Kunene is one of the fourteen regions of Namibia and home to the Himba ethnic group. Compared to the rest of Namibia, it is relatively underdeveloped and this is due to the mountainous inaccessible geography and the dryness that significantly hinders agriculture. The regions name comes from the Kunene River which forms the border with Angola. The largest town and capital is Opuwo, Kunenes western edge is the shores of the Atlantic Ocean. In the north, it borders Angolas Namibe Province, and in the far part of its northern edge it borders Cunene Province. Previously the rivalry was mainly with the United Democratic Front, in November 2008, SWAPO activists and politicians called for organization to destroy the UDF government in Kunene. SWAPO claimed that UDF and Democratic Turnhalle Alliance were sabotaging local government initiatives in the due to incompetence. Central to the politics of Kunene Region is the battle over the proposed Epupa Dam in Epupa Constituency near the border with Angola, business leaders based in Opuwo, who are mostly Ovambo people, formed the Kaoko Development League which supports the proposed dam.
The dam would bring in economic development to much of the Region, a longtime rivalry exists between SWAPO and the Himba people. In the 2004 election for the National Assembly of Namibia, voters in Kunene Region supported numerous parties, the UDF earned the partys single highest vote total and 22. 19% of the partys national vote total in the region. The only members of the 3rd National Council of Namibia, which is created by appointments from every regional council and these Councillors are Sebastian Ignatius ǃGobs of the UDF and Ngohauvi Lydia Kavetu of the DTA. Themistokles Dudu Murorua, a UDF member, was subsequently appointed Governor of Kunene Region in 2005 and he was replaced by Joshua ǁHoebeb. Following the 2014 elections and SWAPOs win in Kunene, Angelika Muharukua was appointed Governor, in the 2015 regional elections SWAPO won in five of the seven constituencies while the DTA won two. The two Kunene constituencies Epupa and Opuwo Rural were the ones the DTA won throughout Namibia.
Cholera is a concern in Kunene Region, particularly near the border with Angola. In December 2008, while the Zimbabwean cholera outbreak caused the deaths of hundreds of Zimbabweans, as 19 December,3 people had died and 29 had become sick. In May 2008, approximately 15 people died of cholera as well, february 2012, traditional Himba chiefs issued two separate Declarations to the African Union and to the OHCHR of the United Nations. In his view, the lack of recognition of traditional chiefs is, in accordance with Namibian law, march 25,2013, over thousand Himba and Zemba people marched in protest again, this time in Opuwo, against the ongoing human rights violations that they endure in Namibia
The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species that is endemic is precinctive, the word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, native. Endēmos is formed of en meaning in, and dēmos meaning the people, the term, has been suggested by some scientists, and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of endemism, precinction was perhaps first used by Frank and McCoy. That definition excludes artificial confinement of examples by humans in far-off botanical gardens or zoological parks, physical and biological factors can contribute to endemism. The orange-breasted sunbird is found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa. The glacier bear is found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska, political factors can play a part if a species is protected, or actively hunted, in one jurisdiction but not another. There are two subcategories of endemism and neoendemism, paleoendemism refers to species that were formerly widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area.
Neoendemism refers to species that have arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization. Endemics can easily become endangered or extinct if their restricted habitat changes, particularly—but not only—due to human actions, there were millions of both Bermuda petrels and Bermuda cedars in Bermuda when it was settled at the start of the seventeenth century. By the end of the century, the petrels were thought extinct, already ravaged by centuries of shipbuilding, were driven nearly to extinction in the twentieth century by the introduction of a parasite. Bermuda petrels and cedars are now rare, as are species endemic to Bermuda
Angola /æŋˈɡoʊlə/, officially the Republic of Angola, is a country in Southern Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa and is bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to west. The exclave province of Cabinda has borders with the Republic of the Congo, the capital and largest city of Angola is Luanda. In the 19th century, European settlers slowly and hesitantly began to themselves in the interior. As a Portuguese colony, Angola did not encompass its present borders until the early 20th century, following resistance by groups such as the Cuamato, the Kwanyama and the Mbunda. Independence was achieved in 1975 under a communist one-party state backed by the Soviet Union, the country soon descended into an even lengthier civil war that lasted until 2002. It has since become a relatively stable presidential republic. Angola has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, and its economy is among the fastest growing in the world, Angolas economic growth is highly uneven, with the majority of the nations wealth concentrated in a disproportionately small sector of the population.
Angola is a state of the United Nations, OPEC, African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Latin Union. A highly multiethnic country, Angolas 25.8 million people span various tribal groups, Angolan culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, namely in the predominance of the Portuguese language and the Catholic Church, combined with diverse indigenous influences. The name Angola comes from the Portuguese colonial name Reino de Angola, the toponym was derived by the Portuguese from the title ngola held by the kings of Ndongo. Ndongo was a kingdom in the highlands, between the Kwanza and Lukala Rivers, nominally tributary to the king of Kongo but which was seeking greater independence during the 16th century, modern Angola was populated predominantly by nomadic Khoi and San prior to the first Bantu migrations. The Khoi and San peoples were neither pastoralists nor cultivators, following a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and they were displaced by Bantu peoples arriving from the north, some of whom likely originated in northwestern Nigeria.
Bantu speakers introduced the cultivation of bananas and taro, as well as large herds, to Angolas central highlands. During this time, the Bantu established a number of entities in most of what today comprises Angola. To its south lay the Kingdom of Ndongo, from which the area of the Portuguese colony was known as Dongo. The region now known as Angola was reached by the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão in 1484, the year before, the Portuguese had established relations with the Kongo, which stretched at the time from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south. The Portuguese established their primary trading post at Soyo, which is now the northernmost city in Angola apart from the Cabinda exclave
The Real fan palm, locally known as the Makalani palm, is a palm tree native to the subtropical, low-lying regions of south central Africa. Its habitat is woodland, flood plains, banks of rivers. It is found in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Botswana and the northern and north-eastern Transvaal. As with other Hyphaene species, H. petersiana is dioicous, up to 2,000 fruit may be found on a tree, the combined yield of about four seasons. The seeds germinate with difficulty but find saline conditions beneficial and they develop massive tap-roots which draw saline water deep underground. Though slow-growing, they may attain a height of 18m. Typical adult plants are in the order of 5-7m high, the plants are utilized by humans and animals. Repeated cutting of the point to obtain sap for palm wine production may eventually destroy the trees. Beneath the outer husk of the fruit is a core of white endosperm known as vegetable ivory, initially soft and edible. The Ovambo people call the fruit of the Makalani palm eendunga and use it to distill ombike, the species is similar to H. natalensis, which occurs to the southeast.
It is however distinguishable by the shape of the rather than pear-shaped–and the shape of the stem. B. aethiopum has a comparable stem shape, african palm swifts and rufous-tailed palm-thrushes regionally depend on this species for breeding. Fan palm Dressler, S. Schmidt, M. & Zizka, african plants – a Photo Guide
A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of drops in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls occur where meltwater drops over the edge of an iceberg or ice shelf. Waterfalls are commonly formed in the course of a river. At these times the channel is narrow and deep. When the river courses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens slowly, as the watercourse increases its velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it plucks material from the riverbed. Whirlpools created in the turbulence as well as sand and stones carried by the increase the erosion capacity. This causes the waterfall to carve deeper into the bed and to recede upstream, often over time, the waterfall will recede back to form a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedes upstream, and it will carve deeper into the ridge above it. The rate of retreat for a waterfall can be as high as one, the outcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressure to add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall.
Waterfalls normally form in an area due to erosion. After a long period of being formed, the water falling off the ledge will retreat. Eventually, as the pit grows deeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply sloping stretch of river bed, a river sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks that may have been formed by a fault line. Waterfalls can occur along the edge of a trough, where a stream or river flowing into a glacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier has receded or melted. The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley are examples of this phenomenon, another reason hanging valleys may form is where two rivers join and one is flowing faster than the other. Waterfalls can be grouped into ten classes based on the average volume of water present on the fall using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfalls include Niagara Falls, Paulo Afonso Falls and Khone Falls, young Wrote Waterfalls and process this work made waterfalls a much more serious topic for research for modern Geoscientists.
Ledge waterfall, Water descends vertically over a cliff, maintaining partial contact with the bedrock. Block/Sheet. Classical, Ledge waterfalls where fall height is equal to stream width. Curtain, Ledge waterfalls which descend over a larger than the width of falling water stream
Kaokoland was an administrative unit and a bantustan in northern South West Africa, in the Kaokoveld ecoregion. Established during the era, it was intended to be a self-governing homeland of the OvaHimba. An actual government was, never established, like other homelands in South West Africa, the Kaokoland bantustan was abolished in May 1989, at the beginning of the transition of Namibia towards independence. Kaokoland remains as a name for the geographic area, while the political unit of administration since 1990 is Kunene Region. The area is one of the wildest and least populated areas in Namibia, the most represented ethnic group is the Himba people, who account for about 5,000 of the overall 16,000 inhabitants of Kaokoland. The main settlement in Kaokoland was the city of Opuwo, the Kaokoland area extends south-north from the Hoanib river to the Kunene river. It is largely mountainous, with the northern Baynes Mountains reaching the elevation at 2039 m. Other notable mountain ranges of Kaokoland include the Otjihipa Mountains and the Hartmann Mountains, the land is generally dry and rocky, especially to the south, where it borders on the Namib Desert, nevertheless, it has several rivers as well as falls.
The most notable falls in Kaokoland are the Ruacana Falls and the Epupa Falls, the northern part of Kaokoland is greener, with vegetation thriving valleys such as the Marienfluss and Hartmann Valley. Before colonialism, Kaokoland was mostly inhabited by the Ovambo, Nama, in 1884, Kaokoland became part of German South West Africa, and Namibian Herero changed much of their habits and costumes as a consequence of German rule. After World War I, South Africa received the mandate from the League of Nations to administer the territory of Namibia, which became, for all practical purposes, a province of South Africa. South Africa applied to Namibia the principles of apartheid, including the creation of distinct bantustans for different African ethnic groups, Kaokoland was thus established as a bantustan for the Himba people, that in the 1920s had come back from Angola into Namibia. The Himba people are the descendants of a Herero group that got isolated from the others in the 19th century. While the Herero people experienced German rule and drastically changed their lifestyle as well as their costumes, in recent times, contacts between Himbas and Western tourists are becoming more and more common, especially in the most easily accessible regions of Kaokoland.
While this has affected the Himba culture, Himbas have essentially remained faithful to their tradition. Fauna in Kaokoland suffered from a severe crippling between 1977 and 1982, as well as from poaching throughout the 1970s, but has been recovering afterwards and its longer legs, bigger feet, and incredible ability to withstand periods of drought all gave valid reasons to think so. Today, however, it is not considered a different species, the desert elephant claim a three-thousand square kilometre range and regularly travel up to two hundred kilometres in search of water. They only drink every three or four days, compared with elephants in Etosha drinking 100 to 200 L of water a day
Epupa is a constituency in the Kunene Region of Namibia. Epupa is the location of the Epupa Falls, located on the Angolan-Namibian border, the villages of Otjomuru and Okangwati belong to the Epupa constituency. The 2015 regional election were won by Nguzu Muharukua of the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance with 3,672 votes, erwin Muharukua of the Rally for Democracy and Progress ran and gained 52 votes. Epupa was one of two constituencies won by the DTA in this election
The tree only occurs in Africa and is the only species in genus Colophospermum. Its distinctive butterfly-shaped leaf and thin seed pod make it easy to identify, in terms of human use it is, together with camel thorn and leadwood, one of the three regionally important firewood trees. It is native to Botswana, South Africa, Mozambique, Namibia, Angola and it is found growing in alkaline soils which are shallow and not well drained. It grows in alluvial soils and this tree does not grow well outside hot, frost-free areas with summer rainfall. Mopane wood is one of southern Africas heaviest and is difficult to work because of its hardness, this makes it termite resistant. For this reason it has long used for building houses and fences, as railway sleepers. The termite-resistance and rich, reddish colouring make it popular for flooring, outside Africa, mopane is gaining popularity as a heavy, decorative wood, its uses including aquarium ornaments, bases for lamps or sculptures, and garden accents.
It is increasingly being used in the construction of musical instruments, suitable quality African blackwood, traditionally used for clarinets, is becoming harder to find. Mopane is fairly oily, seasons very well with few splits or shakes, mopane twigs have been traditionally used as tooth brushes, bark to make twine and for tanning, and leaves for healing wounds. The wood is used to make charcoal and for braai wood. The tree is a food source for the mopane worm. The caterpillars are rich in protein and are eaten by people, the tree acts as a foodplant for a wild silk moth, Gonometa rufobrunnea. Cocoons of the moth are harvested as wild silk, to make cloth, the mopane tree serves as a host plant for the mopane psyllid Retroacizzia mopani. Colophospermum is Greek for oily seed, in reference to the seed which has a turpentine smell. Colophon was the birthplace of Homer in Ionia, and was famous for its rosin, the species name mopane is taken from the local name for the tree. List of Southern African indigenous trees Esterhuyse, N.
Von Breitenbach, J. & Söhnge, charting the quality of forage and mapping the variation of chemical components in foliage with hyperspectral remote sensing. ITC Dissertation 126,166 p. ISBN 90-8504-209-7
Baobab is the common name for each of the nine species of tree in the genus Adansonia. The generic name honours Michel Adanson, the French naturalist and explorer who described Adansonia digitata, of the nine species, six are native to Madagascar, two are native to mainland Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and one is native to Australia. One of the mainland African species occurs on Madagascar, and it was introduced in ancient times to south Asia and during the colonial era to the Caribbean. It is present in the nation of Cape Verde. The ninth species was described in 2012, and is found in populations of southern and eastern Africa. The African and Australian baobabs are almost identical, having separated more than 100 million years ago, Baobabs reach heights of 5 to 30 m and have trunk diameters of 7 to 11 m. The tree has since split into two parts, so the widest individual trunk may now be that of the Sunland baobab, or Platland tree, the diameter of this tree at ground level is 9.3 m and its circumference at breast height is 34 m.
Adansonia trees produce faint growth rings, probably annually, but they are not reliable for aging specimens, because they are difficult to count, radiocarbon dating has provided data on a few individuals. A specimen of A. digitata known as Grootboom was dated and found to be at least 1275 years old, the Malagasy species are important components of the Madagascar dry deciduous forests. Within that biome, Adansonia madagascariensis and A. rubrostipa occur specifically in the Anjajavy Forest, a. digitata has been called a defining icon of African bushland. Species include, Adansonia digitata L. – African baobab, dead-rat-tree, monkey-bread-tree Adansonia grandidieri Baill, – Grandidiers baobab, giant baobab Adansonia gregorii F. Muell. – boab, Australian baobab, cream-of-tartar-tree, gouty-stem Adansonia kilima Pettigrew, – Madagascar baobab Adansonia perrieri Capuron – Perriers baobab Adansonia rubrostipa Jum. & H. Perrier – fony baobab Adansonia suarezensis H. Perrier – Suarez baobab Adansonia za Baill, – za baobab Baobabs store water in the trunk to endure harsh drought conditions.
All occur in arid areas, and are deciduous, shedding their leaves during the dry season. Some baobab species are sources of fiber and fuel, indigenous Australians used the native species A. gregorii for several products, making string from the root fibers and decorative crafts from the fruits. A large, hollow baobab south of Derby, Western Australia, is said to have used in the 1890s as a prison for convicts on their way to Derby for sentencing. The Boab Prison Tree, Derby still stands and is now a tourist attraction, although the baobab tree near Derby might not have been used as a prison, a similar hollow baobab tree near Wyndham Australia actually was. Since 2008, interest has been increasing for developing baobab seeds or dried fruit powder for consumer products, in 2008, baobab dried fruit pulp was authorized in the EU as a safe food ingredient, and it was granted GRAS status in the United States
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean. It shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south, although it does not border Zimbabwe, a part of less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek, and it is a state of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union. The dry lands of Namibia were inhabited since early times by the San, since about the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since the Bantu groups in total, known as the Ovambo people, have dominated the population of the country, in the late 19th century during European colonization, the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate in 1884.
It began to develop infrastructure and farming, and maintained this German colony until 1915, after the end of World War I, in 1920 the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa. It imposed its laws, including racial classifications and rules, from 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid to what was known as South West Africa. In 1878 the Cape of Good Hope had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands, following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990, but Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994. Namibia has a population of 2.1 million people and a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy, herding and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, gold and base metals – form the basis of its economy. The large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world, Namibia enjoys high political and social stability.
The name of the country is derived from the Namib Desert, before its independence in 1990, the area was known first as German South-West Africa, as South-West Africa, reflecting the colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans. The dry lands of Namibia were inhabited since early times by San, from about the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived during the Bantu expansion from central Africa. From the late 18th century onwards, Oorlam people from Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were largely peaceful. The missionaries accompanying the Oorlam were well received by them, the right to use waterholes, on their way further northwards, the Oorlam encountered clans of the Herero at Windhoek and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment. The Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire deployed troops to the places and cemented the status quo among the Nama, Oorlam. The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão in 1485 and Bartolomeu Dias in 1486, like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century
The Cunene River or Kunene River is a river in Southern Africa. It flows from the Angola highlands south to the border with Namibia and it flows west along the border until it reaches the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the few rivers in the region. It is about 1,050 kilometres long, with a drainage basin 106,560 square kilometres in area and its mean annual discharge is 174 m³/s at its mouth. The Epupa Falls lie on the river, olushandja Dam dams a tributary of the river, the Etaka, and helps provide the Ruacana Power Station with water. The Namibian government proposed in the late 90s to build the Epupa Dam, in 2012 the Governments of Namibia and Angola announced plans to jointly build the Orokawe dam in the Baynes Mountains. The dam threatens the ecosystem and therefore the economic basis of the local Himba ethnic group. September 2012, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples visited the Himba, tourists frequent campsites or lodges in Epupa which offer water sports on the river including rafting and canoeing.
There are ancient baobab trees alongside the gorge, and there is an attractive and well-kept viewpoint high above the village and falls, national Council for Science and the Environment. The macroinvertebrates of the Cunene River from the Ruacana Falls to the river mouth, google eBook Images near Kunene River Map of the Cunene River basin at Water Resources eAtlas