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Equalization (audio)

Equalization or equalisation is the process of adjusting the balance between frequency components within an electronic signal. The most well known use of equalization is in sound recording and reproduction but there are many other applications in electronics and telecommunications; the circuit or equipment used to achieve equalization is called an equalizer. These devices strengthen or weaken the energy of specific frequency bands or "frequency ranges". In sound recording and reproduction, equalization is the process used to alter the frequency response of an audio system using linear filters. Most hi-fi equipment uses simple filters to make bass and treble adjustments. Graphic and parametric equalizers have much more flexibility in tailoring the frequency content of an audio signal. Since equalizers "adjust the amplitude of audio signals at particular frequencies," they are, "in other words, frequency-specific volume knobs."In the field of audio electronics, the term "equalization" has come to include the adjustment of frequency responses for practical or aesthetic reasons resulting in a net response, not "flat".

The term EQ refers to this variant of the term. Stereos and basic guitar amplifiers have adjustable equalizers which boost or cut bass or treble frequencies. Mid- to high-priced guitar and bass amplifiers have more bands of frequency control, such as bass, mid-range and treble or bass, low-mid, high-mid, treble; some amps have an additional knob for controlling high frequencies. Broadcast and recording studios use sophisticated equalizers capable of much more detailed adjustments, such as eliminating unwanted sounds or making certain instruments or voices more prominent. Equalizers are used in recording studios, radio studios and production control rooms, live sound reinforcement and in instrument amplifiers, such as guitar amplifiers, to correct or adjust the response of microphones, instrument pick-ups and hall acoustics. Equalization may be used to eliminate or reduce unwanted sounds, make certain instruments or voices more prominent, enhance particular aspects of an instrument's tone, or combat feedback in a public address system.

Equalizers are used in music production to adjust the timbre of individual instruments and voices by adjusting their frequency content and to fit individual instruments within the overall frequency spectrum of the mix. The most common equalizers in music production are parametric, semi-parametric, graphic and program equalizers. Graphic equalizers are included in consumer audio equipment and software which plays music on home computers. Parametric equalizers require more expertise than graphic equalizers, they can provide more specific compensation or alteration around a chosen frequency; this may be used in order to boost certain frequencies. For example, an acoustic guitarist who finds that their instrument sounds too "boomy" may ask the audio engineer to cut the low frequencies to correct this issue; the concept of equalization was first applied in correcting the frequency response of telephone lines using passive networks. Equalization was used to "compensate for" the uneven frequency response of an electric system by applying a filter having the opposite response, thus restoring the fidelity of the transmission.

A plot of the system's net frequency response would be a flat line, as its response at any frequency would be equal to its response at any other frequency. Hence the term "equalization." Much the concept was applied in audio engineering to adjust the frequency response in recording and live sound reinforcement systems. Sound engineers correct the frequency response of a sound system so that the frequency balance of the music as heard through speakers better matches the original performance picked up by a microphone. Audio amplifiers have long had controls to modify their frequency response; these are most in the form of variable bass and treble controls, switches to apply low-cut or high-cut filters for elimination of low frequency "rumble" and high frequency "hiss" respectively. Graphic equalizers and other equipment developed for improving fidelity have since been used by recording engineers to modify frequency responses for aesthetic reasons. Hence in the field of audio electronics the term "equalization" is now broadly used to describe the application of such filters regardless of intent.

This broad definition therefore includes all linear filters at the disposal of a listener or engineer. A British EQ or British style equalizer is one with similar properties to those on consoles made in the UK by companies such as Amek and Soundcraft from the 1950s through to the 1970s. On, as other manufacturers started to market their products, these British companies began touting their equalizers as being a cut above the rest. Today, many non-British companies such as Behringer and Mackie advertise British EQ on their equipment. A British style EQ seeks to replicate the qualities of the expensive British mixing consoles. Filtering audio frequencies dates back at least to acoustic telegraphy and multiplexing in general. Audio electronic equipment evolved to incorporate filtering elements as consoles in radio stations began to be used for recording as much as broadcast. Early filters included basic bass and treble controls featuring fixed frequency centers, fixed levels of cut or boost; these filters worked over

Andrew D. Gordon

Andrew D. Gordon is a British computer scientist employed by Microsoft Research, his research interests include programming language design, formal methods, concurrency and access control. Gordon earned a Ph. D. from the University of Cambridge in 1992. Until 1997 Gordon was a Research Fellow at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, he joined the Microsoft Research laboratory in Cambridge, where he is a principal researcher in the Programming Principles and Tools group. He holds a professorship at the University of Edinburgh. Gordon is one of the designers of Concurrent Haskell, a functional programming language with explicit primitives for concurrency, he is the co-designer with Martin Abadi of spi calculus, an extension of the π-calculus for formalized reasoning about cryptographic systems. He and Luca Cardelli invented the ambient calculus for reasoning about mobile code. With Moritz Y. Becker and Cédric Fournet, Gordon designed SecPAL, a Microsoft specification language for access control policies.

Gordon's Ph. D. thesis, Functional Programming and Input/Output, won the 1993 Distinguished Dissertation Award of the British Computer Society. His 2000 paper on the ambient calculus subject with Luca Cardelli, "Anytime, Anywhere: Modal Logics for Mobile Ambients", won the 2010 SIGPLAN Most Influential POPL Paper Award. Home page at Microsoft Research Andrew D. Gordon publications indexed by Google Scholar

List of American railway unions

The following is a list of unions and brotherhoods playing a significant role in the railroad industry of the United States of America. Many of these entities merged over the years. Originating as fraternal benefit societies to provide life insurance, sickness benefits, social interaction for their members, the so-called "Big Four" railroad brotherhoods evolved into trade unions dealing with wages and safety standards; as the importance of the railway sector to the American economy grew during the last years of the 19th Century and first decades of the 20th Century, these emerged as among the most powerful group of unions in the United States. In the summer of 1916 the joint threat of the so-called "Big Four" brotherhoods to launch a national railroad strike moved President Woodrow Wilson and the United States Congress to pass the Adamson Act, granting an 8-hour working day to American railway workers. Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers — The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers was founded in 1863 as the "Brotherhood of the Footboard" to represent the prestigious and well compensated locomotive engineers.

The organization was not part of the American Federation of Labor and was governed by conventions of elected delegates held every three years. The brotherhood was financially prosperous and initiated a network of labor banks based in Cleveland, Ohio to better marshal the assets of itself and its members; the BLE published a monthly magazine for Locomotive Engineers' Journal. Order of Railway Conductors of America — The ORC was established in 1868 in Amboy, Illinois as the "Conductors Union." The ORC represented the interests of train conductors, whose job function approximated that of an ocean ship captain and were the most prestigious and compensated railway workers of their era. The ORC was governed by conventions held every three years and was not part of the American Federation of Labor. In years membership in the union was opened up to railway brakemen and the name of the union was changed to the "Order of Railway Conductors and Brakemen". In 1969 the ORC&B merged with the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, the Switchmen's Union of North America to form the "United Transportation Union".

Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen — The "Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen" was established in 1873 to provide insurance, social benefits, fraternal association for locomotive firemen, individuals who rode in the locomotive with the train operator and who were charged with stoking the engine with coal or other combustible material to maintain the steam needed for propulsion. Over time these individuals were promoted to higher-paid positions as engine drivers, while still seeking to maintain membership in the old brotherhood; this prompted a change of name for the organization to "Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen" in 1907. The B of LF was not affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, it published a monthly magazine for Locomotive Firemen's Magazine. In 1969 the B of LF&E merged with the Order of Railway Conductors and Brakemen, the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, the Switchmen's Union of North America to form the "United Transportation Union". Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen — Founded in 1883, by the 1920s the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen emerged as one of the largest American railway brotherhoods, with a membership of 180,000 in 1925.

The brotherhood included among its members freight handlers as well as other classes of railroad employees and periodically had jurisdictional disputes over coverage of its members with the Order of Railway Conductors. In 1969 the BRT merged with the Order of Railway Conductors and Brakemen, the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Engineers, the Switchmen's Union of North America to form the "United Transportation Union". Yardmasters of America. Grand International Union of Locomotive Firemen - The Grand International Union of Locomotive Firemen was a short-lived rival of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen during the decade of the 1870s; this group predated the latter organization, having been launched in April 1866. The Grand International Union of Locomotive Firemen published a monthly magazine in Schenectady, New York for its members, Locomotive Firemen's Journal. Order of Railroad Telegraphers - The Order of Railroad Telegraphers was launched in 1886 and became part of the American Federation of Labor in 1899.

Telegraphers were an integral part of the American railway system coordinating operations throughout the road network. The ORT was governed by delegated conventions held once every three years; the order published. Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employes - The Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employes' Union was established in July 1887 and joined the American Federation of Labor in 1900; the union represented workers involved in the repair and expansion of roadbeds, bridges and buildings as well as semi-skilled railroad shopmen involved with the maintenance of rolling stock. The brotherhood was governed by conventions held every three years; the BMWED is not is now part of the Rail Conference with the International Brotherhood of Teamsters Switchmen's Union of North America - The Switchmen's Union of North America was organized in 1894 and joined the American Federation of Labor in 1906. Brotherhood of Railway Clerks - This organization was established in 1899 as the "Order of Railwa

Masashi Oiso

Masashi Oiso is a Japanese Magic: The Gathering player. He is one of the most successful players to have played on the Pro Tour, being one of only seven players to have reached the top eight six times. Along with Kenji Tsumura, he is the player with the most top eights to have never won a Pro Tour. In 2012 Oiso was voted into the Magic: The Gathering Hall of Fame, his induction was conducted at Pro Tour Return to Ravnica in October 2012. Oiso's career began in the 2002–03 season at Pro Tour Boston as part of Hato Beeam with teammates Takao Higaki and Kazuki Ueno, they finished with a record of 6 wins and 5 losses which left them in 26th place, just one win short of winning money. Oiso's breakout performance came the same season in his home country. At Pro Tour Yokohama, he reached the top eight for the first time, he made it all the way to final, beating José Barbero and Tsuyoshi Ikeda, before losing to Mattias Jorstedt. It would be the only time that he would make it past the quarterfinals; this finals appearance, along with a pair of Grand Prix top eights, was enough to earn him the title of Rookie of the Year.

The following season, Oiso proved that the year before was no fluke with Pro Tour top eights in New Orleans and San Diego. With 46 Pro Points that season, he finished 17th in the Player of the year race; the 2005 season was Oiso's strongest yet. Despite skipping Pro Tour Philadelphia, he was a strong contender for Player of the Year, finishing just three points behind Olivier Ruel, four behind Kenji Tsumura who won the title, he made two more Pro Tour top eights that season. He finished fifth at Pro Tour Columbus, at Pro Tour London finished fifth again, losing to Geoffrey Siron who wouldn't lose a single game that day, he finished 3rd at the Japanese national championship that year, played a leading role in the Japanese national team that won the World Championship. After the end of the 2005 season, Oiso began to slow down. In 2006, he didn't play every Pro Tour and earned only eighteen pro points, the minimum required to stay qualified. However, when the Pro Tour came to Japan the following year, he showed the world that he was still good.

At Pro Tour Yokohama, he reached the top eight for the sixth time. That top eight is regarded as one of the best in quite some time, with every player either having reached top eight before or reaching it again by the end of the next season. Oiso has had no significant finishes on the Pro Tour since. However, he did win the Japanese national championship in 2008. Last updated: 1 November 2009Source: Event Coverage at Wizards.com Other accomplishments Rookie of the Year 2003

Harlem, Montana

Harlem is a city in Blaine County, United States. The population was 808 at the 2010 census. Harlem is located at 48°31′54″N 108°47′4″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.43 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 808 people, 307 households, 204 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,879.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 359 housing units at an average density of 834.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 42.1% White, 52.2% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from other races, 5.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.0% of the population. There were 307 households of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 15.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.6% were non-families. 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.08. The median age in the city was 36.6 years. 28.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 54.7 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 848 people, 332 households, 232 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,976.7 people per square mile. There were 401 housing units at an average density of 934.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 52.59% White, 0.24% African American, 42.57% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.12% from other races, 4.25% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.65% of the population. There were 332 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.2% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.1% were non-families. 29.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.09.

In the city, the population was spread out with 29.4% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 22.4% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 89.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,794, the median income for a family was $33,828. Males had a median income of $24,145 versus $21,750 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,295. About 16.5% of families and 23.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.8% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over. Harlem is home to Harlem Jr. / Sr.. High. Francis Bardanouve, politician Ken Hansen, state senator Frank Warnke, politician List of cities and towns in Montana Official website

Degmaptera mirabilis

Degmaptera mirabilis, the variegated hawkmoth, is a species of moth of the family Sphingidae. It is known from Nepal, north-eastern India, northern Thailand, Anhui in China and Taiwan; the habitat consists of high altitude evergreen oak forests. The wingspan is 44–82 mm; the hindwing costal edge is excavated resulting in a conspicuous subapical lobe, which projects anteriorly. There is a central row of pale golden dots on the abdomen upperside and a fawn-colored band on the forewing upperside; the larvae have been recorded feeding on Quercus fenestrata in the Khasi Hills in India