Equal Rights Amendment

The Equal Rights Amendment was or is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal legal rights for all American citizens regardless of sex. It seeks to end the legal distinctions between men and women in matters of divorce, property and other matters; the first version of an ERA was written by Alice Paul and Crystal Eastman, introduced in Congress in December 1923. In the early history of the Equal Rights Amendment, middle-class women were supportive, while those speaking for the working class were opposed, pointing out that employed women needed special protections regarding working conditions and employment hours. With the rise of the women's movement in the United States during the 1960s, the ERA garnered increasing support, after being reintroduced by Representative Martha Griffiths in 1971, it was approved by the U. S. House of Representatives on October 12, 1971 and by the U. S. Senate on March 22, 1972, thus submitting the ERA to the state legislatures for ratification, as provided for in Article V of the U.

S. Constitution. Congress had set a ratification deadline of March 22, 1979, for the state legislatures to consider the ERA. Through 1977, the amendment received 35 of the necessary 38 state ratifications. With wide, bipartisan support the ERA seemed destined for ratification until Phyllis Schlafly mobilized conservative women in opposition; these women argued that the ERA would disadvantage housewives, cause women to be drafted into the military and to lose protections such as alimony, eliminate the tendency for mothers to obtain custody over their children in divorce cases. Many labor feminists opposed the ERA on the basis that it would eliminate protections for women in labor law, though over time more and more unions and labor feminist leaders turned toward supporting it. Five state legislatures voted to revoke their ERA ratifications; the first four rescinded before the original March 22, 1979, ratification deadline, while the South Dakota legislature did so by voting to sunset its ratification as of that original deadline.

However, it remains an unresolved legal question as to whether a state can revoke its ratification of a federal constitutional amendment. In 1978, Congress passed, President Carter signed, a joint resolution with the intent of extending the ratification deadline to June 30, 1982; because no additional state legislatures ratified the ERA between March 22, 1979, June 30, 1982, the validity of that disputed extension was rendered academic. Since 1978, attempts have been made in Congress to remove the deadline. In the 2010s, due, in part, to fourth-wave feminism and the Me Too movement, interest in getting the ERA adopted was revived. In 2017, Nevada became the first state to ratify the ERA after the expiration of both deadlines, Illinois followed in 2018. On January 15, 2020, Virginia's General Assembly passed a ratification resolution for the ERA in a 59–41 vote in the House of Delegates and 28–12 vote in the Senate, voted again for each other's resolutions on January 27, 27-12 in the Senate and 58-40 in the House, claiming to bring the number of ratifications to 38.

However and advocates have acknowledged legal uncertainty about the consequences of Virginia's ratification, due to the expired deadlines and the five states' purported revocations. The resolution, "Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to equal rights for men and women", reads, in part: Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the following article is proposed as an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which shall be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the Constitution when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission by the Congress: "ARTICLE — "Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. "Sec. 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

"Sec. 3. This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification." On September 25, 1921, the National Woman's Party announced its plans to campaign for an amendment to the U. S. Constitution to guarantee women equal rights with men; the text of the proposed amendment read: Section 1. No political, civil, or legal disabilities or inequalities on account of sex or on account of marriage, unless applying to both sexes, shall exist within the United States or any territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Alice Paul, the head of the National Women's Party, believed that the Nineteenth Amendment would not be enough to ensure that men and women were treated regardless of sex. In 1923, she revised the proposed amendment to read: Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and every place subject to its jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Paul named this version the Lucretia Mott Amendment, after a female abolitionist who fought for women's rights and attended the First Women's Rights Convention. In 1943, Alice Paul further revised the amendment to reflect the wording of the Fifteenth and Nineteenth Amendments; this text became Section 1 of the version passed by Congress in 1972. As a result, in the 1940s, ERA opponents proposed an alt


Ochpaniztli is the Eleventh Month of the Aztec calendar. It is a festival in the Aztec religion dedicated to Toci and Tlazolteotl and is the month of cleaning or sweeping away. Ochpaniztli was concerned with sweeping, a reference to the rush of winds that occurred in the valley of Mexico before the winter rains came, the end of the growing season and the start of the harvesting season, the season of war when the Mexica went to war for captives to sacrifice to the gods, who could never have enough human flesh to eat. For the first five days of Ochpaniztli, the emphasis was on quiet in Tenochtitlan. On the sixth day and continuing for eight more, warriors would march through the streets of Tenochtitlan carrying flowering branches until dusk; the warriors maintained tight discipline as they circled in elaborate maneuvers carrying marigolds and in complete silence except for the beating of the drums. After eight days, the women of the doctor's guild and the midwives guild, all wearing the tobacco poach that showed their membership in the guilds, would come out to engage in mock battles on the streets of Tenochtitlan.

The women attacked each in mock combat with the branches and flowers rolled into balls dropped by the warriors, before sweeping the streets so that the woman dressed as Toci, "Our Grandmother" would be paraded through the streets. Toci, the "Woman of Discord", in Mexica religion, loved the carnage and bloody mayhem of war, it was to honor her that Ochpanitztli marked the beginning of the season of war. To honor Toci, a young female slave was chosen to be the ixipta for Toci, being kept in a cage and being cleaned everyday to prepare her for her sacrifice for Toci, it was important that the woman chosen to die for Toci was ritually pure for her sacrifice, being guarded by other women who kept her in a cage both to prevent her escape and to ensure that she did not have sex for the twenty days prior to her death, making her a "pure" victim. The mock battles between the women as they pelted each other with balls of cactus leaves, moss and reeds was to make the ixipta laugh, because the young woman chosen to die was never allowed to cry.

The climax of the festival of Ochpaniztli was the sacrifice of a young woman from one of the peoples subjected to the power of the Mexica who for four days was bedecked with flowers and perfume and was teased by the woman taking care of her day about her impending doom. The woman was dressed as Toci and had black make-up applied around her mouth while the rest of her face was covered in white make-up, thereby making her resemble Toci whose face was a deathly shade of white except for her area around her mouth where her skin was black. One of Toci's favorite foods besides human flesh was human excrement, this diet had turned the skin around her mouth permanently black; the woman chosen as the sacrificial victim was forced to smile at all times and was beaten by the other women guarding her if she cried because it was felt that her tears would spoil the ceremony as it was believed that every tear would cause a stillbirth or the death of a warrior in battle in the next year. By contrast, the rain god Tlaloc required the sacrifice of children to honor him, it was believed that the tears of the doomed children would ensure rain in the coming year, so the Mexica went to great lengths to have the children destined to die for Tlaloc to cry as much as possible before their hearts were ripped out.

The Australian historian Inga Clendinnen wrote that the young woman chosen as the sacrifice victim must had been in a state close to "hysteria" as she knew when the night came on the fifth day, she would die while being forced to smile all the time at the prospect. On the fifth day to honor the Toci, the young woman was marched through the streets of Tenochtitlan surrounded by other women, spreading maize and flowers before being taken in the evening to the temple of the Maize Lord. Joining the woman chosen to die on her last day were men dressed in the style of the Huaxteca people living on the Gulf coast, whom the Mexica despised as cowardly warriors, but whom were admired as the Huaxteca men were reputably the most well endowed men in Mexico and were famed as great lovers; the young woman wore a dress of maguey fiber, which she herself had woven and which she sold on the last day of her life in the marketplace. To calm the girl down, she was told by the other women that she would not be sacrificed, but instead would have sex with the Tlatoani in public on top of the pyramid.

At the pyramid, she was laid on a slab facing the sky, had her mouth bound so she could not scream and she was sacrificed by having her head sawed off by using an obsidian knife as she was laid there bound, staring upwards at the stars, so the crops might grow in the next season. The sacrifice of the women recalled the story about how Toci came to be, when Actitometl, the leader of the Culhua people had given his daughter in marriage to the Mexica leader, who promptly sacrificed her to Huitzilopochtli, the god of war, becoming Toci in the moment of her death. Clendinnen described what happened next: "Then, still in darkness and urgent haste, her body was flayed, a naked priest, a'very strong man powerful tall', struggled into the wet skin, with its slack breasts and pouched genitalia: a double nakedness of layered, ambiguous sexuality; the skin of one thigh was reserved to be fashioned into a face-mask for the man impersonating Centeotl, Young Lord Maize Cob, the son of Toci". At that point, the priest wearing the bloody skin of the victim become Toci, was seen as a "woman", always being addressed as she and her.

The man seen as "Toci" was followed by four dressed, well endowed young men wearing tight loincloths so that their erect pe


Reykjanesviti is Iceland's oldest lighthouse. It serves as a landfall light for Keflavík; the tower is a 31 metres tall construction, situated on the southwestern edge of the Reykjanes peninsula. The original structure was built in 1878. In 1929 the current Reykjanesviti lighthouse, a concrete construction yet with traditional looks, was illuminated, its focal plane measures 73 metres above sea level. The light characteristic is "Fl W 30 s.", i.e. a group of two flashing lights every 30 seconds. An antenna for the transmission of DGPS-signals in the longwave range is mounted on the rooftop. There is a two-story keeper's residence built in the modern area, the lighthouse has a resident keeper; the lighthouse is located near an area of thermal activity, steam from this source is seen in photographs of the lighthouse. List of lighthouses in Iceland Heimasíða Siglingastofnunar Íslands –Reykjanesviti