic Greek alphabet by Eta. Some dialects used yet other ways of distinguishing between various e-like sounds, in Corinth, the normal function of Ε to denote /e/ and /ɛː/ was taken by a glyph resembling a pointed B, while Ε was used only for long close /eː/
A diphthong, known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable. Technically, a diphthong is a vowel with two different targets, that is, the tongue moves during the pronunciation of the vowel, in many dialects of English, the phrase no highway cowboys /ˌnoʊ ˈhaɪweɪ ˈkaʊbɔɪz/ has five distinct diphthongs, one in every syllable. Diphthongs contrast with monophthongs, where the tongue or other organs do not move. For instance, in English, the word ah is spoken as a monophthong, where two adjacent vowel sounds occur in different syllables—for example, in the English word re-elect—the result is described as hiatus, not as a diphthong. Diphthongs often form when separate vowels are run together in rapid speech during a conversation, there are unitary diphthongs, as in the English examples above, which are heard by listeners as single-vowel sounds. Diphthongs use two vowel sounds in one syllable to make a speech sound, in the International Phonetic Alphabet, monophthongs are transcribed with one symbol, as in English sun, in which ⟨ʌ⟩ represents a monophthong.
Diphthongs are transcribed with two symbols, as in English high or cow, in which ⟨aɪ⟩ and ⟨aʊ⟩ represent diphthongs, diphthongs may be transcribed with two vowel symbols or with a vowel symbol and a semivowel symbol. Transcribing the diphthongs as ⟨aɪ̯ aʊ̯⟩ is a precise or narrower transcription. The non-syllabic diacritic, the inverted breve below ⟨◌̯⟩, is placed under the prominent part of a diphthong to show that it is part of a diphthong rather than a vowel in a separate syllable. When there is no contrastive vowel sequence in the language, the diacritic may be omitted, other common indications that the two letters are not separate vowels are a superscript, ⟨aᶦ aᶷ⟩, or a tie bar, ⟨a͡ɪ a͡ʊ⟩ or ⟨a͜ɪ a͜ʊ⟩. The tie bar can be useful when its not clear which letter represents the syllable nucleus, superscripts are especially used when an on- or off-glide is particularly fleeting. The period ⟨. ⟩ is the opposite of the non-syllabic diacritic, if two vowels next to each other belong to two different syllables, meaning that they do not form a diphthong, they can be transcribed with two vowel symbols with a period in between.
Thus, lower can be transcribed ⟨ˈloʊ. ər⟩, with a period separating the first syllable, /loʊ/, from the second syllable, the non-syllabic diacritic is only used when necessary. It is typically omitted when there is no ambiguity, as in ⟨haɪ kaʊ⟩, no words in English have the vowel sequences *, so the non-syllabic diacritic is unnecessary. The less prominent component in the diphthong may be transcribed as an approximant, thus in eye, when the diphthong is analysed as a single phoneme, both elements are often transcribed with vowel letters. There are many languages that contrast one or more rising diphthongs with similar sequences of a glide, in closing diphthongs, the second element is more close than the first, in opening diphthongs, the second element is more open. Closing diphthongs tend to be falling, and opening diphthongs are rising, as open vowels are more sonorous. However, exceptions to this rule are not rare in the worlds languages, in Finnish, for instance, the opening diphthongs /ie̯/ and /uo̯/ are true falling diphthongs, since they begin louder and with higher pitch and fall in prominence during the diphthong